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Specific issues (APHCA 2004/06)

Global framework of transboundary animal diseases (GF-TADs)

- project development and resource mobilisation for SA and SEA -
(by Subhash Morzaria, Consultant, FAO/RAP)

Slide 1

GF-TADs for Asia
Project development and resource
mobilisation for SA and SEA

S. Morzaria

Slide 2

GF-TADs-Plans for Asia

  • Background to GF-TADs initiative

    • Justification, objectives and key activities

  • Development of plans for Asia- SA and SEA

    • Process

    • Inputs from stakeholders

    • Major recommendations

    • Outputs and outcomes of the consultation

  • The way forward

Slide 3

GF-TADs -Background

This is an FAO/OIE initiative

  • A framework to control progressively key TADs in the world

  • Seeking financial resources from donors to support the programme globally

Slide 4

GF-TADs -Background

Concept driven by several factors

  • Economic losses due to TADs

    • FMD (1997-2003) (10 billion dollars)

    • CSF (1996-2002) (1 billion dollars)

    • RP in Somali ecosystem (2001-2003?) (???)

    • RVF in Arabian Peninsula (2000, 2003) (???)

    • BSE - the ongoing spread of 'mad cow disease'

    • SARS - in Asia (2003) (2 billion dollars)

    • Avian influenza (2004-????) (more than SARS!!)

Slide 5

GF-TADs -Background

Increasing awareness of issues and impacts

  • Food security

    • disease are a direct threat to livestock

    • source of cheap animal protein depleted in urban areas

  • Poverty reduction

    • poor small holder farmers are still the predominant in the region

  • Food safety

    • public health concerns

  • Trade

    • lost opportunity for local, regional and global trade

    • global livestock industry threatened


Slide 6

GF-TADs -Genesis

  • WFS (1996, 2002)

  • OIE Regional Commission (2002)

  • World Bank - CGIAR Challenge Programme (2001-2)


  • FAO Conference endorsement Dec 2003

  • OIE General Session endorsement May 2004

Slide 7


Safeguard the livestock industry in both the developed and developing world from repeated shocks of infectious disease epidemics

Slide 8


  • Increase production

  • Safer food products

  • Markets opportunities

  • Poverty reduction

Slide 9


  • Safeguard livestock sector

  • Regional/International Trade

  • Food safety and public health

  • Bioterrorism

  • Animal welfare issue

  • Environmental problems

  • Source of infection from endemic area

  • Mutual interest to control TADs

  • International partnerships developed and developing countries

  • A win-win situation

Slide 10


Progressive control at the SOURCE
(as international public good)

  • 'Paradigm shift' in disease control

  • Several reasons

    • rinderpest, CBPP, FMD

    • Increased trade and globalisation

    • Sources in poor areas

    • Therefore the investment in the areas of the source

Slide 11

Proposed Components of GF-TADs International objectives

  • Rinderpest (on going)

    • Global verification of freedom

    • Continue and strengthen surveillance system

  • Global Early Warning System (GLEWS)

    • FAO-OIE-WHO collaboration for major Animal Diseases

  • Better epidemiology of TADs (researchable issue)

    • Knowledge of distribution of diseases (source, primary endemic areas)

    • Understanding of disease transmission dynamics

    • Understanding animal movement

    • Improved disease information and reporting systems

    • Importance of geo-referenced data

  • Improved technologies

Slide 12

Regional Immediate Objectives = Phase 1 (6 year)

  • Regional nodes for Early Warning

  • National and Regional capacity building for diagnosis and surveillance

  • Veterinary service rationalisation

  • Surveillance for primary endemic areas

  • Pro-poor animal health delivery schemes

  • Pilot disease control programmes

Slide 13

Key epidemiological aspects of EMPRES and GF-TADs

  • Systems approach

    • Characterization of farming systems, trade and animal movement

  • Upstream investigations

    • Utilizing epidemiological tools

      • GIS, molecular tools, quantitative data and modeling

    • Identification of disease (infection) at SOURCE

    • Hunting for the pathogen

  • Strategic use of quality vaccine

  • GLobal Early Warning System

Slide 14

Key epidemiological aspects of EMPRES and GF-TADs cont...

  • GLobal Early Warning System

    • International public good - FAO-OIE-WHO

    • Improve disease reporting obligations - OIE

    • Sharper economic data

      • agriculture, price differential,

    • Better geographic information

    • climate, refugee/migratory demographics, ...

    • Dynamics of farming systems and their evolution

    • Strengthen analytical and prediction abilities

Slide 15

Key implementation aspects of GF-TADs

  • Regional Organizations ...

  • Promote private sector investment

  • Catalytic to government initiatives of member countries

Slide 16


Slide 17

SA and SEA Consultations

Ludhiana - June 2003

Bangkok - July 2003

Slide 18

Lahore - August 2003

  • Special joint member countries/OIE/FAO session

  • Two separate sessions

    • South Asia

    • South East Asia

  • Combined SA and SEA session

    • Common issues

  • Finalization of the recommendations

Slide 19

Consultation process

  • Participants

    • Senior level representation from OIE/APHCA member countries


    • Technical staff involved in national programs

    • Private sector (pharma, food companies, commercial livestock traders)

    • Resource persons-experts on TADs

  • Inputs

    • Country reports

    • Livestock industry/economics

    • Priority farming systems

    • Major diseases

    • Current national disease control programs

    • Capacity and gaps

    • Resource group presentations

    • Group sessions

Slide 20



  • Rinderpest free status

  • FMD

  • PPR

  • HS

  • AI (control and maintain free status where appropriate)


  • Rinderpest/PPR free status

  • FMD

  • AI

  • CSF

  • HS

    • NDV (CN by Philippines)

    • Brucellosis (CN by Malaysia)

    • Aquatic Animal Diseases

Slide 21



  • Different stages of freedom from disease

  • Maintain vigilance

    • surveillance

    • early reporting

  • Achieve Regional Freedom from infection by the end of 2007


  • Different stages of freedom from infection

  • Maintain vigilance

    • surveillance

    • early reporting

  • Achieve Regional Freedom from infection by the end of 2007

  • Specific assistance will probably be required for Myanmar and Cambodia

Slide 22



  • Regional coordination (OIE/ASEAN)

  • National and Regional diagnostic laboratories

  • Epidemiology and disease transmission dynamics

  • Economic impact assessment

  • Disease information systems


  • Regional coordination (APHCA/SAARC)

  • National and Regional diagnostic laboratories

  • Epidemiology and disease transmission dynamics

  • Economic impact assessment

  • Disease information systems

Slide 23


  • Currently all countries in SEA and China have reported no occurrence of disease

  • However epidemics in Nepal, India and Bangladesh pose an increasing risk to Myanmar and the region

  • Active surveillance for PPR along the Bangladesh/India/Myanmar border

Slide 24


  • PPR a priority in SA

  • Control of PPR in small ruminants should be taken up simultaneously with FMD

  • Maintain Bhutan and Sri Lanka free from PPR

  • Other requirements similar to FMD control program

  • Opportunity to eradicate PPR high

Slide 25

TADs Classical Swine Fever

  • A Regional approach to CSF control and eradication should be adopted

  • Formulate a policy and strategies for the progressive control of CSF in SEA countries based on sound epidemiological analyses, in collaboration with regional and international agencies

  • Extensive training on clinical and laboratory diagnosis

  • Harmonize testing and prophylactic measures

  • Promulgate awareness amongst all stakeholders

  • Utilise existing epidemiological tools (for FMD) for CSF

Slide 26

Funding proposal for SEA
GMS countries

TAR:REG 37757





July 2004

Slide 27


  • ILRI - 2002/2003

    • Project on building capacity for delivery of animal health technologies in GMS

    • Endemic diseases

    • Submitted last May 2003

    • DFID funding targeted

    • Not supported

  • October 2003- Further discussions with ADB senior economist

  • Interested in supporting livestock related project-particularly infectious diseases

Slide 28

ADB's interest

  • ADB interested in supporting infectious diseases

    • Support regional cooperation

    • Target resource poor smallholders

    • Support for capacity building - public good

    • Promote public/private partnership

    • Demonstrate impact through pilot projects

  • Concept note prepared early November and full proposal early December 2003

  • JFPR did not fund because they gave $1.6 million for HPAI for crisis management

Slide 29

Full proposal-Key components

  • GMS countries

    • Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam and Yunnan Province (China)

  • Long term FMD, CSF and AI disease control

    • Training in disease control

    • Disease diagnosis

      • Upgrading national and Regional laboratories

    • Disease information system

    • Understanding and mapping animal movement

    • Epidemiology

    • Economic impact assessment

    • Pilot disease control program

  • Complementary to the existing TADs programs and emergency assistance for AI

Slide 30


  • Member countries


  • NGO - VSF

  • International institutions: FAO/OIE/ILRI

  • JICA- Bangkok project

  • EU need further discussions

  • Not included are Myanmar (restrictions of the donor)

Slide 31


  • Focused on smallholder farming communities in the GMS countries

  • Applications of the existing methodologies and technologies

  • Demonstrate feasibility of disease control programs in defined zones in small holder farming system

  • Priority diseases included are FMD, CSF and AI

  • This is also totally compatible with the prioritization of the SEA consultations

  • Consistent with GF-TADs objectives

  • Supports the extension activities of the SEAFMD

  • Will not duplicate what is currently ongoing

  • Major emphasis will be on epidemiology, cost benefit analysis, public awareness and engagement of China in the project

  • ADB being engaged in livestock projects-an opportunity

Slide 32


  • 2 million grant money from ADB to be divided into 2 phases of 2 years

  • First phase approval as follows

    • 1 million to be funded for the first phase

    • Additional $800,000 matching funds from the AI project

    • Closely linked with the FAO's AI TCP funds and to provide support for transition into medium to long term support for TADs

    • In kind contribution from member countries

  • Complementary to other funding for TADs in the region

Slide 33

Linkages with other projects

  • EC 2 major projects

    • Cambodia- US$ 5 million

    • Laos - US$ 5 million

    • Focus on smallholders and establishment of animal health capacity, disease information

  • JICA

    • 2 AH projects in East Asia

    • Bangkok

    • National Institute of Veterinary Research in Hanoi

      • Focussing on building capacity in CSF and now AI

  • ADB funded participatory livestock project with AH component

Slide 34

Next steps

  • The proposal has gone through all the hoops in ADB

  • Being finalized ready to go to 'press' and for President's signature

  • Planning/inception meeting with member countries and partners will mark the official start of the project

Slide 35

Funding proposal for SA

  • Originally APHCA/SAARC umbrella

  • Rapid progress in SAARC activities and heightened collaboration among member countries

  • Meeting in Kathmandu organised to consider the development of TAD control in SA (26-31 April 2004)

  • All member countries except Maldives invited

Slide 36

Recommendations from the Kathmandu meeting

  • SA regional coordination under SAARC

  • Establishment of a Sub-regional Support Unit

  • Establishment of Sub-regional Reference Laboratories for FMD, PPR and AI

  • Establishment of Sub-regional Epidemiology Centre

  • Submission of a Concept Note from FAO to SAARC for their consideration to host the Sub-regional Support Unit

Slide 37

Progress on SAARC coordination of TAD in SA

  • Concept note submitted to SAARC in May 2004

  • SAARC Technical Committee reviewed in July 2004

  • Agreed in principal to host SA GF-TADs in SAARC, but requiring a full proposal evaluation by a technical committee

  • Full proposal prepared in August 2004, approved by FAO and OIE and submitted to SAARC member countries for comments early September

  • Finalised proposal to be submitted to SAARC end of September 2004

  • SAARC Technical Meeting scheduled for November 2004

Slide 38

Funding proposal for SA


Global Framework for Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases (GF-TADS): Control of priority Transboundary Animal Diseases in South Asia

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, Rome)
Office International des Epizooties (OIE, Paris)

August 2004

Slide 39

Key elements of the SAARC proposal for the control of TAD in SA

  • Proposal for establishment of various TAD facilities in the Region

    • Sub-regional support unit in Kathmandu

    • Sub-regional diagnostic laboratories for FMD, PPR and AI

    • Sub-regional epidemiology centre

  • US$ 20,000,000 as indicative budget for the next 5 years

  • Mainly for regional collaboration, technical input and infrastructure development and pilot control programmes

Slide 40

Consultation outputs.....

  • FAO and OIE regional collaboration greatly enhanced

    • Different strengths of the two organizations were used efficiently and in a complementary manner

  • A large no of stakeholders engaged

  • Draft proceedings

  • Recommendations

  • Two proposals prepared

  • APHCA approval

  • OIE approval

  • One proposal for the GMS countries to be funded

  • Second proposal submitted for approval and then for donor consideration

Slide 41

Resource mobilisation

  • Donor meeting being planned for -dates not yet fixed

  • A carefully planned strategy to donor presentation needs to be developed before the meeting

Slide 42

What is not yet covered in Asia?

Thank you

FAO/OIE regional food and feed safety workshop

(in collaboration with DLD and JLTA)
(by Carolyn C. Benigno, Animal Health Officer, FAO/RAP)

Slide 1

FAO/OIE Regional Food and Feed Safety Workshop
in collaboration with DLD and JLTA
Bangkok, Thailand
19 - 22 July 2004

Carolyn C. Benigno
Animal Health Officer
FAO Regional Office

Slide 2

Regional Food and Feed Safety Workshop
Bangkok, Thailand
19 -22 July 2004

  • Workshop on Food and Feed Safety during the APHCA Session held in 2002

  • Identified as a priority during the last APHCA Session, 2003

  • Survey questionnaire to countries to review food and feed safety status (state of legislation on FFS, food borne disease surveillance and monitoring, risk analysis, international participation, major constraints)

Slide 3

Regional Food and Feed Safety Workshop
Bangkok, Thailand
19 -22 July 2004

  • Organized by

    • FAO

    • OIE

    • JLTA

    • DLD

Slide 4

Regional Food and Feed Safety Workshop
Bangkok, Thailand
19 -22 July 2004


1. To examine the status of the food and feed safety programme in the region

2. To identify future needs and priorities in the areas of regulations and capacity building

3. To explore opportunities for regional cooperation

Slide 5

Regional Food and Feed Safety Workshop
Bangkok, Thailand
19 -22 July 2004

  • 38 participants from 13 countries

    • Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Lao, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam

  • Resource persons from Germany, OIE, FAO, DLD, Chulalongkorn University, Private Sector

Slide 6

Regional Food and Feed Safety Workshop
Bangkok, Thailand
19 -22 July 2004

  • Topics covered

    • HACCP

    • Legal Framework on FFS Programme

    • CODEX Alimentarius

    • Import Risk Analysis related to FFS

    • Tests and Certification of food safety

    • Activities in Livestock Trade and Food Safety

    • Requirements of a Food and Feed Laboratory

    • Field trip

Slide 7

Recommendations of
the FAO/OIE Regional Workshop
on Food and Feed Safety

Capacity Building

  • Increase training of personnel for risk assessment as well as for associated laboratory procedures.

  • Improve the collection of data for risk assessment for food and feed safety, for risk management and risk communication to stakeholders including the public.

  • Strengthen infrastructure to include well-equipped quality laboratories of the national government authorities

Slide 8



  • Develop a mechanism of good harmonization and coordination among different government authorities to achieve the target of effective development and enforcement of food and feed safety legislation.

  • Encourage authorities and organizations including government, industry, research institutions and consumers to coordinate and collaborate with each other to secure effective development and implementation of legislation in terms of food and feed safety.

Slide 9


International cooperation

  • Base regulations on the international standards from Codex Alimentarius and OIE, and to use such concepts as GMP and HACCP to secure food and feed safety.

  • International organizations including FAO, WHO and OIE continue extending their cooperation to member countries to further build capacity

Slide 10



  • Member countries in the Region develop a Food and Feed Safety Network, using FAO and OIE, to improve food and feed safety, through coordinated surveillance and risk analysis activities, laboratory procedures and information sharing.

  • Undertake coordinated surveillance to maximize the availability of scientific data for risk assessment and for establishment or further clarification of food and feed safety standards, taking into consideration existing international standards, guidelines and recommendations

  • The international organizations identify national institutes in the Region as Regional Collaborating Centers for food and feed safety in each of the identified disciplinary areas, to improve regional capacity.

Slide 11

Next Steps

  • Identify focal point per country for food and feed safety primarily for information exchange

  • Explore possibility of conducting a HACCP seminar and there discuss program of work based on the recommendations

  • Planned next year

APHCA activities in areas of WTO's sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) agreement and veterinary public health

(by Vishnu Songkitti, Liaison Officer for APHCA, FAO/RAP)

Slide 1

APHCA activities in areas of
WTO's Sanitary and
Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement
and Veterinary Public Health

Slide 2

WTO's SPS Agreement

  • The first APHCA activity on WTO's SPS Agreement started in November 2000 as the Joint FAO-APHCA/ OIE Workshop on WTO's SPS Agreement which was organized in Dhaka, Bangladesh along with the 24th APHCA Session. This workshop was attended by APHCA delegates (administrative level).

  • During 2001 - 2004, APHCA jointly organized, with OIE, Thai Department of Livestock Development (DLD) and Japan Livestock Technology Association (JLTA), four Regional Workshops on WTO's SPS Agreement in Chiang Mai, Thailand and government officials (technical level) from APHCA member countries participated.

Slide 3

Veterinary Public Health

  • In 2001, the First FAO-APHCA/OIE Hands-on Workshop on BSE Diagnosis and Surveillance was organized in Bangkok, Thailand.

    10 government officials (technical staff) from pre-selected APHCA countries were trained (+ 10 local observers).

  • APHCA-AGA Regional Workshop on Feed and Food Safety was organized along with the 26th APHCA Session in Subang Jaya, Malaysia, in August 2002.

    This workshop was attended by APHCA delegates (administrative level).

    (FAO-OIE Feed and Food Safety Workshop in July 2004)

Slide 4

Veterinary Public Health (cont.)

  • The Second Hands-on Workshop on BSE Diagnosis and Surveillance was organized jointly by FAO-APHCA, OIE and DLD of Thailand in Bangkok, between 6 and 8 October 2003.

    Ten participants from 5 pre-selected APHCA member countries participated.

    (Organization of the Third FAO-APHCA/OIE/DLD Hands-on Workshop on BSE Diagnosis and Surveillance for selected South Asian APHCA member countries will be discussed at the 28th APHCA Session)

Slide 5

Veterinary Public Health (cont.)

The joint OIE/FAO-APHCA Workshop on BSE Risk Analysis was successfully organized in Chiang Mai, Thailand, between 9 and 11 October 2003.

CVOs from 20 Asia-Pacific countries (13 APHCA countries) participated.

Slide 6

Veterinary Public Health (cont.)

The OIE/FAO-APHCA/DLD Consultation Meeting on BSE Public Awareness was organized back-to-back with the BSE Risk Analysis Workshop in Chiang Mai, Thailand between 13-14 October 2003.

(Selected APHCA delegates/CVOs participated in the meeting.)

Slide 7

Veterinary Public Health (cont.)

FAO-APHCA has collaborated (since 1997) with the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University (FVM-CMU) and the Free University of Berlin (FUB), Germany in organizing training courses on Veterinary Public Health (and Food Safety).

Technical officials from selected APHCA countries in South-east Asia were invited and participated in 4 training courses (on Serological Diagnosis of Important Zoonoses: March 1997, January - February 1999, October - November 1999; and Food Microbiology & Hygiene: November - December 1999).

Slide 8

Veterinary Public Health (cont.)

The Regional Veterinary Public Health (VPH) Center was established, in 2003, at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, with full technical assistance from the Free University and the Institute of Meat Hygiene, Meat Technology and Food Hygiene, University for Veterinary Medicine, Vienna/ Austria (UVMV). APHCA and OIE-Tokyo Office provide technical collaborations to the Center.

(The Center is ready to serve APHCA member countries in related VPH subjects and activities.)

Slide 9

Veterinary Public Health (cont.)

The Center's major joint activity with APHCA:

  • Master of Science Degree Programme in Veterinary Public Health (MSc-VPH) for APHCA countries.

    This course is implemented as Joint Degree ("Dual Award") Programme between the FVM-CMU and FUB. There are 15 students from APHCA countries in the first batch. Scholarships are made available by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and Chiang Mai University, Ministry of University Affairs, Thailand.

    Announcement for the second batch of students will be made in due time, giving high priority to the applicants recommended/endorsed by the APHCA members and the APHCA Secretariat.

Slide 10

Future works on SPS and VPH

FAO-APHCA will collaborate with OIE, JLTA, DLD and the FVM-CMU's Regional VPH Center in organizing training courses and workshops on subjects related to WTO's SPS Agreements and Veterinary Public Health to further build up man-power and technical capacity of APHCA member countries:

  • BSE Hands-on training

  • WTO's SPS Agreement

(.......Turning crises to good fortunes!!
....Using the emerging zoonoses as models!!)

GEF - PDF-B livestock waste management in Southeast Asia

(by Hans Wagner, Senior Animal Health and Production Officer, FAO/RAP)

Slide 1

Livestock Waste Management
in Southeast Asia

H. Wagner

Food and Agricultural Organisation of
the United Nations (FAO)

Slide 2

Estimated contribution of livestock to total P2O5 supply on agricultural land, in area presenting a P2O5 mass balance of more than 10 kg per hectare. 1998 to 2000.

Slide 3

Nutrient balances on agricultural land in Southeast Asia (1998 - 2000)


Estimated percentage of the cropped area characterized by a P2O5 underload

Estimated percentage of the cropped area characterized by a P2O5 balance

Estimated percentage of the cropped area characterized by a P2O5 overload of:

< -10 kg/ha

-10 to 10 kg/ha

>10 kg/ha

>20 kg/ha

>40 kg/ha







Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia






Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia






Slide 4

The major effects of animal waste mismanagement on the environment

  • Eutrophication of surface water due to input of organic substance and nutrients.

  • Leaching of nitrate and possible pathogens transfer to the ground water from manure storage facilities or from fields on which high doses of manure have been applied.

  • Accumulation of nutrients in the soil if high doses of manure are applied. Bio-diversity erosion: wetlands and mangrove swamps are directly impacted by water pollution.

  • Flow of nutrients and BOD into the marine ecosystems

Slide 5

The Livestock Environment and Development Initiative - LEAD (cont.)

The LEAD initiative facilitates the formulation of a Global Environment Facility (GEF) project in Thailand, Vietnam and Guangdong province of China.

The project (US$ 21 million expected total budget with a GEF contribution of US$ 9 million) aims at improving the South China Sea water quality by reducing pollution fluxes from land-based livestock production.

  • Component 1: Conducive Policy Framework

  • Component 2: Demonstration of livestock waste management

  • Component 3: Decision support tools development and regional co-ordination

  • Component 4: Project Management and Monitoring

  • Component 5: Regional Support Service

Slide 6

Conducive Policy Framework

  • Policy development

  • Policy compliance and enforcement

  • Capacity building

  • Awareness and training

Slide 7

Demonstration of livestock waste management

  • Preparation: design of subsidy scheme

  • Implementation of the subsidy scheme

    • Preparation: cataloguing of farms

    • Selection of treatment techniques

    • Design and contractual implementation of farm schemes

    • Construction and commissioning

  • Support to farmers involved in the subsidy scheme

    • Technical evaluation of the systems

    • Technical support to farmers for the operation of manure management schemes

Slide 8

Training and extension

  • Capacity building

  • Awareness raising

  • Resulting in widespread multiplication

Slide 9


  • Component 4 Project Management and Monitoring

  • Component 5 Regional Support Services

Slide 10


  • Pilot sites selected

    • China - Bolua County, Guangzhou

    • Thailand, Pak Tor, Rachaburi and Marb Pai, Chonburi

    • Vietnam, Bien Hoa, Dong Ngai, and Thuong Tin, Ha Tay,

  • WB preappraisal mission ongoing

  • Sub-mission early 2005

Slide 11

Thank you

Slide 12


1. Structural changes in Livestock sector

2. Geographical shifts in livestock production

3. Implication for the environment

  • nutrient balances

  • deforestation

4. Conclusions and policy implications

Slide 13

Drivers of the livestock sector structural change in rapidly growing economies

Demand shifters

  • Population growth and other demographic factors

  • Income growth

  • Urbanization

Supply shifters

  • Cheap grains

  • Cheap energy (fossil fuel)

  • Improved technologies (genetics, feeding)


  • market liberalization

  • neglect of externalities

  • development of transport

Slide 14

What do we mean by structural change?

  • Change from a local to global economic activity

  • Change from supply driven activity to demand driven

  • Change from multi-purpose and non-tradables to food and tradables

  • Change from rural, land-based to urban, industrial

Slide 15

What are its features?

  • Growing intensities (services: feeding, genetics, animal health)

  • Increasing scales (production and post-harvest)

  • Geographic shifts/geographic concentration

  • Vertical integration/longer food chains (lower transaction costs, integrated companies; contract farming; Surge of supermarkets)

Slide 16

Geographical shifts: common observations

Geographical shifts - monogastrics:

  • concentration in specialised zones: between marketing points (export or local consumption) and input (feed) sources,

  • away from urban centres,

  • combined with changes in scale,

  • tends to escape agro-environmental constraints, disconnected from the land-based productions

Geographical shifts - beef cattle:

  • marginal areas,

  • away from populated and cropping areas,

  • continues to be determined by agro-environmental constraints

Slide 17

Implications of Structural Changes on livestock production's environmental impacts

Feature of
Structural change

Consequences on the environment

Intensification, technology change

(resource use efficiency)

Scaling up

(large units generate more
pollution per unit of output)

Geographical / peri-urban concentration

- -
(nutrient management)

Organization, vertical integration

Not relevant

Slide 18

Structural Change and Public Policy: Current trend under week policy setting...

Slide 19

Structural Change and Public Policy: Do we need a Paradigm Shift?

Slide 20

Example of policy options to address soil and water pollution issues

Given the determinant role of livestock production geography...

  • Establish zoning laws preventing further concentration and encourage growth in less saturated areas.

Given that not all farms can absorb all the nutrient load they produce...

  • Implement accounting schemes;

  • Even enforcement of exiting rules and regulation.

Slide 21

Example of policy options to address soil and water pollution issues (cont.)

Given that large units tend to generate more pollution per unit of output, and that small farmers have limited investment capacities...

  • Enforce environment regulations for large scale operations first

  • Provide subsidies to smallholders who implement a certain "effective" manure management practice

Given the number small and middle size production units and the limited public resources ...

  • Limit command control and taxes to large-scale operations

  • Focus on voluntary approaches for small scale producers

Slide 22

The Livestock Environment and Development Initiative - LEAD

Project Goal: To protect and enhance natural resources as affected by livestock production and processing in a context of poverty alleviation and human health preservation.

Project Title: Decision-Support on Livestock-Environment Issues

  • Supported by donors and development institutions: Denmark, EC, France, UK, Switzerland, USAID, ILRI, GTZ, WB, FAO, CIRAD, CATIE and others

  • Implemented by FAO

Slide 23

Concluding remarks

  • In South East Asia, livestock is reacting to a rapidly changing socio-economic context;

  • This materializes in structural changes, and in particular in the development of a highly competitive livestock industry;

  • In such process, public goods are not properly accounted for. In particular, environment and public health are often at risk.

  • There is a need for policies to bridge the gap between private and social interests;

  • The Livestock Environment and Development (LEAD) has the objective to foster the formulation and development of such policies in the area of natural resources.

First report on the state of the world's animal genetic resources progress report

(by Hans Wagner, Senior Animal Health and Production Officer, FAO/RAP)

Slide 1

First Report on the State of the
World's Animal Genetic Resources
Progress Report

Slide 2

Global Strategy for the management of farm animal genetic resources

  • Started in 1993

  • Global framework for deciding on priority efforts for achieving sustainable use, development and conservation of animal genetic resources

  • Member countries guide implementation through Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on AnGR (ITWG-AnGR) subsidiary of the Commission for Genetic Resources in Food and Agriculture.

Slide 3

Global Strategy for the management of farm animal genetic resources

  • Important implementation structure re-confirmed

  • National Focal points

  • Regional focal points

  • Global Focal point

Slide 4

First Report on the State of the World's AnGR

  • CGRFA decided and ITWG-AnGR agreed on process in 2000

  • Should be based on country reports

    • Strategic policy document - not another inventory;

    • Vision and strategic directions for the better management of AnGR;

    • Establish priority for action - national and regional

  • Report on Strategic Priorities for Action

Slide 5

First Report on the State of the World's AnGR

  • Chronology

    • 2001 finalized Guidelines for country report preparation;

    • March 2001 invitation by the DG-FAO to 188 countries - 145 accepted invitation;

    • March 2001 Global Orientation and Training Workshop for expert facilitators

    • Regional Training workshops (Bangkok, Dec. 2001, Fiji July 2002)

    • Financial support through WAAP

Slide 6

Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources ITWG-AnGR

  • 3rd session 31.03. - 02.04.2004

  • Preceeded by the National Coordinators meeting

  • Over 150 countries in attendance

  • Reviewed substantial progress and noted some delay in the country report preparation - over 150 reports expected

Slide 7

SoW-AnGR - Status of report preparation
Reports expected 40

  • Final Report received (14)

    • Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Viet Nam

    • Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Uzbekistan

    • Cook Island, Vanuatu

  • Drafts (11)

    • Bhutan, India, Japan, Korea Rep., Myanmar, Philippines,

    • Fiji, Kiribati, Solomon Islands, Samoa, Northern Marina Islands

  • Non participating, Korea DPRK

Slide 8

Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources - ITWG-AnGR

  • Recommended to CGRFA a revised schedule

    • Deadline for country reports Dec 2004

    • Report on the Strategic Priorities for Action based on the priorities in Country reports to be considered by the CGRFA in 2004 (10th Session)

    • Regional consultations in 2005

    • SoW - AnGR Report first review by the CGRFA in 2006

    • Adopted in Technical Conference in 2007

Slide 9

Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources ITWG-AnGR

  • Recommended

    • Establishment of a 'Follow up mechanism' within the existing structure

    • Better engage policy makers in the SoW process

    • Strenghten donor and stakeholder participation (NGOs and private sector)

  • Comprehensive review of DAD-IS

  • Approved the outline of the First Report SoW

Slide 10

Preliminary analysis of country reports

  • Capacity building as a priority

    • Genetics and AnGr management

    • Breeding programmes/schemes design

    • Characterization

    • Molecular genetic techniques

    • biotechnologies

  • Policy engagement required

  • Sustainability of National Focal points and supporting Regional Focal points

Slide 11


  • The preparation of First Report on the State of the Worlds AnGR is on track, some adjustments to the initial schedule have been made. Deadline for report submission December 2004

  • More than 150 country reports are expected and countries are encouraged to timely submit their reports

  • A Report on Priorities for Action to be prepared by 2004 supported by a 'Follow-up Mechanism'

  • Countries give support to their National Focal Point on AnGR and consider support to a Regional Focal Point for Asia

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