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APHCA special session on avian influenza (APHCA 2004/07)


Updated AI situation in Asia

(by Carolyn C. Benigno, Animal Health Officer, FAO/RAP)

Slide 1

AI Situation

Prepared by:
FAO Regional Office

Slide 2

HPAI in Asia 2003/2004

  • Animal health emergency: 80 million birds culled (perhaps 200 million birds have died or been destroyed).

  • Public health emergency: a threat to human health (24 deaths during the first wave, 7 in the second wave).

  • Socio-political emergency: livelihoods of millions of smallholder poultry producers is at risk.

Slide 3

HPAI in Asia 2003/2004

  • Economic emergency: both production and consumption have dropped to extremely low levels jeopardizing the poultry, poultry feed and retail sector.

  • International trade emergency: imposition of import bans and other trade restrictions on countries affected by AI

  • Institutional emergency: national institutions have failed to contain the disease, and international institutions are rushing to develop a concerted response.

An emergency and long-term threat to agriculture and human health requiring concerted action and cooperation by all parties concerned

Slide 4

Viet Nam

First official report:
Jan. 8, 2004
57 of 64 provinces affected
Destroyed 44 m chickens
March 2004 - declared under control
July, 2004 - second wave of outbreaks
As of 14 Sept 2004
15 provinces, all in the south
5 human deaths
_______

Virus type H5N1
Animal affected: chicken, duck, quail, muscovyduck

Slide 5

Lao PDR

14 January 2004
First suspect case in Xaythani District, Vientiane Capital
March 2004
Confirmed outbreaks in 45 places
38 in Vientiane capital, 5 in Savannakhet, 2 in Champasak
_________

Resulted in 50,670 deaths, slaughter of 100,250 birds
H5 confirmed 23 Jan., N1 confirmed 21 Feb.
Animal affected: chicken, duck quail

Slide 6

Cambodia

24 January 2004
First case of H5N1
Mortality event began on 24 Dec. ’03 but DAHP was notified only on 12 January
15 Dec. 2003
First mortality case (serpent eagle) of H5N1 at the Tamao Wildlife Rescue Center
Jan. - April
Kandal (3)
Siem Riep (3)
Phnom Penh (2)
Takeo (3)
Kampong Cham (1)
19 Sept 2004
Kandal -1 farm

Slide 7

Thailand

First case reported 23 January 2004
Confirmed H5N1
Animals affected: chicken, duck, quail, goose, turkey, stork, cat, tiger
Human deaths: 8
_______

3 July 2004 “second wave”
Confirmed in 32 provinces but put under control
N - 7 provinces
C - 15 provinces
E - 4 provinces
NE - 5 provinces
S - 1 province
Human Deaths -2

Slide 8

Indonesia

First official report - 25 January 2004
Virus type: H5N1
No human case
Current status: 14/33 provinces affected covering 95 districts (13/7/04)
Control Measures:
Vaccn. Campaign launched in affected and threatened areas
Selective stamping out and animal movement control

Slide 9

Pakistan

  • AI Monitoring commenced in March, 2004

  • Results indicated persistence of AI virus serotype H7N3 (LPAI) and H9N2 (HPAI) in broilers and layers in Karachi, Punjab

Slide 10

China

  • First official report - January 2004

  • Outbreaks in 16 provinces

Slide 11

Malaysia

  • First report - 19 August 2004

  • Stamping out

  • State of Kelantan - under quarantine

  • Border arrangements with Thailand

Slide 12

Cross Cutting Issues

  • Epidemic is evolving, persisting and expanding in geographical distribution and incidence

  • Disease control measures not fully applied in all countries due to structural, financial, political problems

  • Biosecurity Measures needed to be applied

  • Culling with insufficient protection of workers and in-humane killing of birds

  • Vaccination

Slide 13

Cross Cutting Issues

  • Need for adequate epidemiological assessment

  • More studies on asymptomatic animals

  • Intensify public awareness to change attitudes and practices of farmers especially on biosecurity

  • Continuing threat to human health as long as the infection is present in the poultry production systems in Asia

Slide 14

FAO‘s immediate response

  • Establishment of a technical task force Rome -Bangkok;

  • Newsletter: AIDE Avian Influenza Disease Emergency

  • Collaborative and concerted action FAO/OIE/WHO

  • Expert consultation 3 and 4 February in Rome

  • FAO funding emergency assistance of US $ 5.6 million: six national and three regional projects being implemented

  • FAO/OIE Emergency Regional Meeting on Avian Influenza Control in Animals in Asia 26 to 28 February in Bangkok

  • Experts/consultants in all affected countries

  • Supporting the coordination of donor interventions

  • Experts Meeting on Guiding Principles on Epidemiology and Diagnosis

Slide 15

FAO‘s Immediate Response

  • National TCPs in the affected Countries

  • Regional TCPs on Field and Laboratory Surveillance

    • Southeast Asia - launched last July

    • East Asia - to be launched last week of October

    • South Asia - to be launched

  • Regional TCP on Post Avian Influenza

  • Rehabilitation - to discuss long term strategies to control HPAI

Slide 16

Regional surveillance, laboratory networks and response capacity

  • Expansion of the OIE - FAO developed generic framework for supporting surveillance and promoting targeted, effective response to epidemics (GF-TAD) and to include AI

    • Develop/strengthen regional teams of epidemiologists within appropriate regional organisations

    • Strengthen diagnostic laboratories in the region through network support, allied to FAO/OIE reference laboratories

    • Technical support from FAO/OIE specialists to ensure platform for dialogue, communication and advise across regional (and disease specific) boundaries

    • Regional communication and information network

Slide 17

Recommended national action

  • Establishment of a National Task Force which includes all stake holders;

  • Development of an emergency action plan;

  • Increased vigilance to import and movement of poultry, live birds and other possible infected materials;

  • Awareness campaign for farmers and veterinarians;

  • Increase passive and active surveillance;

  • Step - up laboratory capacities and cabilities to isolate and type virus;

  • Review and assessment of the poultry sector production and marketing and associated risks;

  • Step-up biosecurity measures and GMP practises;

  • Check migratory routes of birds;

  • Information campaign to general public with regard to food safety issues;

Slide 18

Avian influenza: FAO’s response

(by Hans Wagner, Senior Animal Production and Health Officer, FAO/RAP)

Slide 1

Avian Influenza:
FAO‘s response

Hans-Gerhard Wagner
Senior Regional Animal Production and Health Officer
FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
Bangkok Thailand

Slide 2

FAO‘s immediate response

  • Establishment of a technical task force Rome - Bangkok;

  • Daily telephone conference;

  • Newsletter: AIDE Avian Influenza Disease Emergency;

  • Collaborative and concerted action FAO/OIE/WHO;

    • Expert consultation 3 - 4 February in Rome (WHO,OIE);

    • FAO/OIE/WHO Emergency Regional Meeting on Avian Influenza Control in Animals in Asia (26-28 February);

  • Experts/consultants in all affected countries;

  • Supporting the coordination of donor interventions;

  • FAO financial emergency assistance of US$ 5.6 million

Slide 3

Initial Emergency Response
TCPs (US$ 400 000 each)

Slide 4

Regional TCPs Outputs

  • sub-regional epidemiologic surveillance and diagnosis networks

    • To rapidly detecting, diagnosing and controlling HPAI in affected countries, and quickly stamping out incursions should the disease occur in currently uninfected countries;

    • To identify HPAI risk factors with the aim of preventing future outbreaks.

    • Heightened capacity in diagnostics and epidemiology

    • Harmonized methods

  • Reduced threat of human infection

Slide 5

Sub-regional TCPs status

  • South East Asia - operational

  • Thailand lead country through NIAH (laboratory and diagnostics) and DLD (epidemiology)

  • East Asia

  • launching workshop 27 - 29 October 2004 in China

  • South Asia

  • India lead in epidemiology, Pakistan lead laboratory diagnostics start-up to be identified

Slide 6

Further requirements

  • Medium- and longer-term support:

    • Capacity building at national and international level for prevention of disease emergencies;

    • Sustainability of regional network for diagnostic and surveillance;

    • Early warning and early reaction system;

    • Harmonization of activities between international organizations;

Slide 7

Regional collaboration

  • Countries covered by respective TCPs resulting in a co-ordinated approach in the livestock sector;

    • Sustainability through ASEAN Working Group of Livestock (ASWGL) taking the SEA-FMD as model.

    • ASEAN Animal Health Trust Funds to include other diseases than FMD.

    • Information and communication role of APHISA (Animal production and health information system for ASEAN) linkage to other systems.

    • South Asia linkage to SAARC

The prevention, control and eradication of HPAI in Asia

(by Juan Lubroth, Senior Officer (Infectious Diseases/EMPRES), FAO/ROME)

Slide 1

The Prevention, Control and Eradication of HPAI in Asia

J. Lubroth, S Kahn, and J Domenech
FAO Animal Health Service, Rome

L Sims
Australia

APHCA 26-28 September, 2004

Slide 2

Acknowledgements

W Amanfu

FAO

I Capua

IZS, Venice

C Benigno

FAO RAP

A El Idrissi

FAO

L Gleeson

CSIRO, AAHL, Geelong

W Kalpravidh

FAO (DLD)

A Kamata

FAO

S Marangon

IZS, Venice

S Morzaria

FAO RAP

V Martin

FAO

A McLeod

FAO

M Nunn

MAFF, Canberra

P Roeder

FAO

J Slingenbergh

FAO

D Swayne

USDA, SEPRL, Athens

H Wagner

FAO RAP

D Ward

FAO

Slide 3

Outline

  • FAO Recommendations on prevention, control and eradication of HPAI in Asia

    • Scientific background to the report

    • Findings of international meetings

    • Factors to consider in developing strategies

    • Economic, political and social factors

    • Disease control

    • The use of vaccination

    • Adoption of the most appropriate control strategies

    • Conclusions

Slide 4

Scientific background

  • Current scientific knowledge on the control of HPAI is largely based on information and experience from temperate countries (Europe, North America).

  • International recommendations reflect the experience of historically free countries dealing with HPAI incursions by stamping out.

  • Vaccination has been viewed as a short-term, emergency measure used as an adjunct to stamping out and eradication of infection.

Slide 5

Scientific background

  • In Europe and North America, attention has been focused on the phenomenon of low pathogenic (LP) AI viruses of H5 and H7 subtype becoming highly pathogenic (HP) and causing disease outbreaks

    • E.g. following the movement of LP viruses from wild reservoirs (waterfowl) into farmed poultry (chickens and turkeys)

Slide 6

GENETIC REASSORTMENT

New Influenza virus:
256 possible combinations
Adapted from G Koch, Central Institute Animal Disease Control (CIDC - Lelystad)

Slide 7

Scientific background

  • There is evidence that the situation with H5N1 HPAI in Asia is different.

    • HPAI H5N1 has been present in a highly virulent form in some countries of Asia for several years (first reported in PR China 1996)

    • It appears that H5N1 can circulate in populations of wild birds and farmed ducks without causing obvious signs of clinical disease

      • although isolates from 2002 caused deaths in wild migratory birds and resident waterfowl, including ducks, in two Hong Kong pa

Slide 8

Scientific background

  • There are significant differences among the countries, and regions within, on poultry production and marketing systems, as well as social and cultural practices

  • Public health risks could potentially be more significant depending on these practices.

  • Therefore different control strategies customised to these practices must be considered to control the disease and, importantly, the public health risks.

  • The need for international recommendations on strategies specific to the prevention, control and eradication of HPAI in Asia was the genesis of this report.

Slide 9

Conclusions of FAO/OIE/WHO meeting, Rome, February 2004

  • While stamping out is the preferred option vaccination is a suitable tool and can be used as a precursor to stamping out

  • Vaccination should be used in a strategic manner with careful consideration of target groups and areas by the national authorities.

  • Only inactivated heterologous or homologous vaccines are candidates for emergency use.

  • Effective vaccination stimulates immunity

    • reduces shedding and the viral load in the environment

    • can help to reduce public health risk.

Slide 10

Conclusions of FAO/OIE/WHO meeting, Rome, February 2004

  • The use of vaccination must be seen as a tool to maximize biosecurity

    • coupled to surveillance to detect antigenic changes.

  • The ‘differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA)’ approach is recommended
    • using an appropriate diagnostic test and/or sentinel birds.

  • Veterinary services (VS) should control the vaccination campaign.

  • Vaccination under VS control is compatible with international trade

    • if it complies with OIE requirements.

Slide 11

Factors to consider in developing control strategies

  • The level of infection

  • The presence of wildlife reservoirs

  • Farming and marketing systems

    • Biosecurity levels 1-4

  • Likelihood of infection or re-infection in countries or compartments/zones

  • Involvement in international trade

  • Animal Health Infrastructure

  • Public health issues

Slide 12

Economic, political and social issues

  • Economic, political and social issues have a significant impact on government decision-making.

  • It is important to carry out a formal analysis of the costs and benefits of different approaches.

  • Governments must also take into account political and social issues that are important but harder to value.

  • Details in annex to report.

Slide 13

Disease control

  • General principles

    • Importance of regional cooperation

  • Emergency response to virus incursions.

    Contingency plans should cover:

    • Chain of command, lines of communication and management

    • Instructions on methods of humane destruction

    • Instructions on methods of carcase disposal

    • Instruction on methods of cleaning and disinfection

    • Instructions on quarantine measures to be applied

    • Sources, stockpiles and distribution systems for supplies

    • Disease investigation procedures

    • Specific responsibilities of relevant departments and staff

Slide 14

Disease control

  • Understanding the viruses

    • Significance of various pathways of spread

    • Virus excretion: pathways, different species

    • Persistence of HPAI in the environment, poultry house etc

    • Methods for inactivating the virus

    • Role of pigs

    • Role of wild birds

Slide 15

Measures for prevention control and eradication

  • Measures for prevention, control and eradication of HPAI

    • Enhanced biosecurity

    • Movement controls

    • Changes to industry practices

    • Rapid, humane destruction

    • Proper disposal of carcases and potentially infective material

    • The proper use of vaccination.

Slide 16

Vaccination ... from the “Guiding Principles”

  • A decision to use vaccination must take into account the different levels of biosecurity in farming sectors, the different levels of challenge (ie the risk of infection of poultry) and the likelihood of spread/amplification

  • Poultry production sectors can be described according to production and marketing systems

    • in reality, the sector is a continuum, with many production systems and biosecurity issues

    • this framework provides a basis for targeting vaccination to higher risk groups and/or activities.

Slide 17


When to consider using vaccine

Consideration of vaccination in each production sector

Level of challenge

Sector 1

Sector 2

Sector 3

Sector 4

Negligible

Not considered

Not considered

Not considered

Not considered

Low

Not considered

Not considered

Considered

Considered

Moderate

Not considered

Considered

Considered

Considered

High

Considered

Considered

Considered

Considered

Slide 18

The production market-chain interlinkages

Slide 19

Vaccine selection

  • Vaccine may be conventional or recombinant (the latter are having been less commonly used in Europe)

  • Homologous or heterologous

    • the latter enables use of DIVA by neuraminidase (N) inhibition test or FAT to differentiate N subtypes with the H will protect against the circulating strain if given early enough.

  • Other than chickens and turkeys, data are lacking on the efficacy of vaccine in other species, including, importantly, in ducks

  • All vaccines used should be produced according to the OIE’s Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines

    • including vaccine types/forms, QA, master seed management, documentation of the manufacturing process and record-keeping.

Slide 20

Vaccination teams

  • Vaccination teams should comprise veterinarians and technicians trained in vaccination procedure

    • to ensure that they do not inadvertently spread disease

    • and that vaccination is properly done.

  • Training in public health measures must include the correct use of personal protective equipment (PPE)

  • Manufacturers’ recommendations on the storage and delivery of vaccine must be followed

  • Records of vaccination (number, species vaccinated, location, date etc.) must be recorded and captured by official information systems

Slide 21

Public health factors

Public health concerns about the risks associated with vaccination fall into 2 aspects:

  • Concerns about persistent excretion of AI virus in vaccinated poultry.

  • Concerns about generation of new strains of AI virus as a result of vaccination

Slide 22

Public health factors

  • Although vaccination does not completely eliminate infection, field and experimental results show that this does not lead to persistence of infection in properly vaccinated poultry

  • Vaccinated birds are less likely to become infected or excrete virus and will excrete lower quantities of virus (if they excrete at all)

Slide 23

Public health factors

  • It is unlikely that vaccination of poultry will exert a selection pressure on the cell receptor of the HA protein that might lead to an increase in the transmissibility of the virus to mammals.

  • Thus vaccination can actually reduce the opportunity for natural mutation or reassortment by reducing the quantity of circulating virus

Slide 24

Public health factors

  • Surveillance systems must be implemented

    • To measure the response to vaccination

    • To detect the presence of field virus in clinically normal vaccinated poultry.

  • Viruses isolated must be fully characterized at an OIE/FAO or WHO reference laboratory

    • to provide early warning of any significant antigenic or genetic changes

Slide 25

Research Priorities

Some research is urgently needed to facilitate prevention, control and eradication:

  • The epidemiology of HPAI in ducks, and response to vaccination.

  • The epidemiology of AI in wild waterfowl

  • The implication of infection in pigs (and other species)

  • It is also desirable to develop marker vaccines to facilitate DIVA.

Slide 26

General Conclusions

  • As a transboundary animal disease (TAD) HPAI can only be controlled through regional collaboration

  • The formation of regional networks, as provided for by FAO TCP’s in Southeast Asia, East Asia and South Asia is an important step to improve surveillance, diagnosis and control.

  • FAO/OIE Global Framework for the Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases (GF-TADs) is an important initiative for future management of diseases like HPAI.

Slide 27

Under implementation Six National TCPs

  • WHERE?

    Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos DPR, Pakistan, China, Indonesia, [Malaysia]

  • TO DO WHAT?

    Control the Avian Flu by technical advice, training

    ® US$ 2.7 million + 20 million (WB, Japan)

Slide 28

Under implementation 5 sub-regional TCPs

  • WHERE?

    East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia

  • HOW?

    Network of surveillance teams
    Network of diagnostic laboratories
    Policy and rehabilitation

  • TO DO WHAT?

    Surveillance, early detection, early reaction

    • Identification of risk factors

    • International coordination

    • Training and education

Slide 29

Inform and communicate

AGA and EMPRES Web sites

www.fao.org/ag/aga/agah

Slide 30

Epidemiological flow within production and related systems

Slide 31

GIS preliminary analysis - potential bias

  • Preliminary description of the whole population sample should be done before drawing any conclusion (pig, human and poultry density in China)

  • GIS study based on extrapolated data (population density for pigs, poultry and human)

  • Analysis on data reported (problem of underreporting)

  • Statistics derived from geographical estimates obtained through EMPRES-i (source of geographical coordinates NIMA database)

  • The precision of the statistics depends on the quality and the accuracy of the geographical coordinates used (further validation required)

Slide 32

What next

  • Cluster analysis (spatial relationship between outbreaks)

  • Analysis of additional potential risk factors (distance to roads, water bodies and rivers/migration, farming systems)

  • Logistic regression to identify risk factors

  • Intervention and rehabilitation. Restructuring of the poultry sector. Participation of the private sector.

  • Significance of swine in H5N1 epidemiology

  • Coordination of active AIV surveillance among migratory bird and aquatic fowl sanctuaries and habitats.

  • Studies on virulence genes and AIV and “rules” of re-assortment events.

  • Vaccination efficacy studies in farmed water fowl.

Slide 33

Rehabilitation and Recovery

  • This is the end goal

  • Cannot be done until everything is done

  • Prior to commencing, it must be based on disease/infection search in areas of high risk, disease occurrence, and identification for viral persistence in areas cleaned and disinfected (sentinelisation)

  • Biosecurity - simplistic to complex

  • Restructure of Poultry Sector - mid/long range planning

  • Compartmentalisation

Slide 34

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

Ending the crisis

What to do in the immediately and prepare for the next uncertainty

  • Capacity at the veterinary laboratories to conduct differential diagnostic testing

  • Establish contingency and emergency plans for HP Avian Influenza

  • Establish links with other Ministerial forces to apply the necessary counter-epizootic measures

  • Establish cooperation and participation of the private sector

  • Periodic reviews of national legislation to enable official services to intervene in the event of animal health emergencies

  • Establish systems to penalise countries that do not meet their international reporting obligations [how?]

  • Institute basic biosecurity concepts at the farm, market, and official service levels.

  • Establish laboratory networks that collaborate with national and regional epidemiology units

Slide 35

Opportunities for Active Surveillance

  • Natural reserves- Collection/Analysis

  • Reservoirs, Lakes vicinity to Poultry Production Areas - Collection/Analysis

  • Abattoir Routine Sample - Collection/Analysis

  • Network of Laboratories

  • Collaboration with WHO diagnostic systems

Slide 36

Conclusions

  • Early detection / small outbreak - Stamping out

  • Delayed detection / limited abilities - vaccination as an ancillary tool

  • Movement control / movement management

  • Prevention through surveillance and provision of timely results

  • Disease control through surveillance and provision of timely results

  • Biosecurity

  • Quality assured vaccines

  • Transparency and information exchange

    • Networking (Laboratory and Epidemiology)

Slide 37

www.fao.org/ag/aga/agah

Progress on TCP/RAS/3006

Diagnostic laboratory and surveillance network coordination for control and prevention of avian influenza in Southeast Asia

(by Wantanee Kalpravidh, Regional Coordinator - TCP/RAS/3006, FAO/RAP)

Slide 1

Progress on TCP/RAS/3006

Diagnostic Laboratory and Surveillance Network Coordination for Control and Prevention of Avian Influenza in Southeast Asia

Slide 2

Member countries

  • Cambodia

  • Indonesia

  • Lao PDR

  • Malaysia

  • Myanmar

  • Papua New Guinea

  • Philippines

  • Thailand

  • East Timor Leste

  • Viet Nam

Slide 3

Objectives

  • Primary objective:

    • to support national efforts to detect, diagnose and control AI

  • Specific objectives:

    • to create a regional diagnostic laboratory and surveillance network

    • to understand risk factors of AI in SE ® Asia effective control

Slide 4

Concepts

  • Establishment of 2 networks:

    • Diagnostic laboratory

    • Epidemiology surveillance unit

  • Network’s Regional Leading Laboratory

  • Linked to a coordination Unit and OIE/FAO Reference Centers for Epidemiology and AI Laboratories

Slide 5

Expected outputs

  • Capabilities and capacity to diagnose and detect AI of national animal diagnostic laboratories and epidemiology units in member countries will be strengthened.

  • National diagnostic laboratories and epidemiology units in member countries will be linked to the coordination center in FAORAP.

  • Epidemiology and risk factors of AI are better understood.

Slide 6

Progress Summary (1)

  • Inception Workshop: 28-30 July 2004 at FAORAP, BKK

  • Guiding Principles for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Surveillance and Diagnostic Networks in Asia: FAO Expert Meeting on Surveillance and Diagnosis of Avian Influenza in Asia, 21-23 July 2004 at FAORAP, BKK

Slide 7

Progress Summary (2)

  • 10 member countries agreed

    • Network is important

    • Objectives of the network

    • Thailand to be the center for both networks:

      • Regional Leading Laboratory: National Institute of Animal Health, DLD

      • Regional Leading Epidemiology Unit: Bureau of Disease Control, DLD

    • Guiding principles with modification

Slide 8

Progress Summary (3)

  • Guiding principles:

  • Minimum requirements for effective surveillance:

    • HPAI must be notifiable

    • formal system for detecting and investigating outbreaks and for reporting confirmed cases internationally in accordance with OIE guidelines

    • must have technical capability to diagnose HPAI

Slide 9

Progress Summary (4)

  • Guiding principles:

  • Minimum requirements for effective surveillance (cont.):

    • a system for recording, managing and analyzing diagnostic and surveillance data

    • participate in the regional surveillance and diagnostic network including public health sector

    • frequency of surveillance could be a minimum of every 6 months within a country

Slide 10

Progress Summary (5)

  • Guiding principles:

    • Surveillance methods

    • Laboratory procedures and networks

    • Animal health information systems and networks

    • Research priorities

Slide 11

Progress Summary (6)

  • Preliminarily assess the capabilities of member countries to diagnose and conduct surveillance activities including capabilities of the regional leading laboratory and epidemiology units to undertake their roles

  • Identify a tentative work plan to upgrade their capabilities to the minimum requirements

Slide 12

Progress Summary (7)

  • Technical assistance will be delivered through:

    • Organization of training courses:

      • Training for trainers

      • Training modules and materials

    • Provision of International Consultants to review, advise on improving diagnostic capacity and disease surveillance methods and reporting within the network

    • Provision of laboratory supplies, reagent and equipment

Slide 13

Progress Summary (8)

  • Technical assistance will be delivered through:

    • Network hub to receive country data, analyzing and reporting/distributing the information back to the countries

    • Follow up workshops to review progress, problems and constraints

    • Collaboration with other TCPs and international organizations

Slide 14

Progress Summary (9)

  • Country visits: Cambodia, Viet Nam and Thailand

  • Start-up information distribution, INFONOTE #1

  • Establishing a contract with a group of experts to deliver veterinary epidemiology and laboratory support services to the members

  • A 1st epidemiology consortium to be organized under leadership and management of FAO-EMPRES during 1st week of October

  • Collaboration with JICA, planning for a training course on basic procedures to diagnose AI in Malaysia

  • CDC, CIDA

Slide 15

Next steps

  • Continue visiting countries by International Consultants and Regional Coordinator

  • Continue information distribution in several forms: INFONOTE #1, electronic exchange of information and ideas

  • Collaborate with international consultants to deliver veterinary epidemiology and laboratory support services to the members

  • Design more training courses with consultants and other international organizations

  • Plan for follow up the activities

Slide 16

More to think

For the member countries

Sustainability of the Regional Network for AI Diagnostic Laboratory and Surveillance

Regional Organization: ASEAN

Regional Campaign for Control and Eradication of FMD in SE Asia (SEAFMD)

Slide 17

Thank you for your attention

Progress on TCP/RAS/3010 (E)

Progress on post- (with) avian influenza rehabilitation in Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Viet Nam and Thailand

(by Frands Dolberg, Regional Coordinator - TCP/RAS/3010(E), FAO/RAP)

Slide 1

Progress on - Post (with) - Avian Influenza Rehabilitation in Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Viet Nam and Thailand

TCP/RAS/3010 (E)

Frands Dolberg
Regional Coordinator

Slide 2

  • Countries

  • Cambodia

  • Indonesia

  • Laos

  • Thailand

  • Viet Nam

Slide 3

Objectives

  • To assist the countries to prepare for a post-avian influenza rehabilitation programme. More specific objectives:

    1. analysis of the country specific socioeconomic impact of the AI epidemic on the major production systems and livelihoods of producers and ancillary workers;

    2. Establishment of a typology of the typical enterprises in the countries (size, marketing, technical parameters);

Slide 4

Expected outputs

1. A socio-economic impact assessment by major poultry production systems and by country

1. identification of the most affected and vulnerable groups

2. Identification of and recommendations for appropriate interventions for both

1. the short-term recovery

2. longer-term rehabilitation.

Slide 5

Progress summary

  • In brief:

    • A.I. is endemic

      • at least the short to medium term.

  • The project objective to be modified from “Post-Avian” to “With-Avian Influenza”.

  • Important to take

    • a longer and broader view.

 

Slide 6

The longer view: Where to place A.I.?

  • Evolution of diseases (Diamond, 2002 and Weiss, 2001):

    • Increases in human population density and more frequent contact between wild birds and mammals have over time led to diseases such as:

      • Plague, smallpox, yellow fever, AIDS

      • Measles and tuberculosis from cattle

      • Influenza from pigs and du

Slide 7

The longer view: Where to place A.I.?

  • More recent diseases due to animal - human contact:

    • SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) (Bell et al., 2004)

    • A.I. (H5N1) (Gilbert et al., 2004)

  • Conclusion:

    • Nothing new that contacts between animals and humans lead to a disease of concern for human health

Slide 8

The broader view on A.I.

Source: Gilbert et al., 2004

  • Urbanisation and increased income

  • Increase in demand

  • Semi-commercial, commercial and smallholders mixed in peri-urban areas

Slide 9

The broader view

Source: Gilbert et al., 2004

  • Probable important underlying factors:

    • Overall population density

      • Agricultural population density

      • contiguous “poultry flocks”

        • No break in pathogen host

Slide 10

The broader view

Source: Gilbert et al., 2004

  • Probable important underlying factors:

    • Distance to cities

    • Uncontrolled trade in small animals for eating and as pets (Bell et al., 2004)

      • 33 bird species in Vientiane market in 1992

        • What is their “virus carrying capacity” ?

        • Ducks known to be “good carriers” of A.I.

Slide 11

Where can A.I. occurrence be expected?

  • H5N1 can be expected to break out - primarily - in the belt close to urban centres that mix several production systems:

    • Open commercial and semi-commercial

    • Backyard systems

  • Much less likely in:

    • Closed, industrial, integrated systems

    • Remote, non-contiguous rural backyard flocks in low human density areas (Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam).

Slide 12

Some findings from the impact studies of two countries - so far

1. Cambodia

2. Viet Nam

Slide 13

The poultry sector is a private sector - principally

  • Applies to

    • Private companies as well as

    • Smallholders - backyard systems

Slide 14

Services - use and access

Slide 15

Cambodia - use of services. Source: VSF
Survey of Cambodia

Services

Commercial broiler

Village smallholder

Technical

100% - from state veterinarians, company, NGO

22%

Veterinary

100% - from state veterinarians, company, NGO

18%

Credit

75% - from NGO, relatives, farmer association

12%

Slide 16

Viet Nam - access to veterinary services - % of farms
Source: GSO Survey

Veterinary service

Farm size - number of birds


1 - 50

51 - 150

151 - 2000

2001 and >

Do not avail service

32.7%

14.4%

6.1%

4.4%

Avail service

16.2%

22.1%

19.3%

33.8%

From public Vets





From private vets

83.8%

77.9%

80.7%

66.2%

Slide 17

Viet Nam - access to credit before A.I.
Source: GSO Survey

Source of credit

Farm size - number of birds


1 - 50

51 - 150

151 -2000

2001 and >

Number of loans

9

35

297

45

From institutions

6

28

247

36

From private individual

3

7

50

9

Slide 18

Viet Nam - access to credit after A.I.
Source: GSO Survey

Source of credit

Farm size - number of birds


1 - 50

51 - 150

151 -2000

2001 and >

Number of loans

6

17

146

28

From institutions

5

11

85

21

From private individual

1

6

61

7

Slide 19

Village chicken originate in the village, ducks less so

  • Cambodia: of 83 village - backyard farms 90% breed themselves, only 10% buy chicks from other farmers

    • In 2003 - 2004 only 1 purchase from middleman

    • Data suggest more purchase of ducklings

    • Vietnam: more purchase of chicks from outside village - 20% of farms.

Slide 20

Poultry sold during ban of first outbreak?

  • Viet Nam: 10 - 15% of farms.

Slide 21

The market chain from the village

  • One way: from village to market. Chicken and ducks for meat

    • very few animals from market to village.

  • Two - and more - ways: Wildlife, pet and sports (fighting cock) markets, where animals leave the markets again alive.

Slide 22

Marketing systems for smallholders in Cambodia and Lao PDR

Slide 23

The market chain cont.

  • Need for documentation concerning capacity of

    • Middlemen and retailers to carry virus on dirty equipment and clothes going back to producers

    • Role of pet, sports animals, ducks

      • Standards, sanitation

      • Training, regulations, informat

Slide 24

The animal chain and biosecurity

  • Wild animals

    • In markets as carriers of virus

    • Birds - water - domesticated ducks

      • Chicken in non-closed systems

        • in semi-commercial and commercial syste

Slide 25

Public awareness

  • Knowledge of AI widespread in Vietnam -according to study

  • Much less in Lao PDR and Cambodia

  • Big, unutilized role for A.I. information in radio, TV., newspapers, videos etc

    • Should get much more attention.

      • For people’s own sake

      • To keep pressure on decision-makers

    • But difficulty of maintaining attention once immediate outbreak panic has subsided!

Slide 26

Local breeds

  • High on the agenda in Cambodia and Lao PDR

  • But little attention to the other causes of regular, high mortality in scavenging and semi-scavenging systems

Slide 27

Pattern in mortality rate of native chicken

Source: Roberts at http://www.husdyr.kvl.dk/htm/php/tune99/28-Roberts.htm

Slide 28

Compensation -Substitution

Slide 29

Compensation - credit

  • Compensation

    • From none in Cambodia

    • to 75% in Thailand

      • Even if there is policy, not always payment

  • Much mention of credit

    • But limited knowledge of credit that works

      • Subsidised interest

      • Micro-finance - not much knowledge

Slide 30

Impact on market prices

Source: Lao PDR study, unpublished

Slide 31

Impact on market prices

Source: Lao PDR study, unpublished

Slide 32

Compensation

  • Never full

    • Not always paid out

  • Complicated by prices increasing on pigs, fish, beef, etc.

  • Question: Is money better used on providing enabling environment - as indicated in concluding slides?

Slide 33

Summary of Conclusions from workshops in Cambodia, Viet Nam and Lao PDR


Points mentioned in conclusions

Market

x

Extension, surveillance

x

Credit

x

Border control

X

High human density areas

Priority areas

Private sect. govt roles

Strong role to private sector in Cambodia

Slide 34

Summary of Conclusions


Points mentioned in conclusions

Public awareness

x

Human resource development

x

Coordination and transparency

X

Slide 35

References

  • Bell, D., Roberton, S. and Hunter, P.R. (2004). Animal origins of SARS coronavirus: possible links with the international trade in small carnivores. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. Lond. B 359: 1107-1114.

  • Diamond, J. (2002). Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domestication. Nature. Vol. 418: 700-7.

  • Gilbert, M., Wint, W. and Slingenbergh, J. (2004). The ecology of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in East and Southeast Asia: outbreaks distribution, risk factors and policy implications. Draft of Consultancy Report prepared for the Animal Health Service of the Animal Production and Health Division of the FAO, Rome.

  • Weiss, R.A. (2001). The Leeuwenhoek Lecture 2001. Animal origins of human infectious disease. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. Lond. B 356: 1115-1116 as quoted in Bell et al.

Collaboration in avian influenza prevention and control by OIE

(by T. Fujita, OIE Regional Representation for Asia and the Pacific, Tokyo)

Slide 1

Collaboration in Avian Influenza Prevention and Control by OIE

FAO-APHCA Session, Chiang Mai, Thailand
27-28 September 2004

T. Fujita
OIE Regional Representation for Asia and the Pacific,
Tokyo

Slide 2

Contents

  • OIE & HPAI

  • Disease Notification & OIE Information

  • International Standards on prevention & control of animal diseases and zoonoses

  • OIE’s international relations

  • Meetings on HPAI

  • Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres

  • OIE Official Information on Use of AI vaccines for disease control

  • Further collaboration for HPAI control by OIE

Slide 3

Avian Influenza in Asia

  • Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 in Asia; unprecedented, sever and hazardous, emerged and reemerged, an impact on industry and human health

  • H5N1; RO Korea, Japan, PR China, Indonesia, Laos (H5), Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia

  • H5N2; Taipei China

  • H7N3 & H9N2; Pakistan

Slide 4

OIE & FAO recommendations on in-depth investigation

  • A Calm period regarding disease incidents

  • Declaration of victory over AI by some countries but OIE/FAO urged statements on in-depth investigation and mentioned their cooperation in providing international experts

  • Re-emergence of the disease Þ difficulty of control of HPAI

Slide 5

OIE & HPAI

  • OIE=World Organization for Animal Health (new name in 2003), its involvements in global animal health improvement, and celebrated its 80th anniversary in 2004

  • HPAI;
    1) an OIE listed animal disease
    2) OIE’s provision of scientific information, and international standards (for the disease prevention and control as well as for international trade)

Slide 6

Animal disease notification (1)

  • Transparent and timely disease notification Þ a base for disease control and preparedness to prevent

  • Disease Notification: supported by appropriate disease information systems, based on diagnosis and surveillance

  • HPAI; Þ Notifiable Þ for sufficient knowledge of disease situation and necessary control measures according to official surveillance and control programmes

Slide 7

Animal disease notification (2)

  • OIE’s collection and dissemination of animal disease information/ on a global & regional basis

  • HPAI:

    • notification to OIE within 24 hours (first occurrence and re-occurrence),

    • follow-up information,

    • OIE’s immediate dissemination of the information to member countries (also including the information regarding the improvement of the disease situation)

Slide 8

HPAI Information on OIE Home page

  • OIE’sWeb-site:
    http://www.oie.int/eng/en_index.htm

    (Alerts -Disease Information Unit-update on AI in Asia, animal health news for the week including AI, and highlights on AI)

    Special corner of AI: Methods for disease control, description of AI, conditions of surveillance, safety of animal production and international trade, diagnostic methods, etc.

Slide 9

OIE International Standards on animal diseases and zoonoses

  • OIE’s provision of International Standards on animal diseases and zoonoses;

    OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code; Animal Health Standards for trade in animals and animal products

    OIE Manual for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines; Laboratory techniques, requirements for production and control of biological products

  • Development & scientific supports by the OIE Specialist Commissions, involving all member countries and finalization of the Standards by member countries through official consultation with the countries

Slide 10

OIE International Standards on Animal diseases and Zoonoses

1. OIE’s provision of standards, guidelines and recommendations, as the International Standards setting-Organization for animal diseases and zoonoses recognized by WTO

2. WTO member countries to base such sanitary measures on the international standards, if one exists, unless there is scientific justification for a stronger measure or a higher level of protection than the standard provides. In such a case, the member country must base its sanitary measure on a risk analysis.

Slide 11

OIE's International Relations

1. OIE’s formal relations with major international and regional organizations, including FAO, WHO, WVA, etc.

2. OIE working with FAO, WHO and other organizations for HPAI prevention and control

Slide 12

Meetings on HPAI prevention and control

1. OIE’s organization of international meetings on Avian Influenza in Paris, and establishment of the Ad Hoc Group on AI Þ to examine specific scientific and technical issues, its Reports serving as guides for the OIE Specialist Commissions and the International Committee.

2. OIE’s co-organization of AI international meetings with FAO and WHO (in Bangkok and Rome, February 2004), AI Risk Analysis with FAO-APHCA, Chiang Mai, July, that provided important information/recommendations on the effective control measures

3. OIE’s active participation in other AI meetings and its contribution (e.g. AI Emergency meeting, Bangkok, January 2004, FAO-TCP inception meeting, Bangkok, July 2004, WHO Technical Training Course (at OIE reference Laboratory) in Hokkaido, Japan, August 2004, International Conference of the Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, ‘Avian Influenza Session’, Malaysia, August 2004, etc.)

Slide 13

OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres

1. OIE’s Global network with over 150 Reference Laboratories & Collaborating Centres

2. Ref. Lab.: to pursue all the scientific and technical problems relating to a named disease, to function as a centre of expertise and standardization of diagnostic techniques for its designated disease

3. 6 OIE Ref. Lab. for Avian Influenza: 2 Labs in Asia and the Pacific (Australia and Japan)

4. OIE’s assignment of experts of Avian Influenza to member countries

Slide 14

Recent OIE Official Information on the Use of Avian Influenza Vaccines

1. Lengthy discussions on the use of AI Vaccines to cope with different AI situation

2. Message from OIE HQ, Paris & OIE Reg. Rep. Tokyo, Sept. 04

3. AI related International Standards; OIE Code, OIE Manual and OIE scientific/technical documentation

4. Decision on whether to use vaccines or not; Member countries to decide based on their own epidemiological situation, preferably in line with OIE International Standards

Slide 15

Cont’d

5. Important Elements: countries’ ability to detect and react to AI as early as possible, transparent and timely notification supported by a good institutional framework and sound legislation of Veterinary Services

6. Primary method to control AI: to cull suspected and infected populations (stamping-out policy)

7. Use of AI vaccines: (1) as a complementary measure to Stamping-out policy (if stamping-out measure alone incapable of controlling the disease effectively in high-risk population and (2) with appropriate surveillance/monitoring systems (including in other populations, e.g. non-vaccinated sentinel birds)

8. Vaccine production: according to the International guidelines in the OIE Manual

Slide 16

Possible further collaboration for HPAI control by OIE

1. OIE to collaborate with member countries for improvement of animal health situation, including AI control

2. OIE’s close working linkages with other organizations including FAO and WHO to combat AI

3. OIE’s provision of Scientific Information and International Standards (disease control measures, diagnostic methods, quality of vaccines, etc.)

4. OIE’s collaboration with member countries for HPAI control through various mechanisms; e.g. meetings, training workshops, probably even through GF-TADs (OIE Tokyo as Permanent Secretariat of Regional Steering Committee of GF-TADs for Asia and the Pacific)

5. Importance of full-understanding of AI eradication and of supports from all stakeholders including donors for the above

Slide 17

Thank you for your kind attention !!!

OIE Tokyo

Collaboration in avian influenza prevention and control by JICA

(by Masao Sasaki, JICA Animal Disease Control Project in Thailand and Neighboring Countries)

Slide 1

Collaboration in Avian Influenza Prevention and Control

Activities of JICA Animal Disease Control Project

Slide 2

JICA Project

Animal Disease Control in Thailand and Neighboring Countries

Masao Sasaki
Project Leader
(Animal Disease Control)
JICA Project on Animal Disease Control in Thailand and Neighboring Countries

Slide 3

JICA Project

Animal Disease Control in Thailand and Neighboring Countries

Started: December 2001

Duration: 5 years till December 2006

Project HQ: Department of Livestock Development, Bangkok

Slide 4

Members: Six Countries in Indochina Peninsula

1) Cambodia

2) Lao PDR

3) Malaysia (Collaborating Country)

4) Myanmar

5) Thailand (Core Country), and

6) Vietnam

Slide 5

Technical Cooperation Project

- Animal Disease Control in Thailand and Neighboring Countries-

Overall Goal: Improvement of animal health status in Thailand and neighboring countries

Project Objective: Technological improvement of animal disease control in Thailand and neighboring countries.

Slide 6

Technical Cooperation Project

- Animal Disease Control in Thailand and Neighboring Countries-

Project Activities:

1. Regional Cooperation System and Resources Human and institutional resource development

2. Human Resource Development

- disease surveillance, diagnosis, epidemiological information
- vaccine production and quality control
- animal quarantine administration and management

Slide 7

Major diseases to be targeted

  • Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)

  • Classical Swine Fever (CSF)

  • Newcastle Disease (ND)

  • Haemorragic Septicaemia (HA), and

  • Avian Influenza

Slide 8

Major activities related to AI prevention and control in SEA

Training:

Course on AI Diagnosis and Surveillance

at Veterinary Research Institute, Ipoh, Malaysia 14-17 December, 2004

Slide 9

Major activities related to AI prevention and control in SEA

EXPERTS’ VISIT

Short-term Thai and Japanese Experts visit member countries to make advice on AI Diagnosis:

- NIAH, Thailand by Dr. Imada, March,

Neuraminidase Assay

- NAHPIC, Cambodia by Dr. Arunee, June

General diagnostic techniques

- NIAH, Thailand by Dr. Takada, October, Molecular level

- Canbodia, Lao PDR, and Myanmar, (planned) by one general virologist, Fundamental laboratory viral disease diagnosis

Slide 10

Major activities related to AI prevention and control in SEA

  • Workshops/Seminars

    Regional Seminar on Diagnosis and Surveillance of HPAI

    jointly organized by FAO/JICA and DVS, Malaysia at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 13 December, 2004

Slide 11

Major activities related to AI prevention and control in SEA

Provision of AI related reagents and equipments:

1) Cambodia

2) Lao PDR

3) Myanmar

4) Thailand

Traceability in broiler meat processing industry

(by Yongyuth Muhpayak, IT Manager, Betagro Group of Company, Thailand)

Slide 1

Traceability in Broiler Meat Processing Industry

by
Yongyuth Muhpayak
IT Manager
Betagro Group of Company
yongyuth@betagro.com
Tuesday, 28 September 2004

Slide 2

Slide 3

Poultry Industry Issues

  • Regulatory compliance

    • Compliance with international standards

  • Quality Control

    • Testing for contamination and chemical levels

      • Ex. Salmonella

  • Trust in supply chain

    • Validation and verification of information, processes, testing, companies, and third party entities

Slide 4

FoodTraceTM Solution (2)

Slide 5

Slide 6

Poultry Value Added Chain

Slide 7

FoodTraceTM Solution (1)

  • FoodTraceTM is a traceability software that trace foods from producers to retailers.

  • FoodTraceTM is a fully integrated suite of Enterprise Management modules, designed in direct response to market demand and the increased legislative drive for product traceability, management, and control.

  • FoodTraceTM addresses the physical traceability and quality, product safety, yield and risk management challenges of the Food industry.

Slide 8

Traceability Data - Primary Producers

  • Growers/Farmers Information (identification and details)

  • Farm Sites

    • Address

    • Environments

      • Fresh Produce: water source, site history, contamination, neighbor, etc.

      • Poultry: Houses preparation, Lighting, Hygiene, Floor Space, etc.

  • Origins

    • Fresh Produce: Seeds

    • Food producing animals: Breeders, Parent Stocks

  • Feed/Chemical Applications Records

    • Fresh Produce: Fertilizers, Pesticides, Soils, etc.

    • Food-producing animals: Animal feeds, medicines, nutrition, etc.

  • Field Observations / Inspections

    • Fresh produce: pest/disease infestation level, etc.

    • Food-producing animals: sizing, mortality/cull records, Samonella test, etc.

Slide 9

Traceability Data - Processors

  • Processors Information (Identification and details)

  • Source Origins and Batch Identification

    • Raw Materials: Sweet corn, Shrimp, Broiler, etc.

    • Ingredients: Flour, Sugar, Corn, Soya, Starch, etc.

  • Safety and Quality of production process

    • How and how safe is the production process? HACCP, GMP, etc.

  • Distribution information

    • Storage Conditions: Right temperature, etc.

    • Where to?

    • How safe? Eg. Meat must be shipped under controlled temperature

    • Readily data for tracking / recall

Slide 10

Traceability Data -
Exporters / Importers / Logistics Providers

  • Agent Information (Identification and details)

  • Source Origins and Batch Identification

    • Traded units

    • Shipped containers

  • Shipping Information

    • Consignee, consignor, mode of transport, shipping company, routing code, shipment date, etc.

  • Destination information

Slide 11

Traceability Data - Wholesalers/Retailers

  • Company Information (Identification and details)

  • Source Origins and Batch Identification

  • Warehouse conditions

  • Sales information

    • Customers (for wholesalers), transaction date, etc.

Slide 12

FarmTraceTM Module

  • FarmTraceTM is a data-tracing system at farm level on the web.

  • FarmTraceTM input can be collected by hand-held devices and is localized to fit the user requirements.

  • FarmTraceTM helps producers (farmers) and processor clients with farm management and validation of crop growth processes.

  • FarmTraceTM helps manufactures forecast raw materials from producers (farmers).

Slide 13

FarmTraceTM Features

  • Follow the Good Agricultural Practice (GAP)

  • Ease to parameterized and configurable

  • Record and monitor all activities

    • Start from land preparation

    • Capture data (What, When, Why, and how much) at every intake point (farm)

  • Forecast yield and harvesting
    date

  • Capture data by handheld device (used by inspectors or producers)

  • Schedule and recommend farm activities

  • Better schedule raw material deliver date

  • Better manage inspectors and producers

  • Fully electronic traceability

  • Support multi-languages

Slide 14

QualityTraceTM Module

  • QualityTraceTM is a data-tracing system on receiving raw materials from producer to determine the source and quality of the raw materials.

  • QualityTraceTM helps manufacturer manage the receiving process from the farm for grading and raw material quality.

Slide 15

QualityTraceTM Features

  • Capture data at intake point

  • Ease to parameterized and configurable

  • Quality control and positive release into process

  • Retain quality profile on raw

  • Better manage inspectors and producers

  • Capture data by handheld device

  • Alert functionality

  • Real-time validation materials

  • Fully electronic traceability

  • Support multi-languages

Slide 16

ProductionTraceTM Module

  • ProductionTraceTM is a data-tracing system for food production system.

  • ProductionTraceTM helps manufacture manage food production process from accepting raw materials to finishing products.

  • ProductionTraceTM helps manufacture manage the CCP (Critical Control Points) in HACCP and be able to trace electronically.

Slide 17

ProductionTraceTM Features

  • Capture data at intake point

  • Ease to parameterized and configurable

  • Record and monitor all CCPs (critical control points)

  • Full audit history on all results and amendments

  • Generate certificates of analysis

  • Record raw material / ingredients, packaging and process inputs

  • Retain quality profile

  • Capture data by handheld device

  • Alert functionality

  • Real-time validation

  • Fully electronic traceability / conformance documentation

  • Support multi-languages

Slide 18

ShipTraceTM Module

  • ShipTraceTM is a data-tracing system during transportation.

  • ShipTraceTM helps trader and logistic provider provide foods safety information to exporter, retailer, and manufacture electronically.

  • ShipTraceTM will be integrated with other logistic software thru XML.

Slide 19

ShipTraceTM Features

  • Ease to parameterized and configurable

  • Full batch traceability from finishing goods to raw materials / ingredients

  • Record route data (what, how, when, and how long)

  • Capture data by handheld device

  • Fully electronic traceability

  • Support multi-languages

Slide 20

TraceSafeTM Module

  • TraceSafeTM is a data-tracing system to trace from farm to table with each player on the chain having the ownership of the information.

  • TraceSafeTM helps retailer and exporter trace foods safety information electronically and be able to recall the products.

Slide 21

TraceSafeTM Features

  • Full batch traceability from finishing goods to raw materials / ingredients

  • Trace backward and forward features

  • Recall functions

  • Trace back in any angle

  • Fully electronic traceability

  • Support multi-languages

Slide 22

Hatchery Farm: Egg ® Chicken

Raw Materials:

- Eggs from own PS farms/ external PS farms, Controlled by Flock/batch ID.

Production:

- Production cycle 21-28 days

Finished Goods:

- Chickens (assigned flock/batch ID)

Role:

- Supplier for own broiler farms/ contracted broiler farms

Slide 23

Traceability Data - Hatchery Farm

  • Farm site information and inspection

    • Identification and details

  • Origin

    • Parent stock

    • Hatchery farm (egg receipts)

    • Chick shipments

    • Flock/batch ID

  • Food safety records

    • Medicine/vaccine application, animal health

Slide 24

Traceability Data - Hatchery Farm

  • Quality records

    • Farm quality profile

    • Growth rate, sizing

  • Supply chain management

    • Supplier scorecard, yield forecast

Slide 25

Hatchery Farm: Egg Chicken

Slide 26

Broiler Farm: Chicken ® Broiler

Raw Materials:

- Chicken from own / external hatchery farm, Controlled by Flock/Batch ID.

- Feeds from own / external feed mills

- Medicines / Vaccines from external suppliers

Production:

- Each flock/batch raised within one house during a period of time. However, there may be a mix of flock/batches in one house due to space limitation.

- Duration 45 - 47 days

Finished Goods:

- Broilers

Role:

- Supplier for slaughter houses

Slide 27

Traceability Data - Broiler Farm

  • Farm site information and inspection

    • Identification and details

  • Origin

    • Feed shipments

    • Flock information - flock/batch ID

  • Food safety records

    • Feed and water

    • Medicine/vaccine application

  • Quality records

Slide 28

Traceability Data - Broiler Farm

  • Mortality and cull records

  • Supply chain management

    • Contract farm management

  • Distribution information

  • Broiler shipments

  • Readily available data for tracking/recall

Slide 29

Slaughter & Processing & Further: Broiler ® Products

Raw Materials:

- Chicken from own / contracted / external independent farms (Controlled by Sub-lot ID)

- Ingredients from external suppliers (ie. Vegetables, Sugar, Sauce, etc.)

Production:

- Complete process within 0 - 2 days

- Each parts identified by sub-lot ID

- Each ingredients identified by batch ID

Finished Goods:

- Frozen meats/ cooked products (hundreds of varieties)

Role:

- Manufacturer / suppliers for customers

Slide 30

Traceability Data - Slaughter and Further Processing

  • Production site information and inspection

    • Identification and details

  • Source origins and batch identification

    • Raw materials and ingredients

  • Food safety records

    • Compliance with production standards

    • Production details (slaughter, value-added processing, etc.)

Slide 31

Traceability Data - Slaughter and Further Processing

  • Quality records

    • Broiler receipts

    • Incoming inspection results

    • Farm quality profiles

  • Supply chain management

    • Contract farm management

    • Producer scorecard

  • Distribution information

    • Finished product shipments

    • Readily available data for tracking/recall

Slide 32

Traceability Data - Slaughter and Further Processing

Slide 33

Traceability Data - Feed Mill

  • Production site information and inspection

    • Identification and details

  • Origin

    • Raw materials and ingredients

  • Food safety records

    • Compliance with production standards

    • Production details

Slide 34

Traceability Data - Feed Mill

  • Quality records

    • Product sample testing

    • Supplier quality profiles

    • Material receipts

  • Supply chain management

    • Producer scorecard

  • Distribution information

    • Feed shipments

    • Readily available data for tracking/recall

Slide 35

Feed Mill - Grains & Additives Feeds

Slide 36

Feed Mill -Grains & Additives Feeds

  • Raw Materials

    • Sourcing from external suppliers

    • None/Minimal control over suppliers’ production i.e. Corns (main materials) are mainly purchased through middlemen

  • Production

    • Continuous Process

Slide 37

Feed Mill - Grains & Additives Feeds

  • Finished Goods

    • Feeds

    • Shelf life about 3 months

    • Packing method: Bag, Sack and Bulk

  • Role

    • Supplier for Parent Stock (PS) Farms and Broiler Farms

Slide 38

Traceability Data - Exporters/Importers/Logistics Providers

  • Agent information

    • Identification

  • Source origins and batch identification

    • Traded units

    • Shipped containers

  • Food safety records

  • Shipping records

    • Mode of transport, shipping company, routing code, shipment date, etc.

  • Destination information

Slide 39

Traceability Data - Retailers

  • Company information

    • Identification and details

    • Company certification

  • Source origins and batch identification

  • Food safety records

    • Protocols, inspections, third party audits, suppliers

  • Quality records

Slide 40

Traceability Data - Retailers

  • Warehouse conditions

  • Sales information

    • Customers (for wholesalers), transaction date, etc.

Slide 41

QualitySmart

  • Raw Material, Packaging Receipt

    • Premix Specification

    • COA (Certificate of Analysis)

    • Alfatoxin Test

    • Raw Material Registration

  • Quality Process

    • Raw Material Specification

    • Raw Material Inspection 15 Days

  • Supplier Quality Profile

Slide 42

Freight Smart

  • Customer Profile

  • Shipment Detail Information

    - Customer, address

    - Lot No., Quatity etc.

  • Shipment Inspection

  • Daily Sales Summary

Slide 43

ProductionSmart

  • Raw Material, Premix Usage Record

  • Raw Material, Premix Transfer Record

  • Mixing Premix Process Record

  • Pallet, Package Process Record

  • Quality and Control Point of Production Process

  • Finish Good Identify Record (Lot No.)

Slide 44

QualitySmart

  • Quality Inspection

    - Farm Level ® Pesticide Residues, Antibiotic Residues

    - Product Level ® Salmonella, Microbiology

  • Broiler Receipt Inspection

  • Mixing Inspection

  • Packaging Inspection

  • Farm Quality Profile

Slide 45

OpsSmart Broiler Farm

  • Agent Registration, Farm Registration

  • Broiler Inspection Schedule

  • Broiler House Preparation

  • Broiler Daily Record

  • Vaccines/Medicines Prescription

  • Vaccines/Medicines Usage Record

  • Broiler Pre-Catch Inspection

Slide 46

Traceability Producers have to proceed on the record of:

  • Source of origins and Batch Identification

  • Supplier quality profiles

  • Raw material quality profiles

  • Customer Profiles, Destination Information

  • Readily available data for tracking/recall

Slide 47

Traceability Challenges

  • Internal traceability system

  • Complex supply chain

  • Information flow across supply chain (data standards, locations, languages)

  • Cross-border trade

  • Process changes

  • Data reliability and accuracy

  • Security and integrity of data

  • Scalability

  • Cost

Slide 48

Technology Applied

  • InterNet Technology

  • Web Based Technology

  • Wireless / Mobile Technology

  • Bar Coding System

  • GIS Technology

Avian influenza in ducks in Thailand

(by Thaweesak Songserm, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Thailand)

Slide 1

Avian influenza in ducks in Thailand

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Thaweesak Songserm
D.V.M., Ph.D.
Department of Pathology
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Kasetsart University, Thailand
E-mail: fvettss@ku.ac.th

Slide 2

General Information

4 different rearing

- Closed housing, EVAP (meat-typed)
- Open housing (meat-typed and layer)
- Nomadic system (reared in rice field)
- Backyard (small number, mostly laying and muscovyducks)

Slide 3

Slide 4

Fact

- Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 is the cause.

- Original infection or initial source of problem is still unsolved.

- It is believed that migratory birds play an important role in the outbreak.

- Ducks are determined as a reservoir of avian influenza

Slide 5

Clinical signs and pathology in HPAI H5N1 affected ducks

Acute:

- High fever with ocular & nasal discharge

- Nervous signs include ataxia, circling, incoordination, and convulsion

- Diarrhea

Slide 6

Chronic:

- Weight loss

- Secondary infection by Fowl cholera, Duck septicemia and Duck plague etc.

- Keratoconjunctivitis

- Blindness; opaque cornea/lens

Slide 7

At present

Ducks reared in “closed system” (biosecurity) farms are free from the disease whereas nomadic or free-range ducks are mostly affected and highly capable of virus spreading.

HPAI H5N1 is still dominant in free-range ducks.

Active surveillance has been done.

Slide 8

Final: Restructuring of duck rearing system

- Strict movement control and destroy the AI-positive ducks

- No continue the nomadic system but promote in-house farming, closed system, biosecurity

- Financial compensation

- Other alternative careers

- Health insurance for closed system ducks (?)

- Price guarantee for duck meat and egg (?)

- etc

Southeast Asia group discussions

Slide 1

Southeast Asia Group Discussions

28th APHCA Session

Slide 2

AI Regional TCP (3006)

  • Follow-up activities

    • Ensure nominate coordinators

      • general: lab, surveillance

  • Current status

    • Endemic

    • Affected, moving to eradication

    • Free

 

Slide 3

Laboratories

  • Standardisation of test methods

    • Need reagents/consumables

    • Need QA, SOPs and proficiency testing

    • Some need for equipment

    • Training: specific focus/allocation

    • Need to ensure safety: training, equipment, PPE and SOP

  • National networks

    • Identify national lab

    • Identify subnational labs, including private sector labs

Slide 4

Surveillance

  • Capacity variable in the Sub-region

  • Capacity varies with resources available

    • Need to do risk assessments

    • Need to target at high risk: e.g. mixed species (ducks), high density, near water with wild birds

  • Requirements vary depending on objective: e.g. export oriented or not

  • Need clear definition of role of regional centre?

    • what are expectations of members?

    • how to tap into external ‘experts’?

Slide 5

Next steps

  • Need to link with other complementing projects and donors

  • Need to link with human health authority

  • Need to ensure notifiable

  • Need for contingency planning

  • Need input to free countries:

    • Recommend allocation from $800,000 remaining FAO funds

South Asia group discussions

Slide 1

South Asia Group Discussions

28th APHCA Session

Slide 2

Participants

  • Bangladesh,

  • Bhutan

  • India

  • Nepal

  • Pakistan

  • Sri Lanka

  • OIE Deputy Regional Representative

  • Iran (observer)

  • FAO

Slide 3

AI Regional TCP (3008)

  • Recruitment of Regional Coordinator from India

    • Indian Delegate to follow up

    • Tentative appointment by end of October

  • Inception Meeting

    • Proposed date mid November 2004

    • Back to back with the SAARC Technical Meeting

Slide 4

Issues

Epidemiology

  • Structured long term surveillance programs

    • Data management

    • Surveillance programs will be different for the non-infected countries from the - infected country

    • Cost of surveillance programs in different sectors, particularly in the backyard poultry sector

    • This sector important in the region in the context of livelihoods as a source of supplemental nutrition

    • Maldives concerned about public health issue as it is an importer of poultry from SA

    • Surveillance in Maldives also needed

  • Emergency preparedness plans

  • Epidemiological studies

    • Molecular characterization of virus strains

    • Role of migratory birds

    • Transmission dynamics

    • Farming system specific

    • Disease information system

    • Analytical capacity

  • Training in epidemiology

Slide 5

Issues cont.

Laboratory

  • Variable capacity in the Region

  • Pakistan and India have well established lab facilities

  • These countries take lead in supporting training

  • Establishment of a network of national and private labs

  • Private sector participation in diagnosis

Slide 6

GF-TADS - SAARC

Progress

  • SAARC proposal submitted for review to member countries

  • Comments to be received by early mid October

  • Finalized proposal to be sent by FAO to SAARC Secretariat

  • APHCA Delegates to pursue their Governments to endorse and promote SAARC proposal before the Technical Meeting

Slide 7

Conclusions

  • Member countries reiterated their support for GF-TADs SAARC proposal and will pursue its promotion through their respective governments

  • The TCP/RAS/3008 highly appreciated by the member countries

  • The delegate from India agreed to expedite the appointment of the Regional Coordinator and hold the inception workshop back to back with the SAARC Technical Meeting in mid November 2004


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