Arabica coffee manual for Myanmar


Edward Winston, Jacques Op de Laak
Tony Marsh, Herbert Lempke
Okkar Aung, Thaung Nyunt
Keith Chapman

FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


Table of Contents

Arabica coffee manual for Myanmar
First published August 2005

National Library, Bangkok cataloguing-in-publication data:

ISBN: 974-7946-72-6
Includes index
Arabica coffee manual for Myanmar - Edward Winston, Jacques Op de Laak, Tony Marsh, Okkar Aung, Keith Chapman

Copyright © FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 2005.

Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. All rights reserved. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for permission should be made to FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 39 Phra Artit Road, Banglamphu 10200, Bangkok, Thailand.

Copies of this publication are available from:

FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
39 Phra Artit Road
Bangkok 10200 Thailand
Tel: 66-2-6974000
Fax: 66-2-6974445

Design and layout by Loraine Chapman
Printed by Thammada Press Co. Ltd, Bangkok, Thailand


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Government of Myanmar or the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Readers should note that all the information contained in this book has been developed for coffee growers in particular areas of Myanmar, and may not necessarily apply to other areas or other countries.




Chapter 1. Coffee plant & site selection

History of coffee in Myanmar
Factors affecting yield and quality

Genetics (Genotype)
Varieties to plant
Environment (site selection)
Rainfall and water supply
Soil type
Slope and aspect (slope % and direction)
Water supply

The coffee plant and its management

The root system
Phenology (Crop cycle)

Chapter 2. Nursery practices

Starting the nursery

Select the seed
Keep records
Nursery record book
Nursery management calendar
When to start the nursery
Calculate the amount of seed and the area required
Build the nursery shelter and beds
Plant the seed
Transplant into bags
Prepare potting mixture

Nursery diseases and pests

Chapter 3. Field management & planting trees

Preparing the field

Prepare the land
Plant windbreaks
Establish shade trees

Planting the coffee trees

When to plant
Prepare the holes
Choose the plants
Planting procedure

Field management of young trees

Protect from frost
Control weeds and mulch plants
Water plants

Chapter 4. Nutrition & fertiliser management

Chapter 5. Pruning and tree management


Rejuvenation (Change of cropping cycle)
Intercropping in young coffee

Chapter 6. Harvesting and processing

Processing fresh cherry

Coffee processing methods
Washing process for Arabica coffee

Chapter 7. Quality assessment

Quality assessment/improvement

Quality evaluation process

Chapter 8. Quality and export standards

Understanding coffee quality standards

Quality and OTA guidelines

Chapter 9. Pests and diseases

Insect pests

Green coffee scale
Coffee berry borer
Leaf miner

Nursery diseases

Cercospora leaf spot (brown eye spot)

Field diseases and disorders

Cercospora (berry blotch & brown eye spot)
Coffee leaf rust
Sooty mould
Overbearing or dieback

Chapter 10. Natural enemies and IPM

Main predators
Other predators

Chapter 11. Myanmar coffee market survey

Market strategy - recommendations
Coffee production

International exports
Border trade

Coffee quality potential

Myanmar Government Strategic Coffee Development Plan

Chapter 12. Myanmar coffee economics

Production costs for Arabica coffee
Associated investment risks

Crop/Phenological cycle for Arabica coffee in Myanmar

Field management calendar for Arabica coffee in Myanmar

Back Cover