RAP PUBLICATION 2005/10

RAP PUBLICATION 2005/10

Elephant care manual
for
mahouts and camp managers

Preecha Phuangkum
Richard C. Lair
and
Taweepoke Angkawanith


FOREST INDUSTRY ORGANIZATION
MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
Bangkok, 2005

 

Table of Contents



The designations and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its frontiers or boundaries.

The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not imply any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO.

ISBN: 974-7946-71-8

Edited by Richard C. Lair

Drawings by Sirikorn Inkom

Printed by Bannakij Printing, Lampang

For copies write to:

Forest Resources Officer
FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
Maliwan Mansion
Phra Atit Road, Bangkok 10200
Thailand
E-mail: Masakazu.Kashio@fao.org

© FAO & FIO, 2005


CONTENTS

FAO Foreword

FIO Foreword

Authors' preface to the English edition

Acknowledgements

INTRODUCTION

LEGAL OBLIGATIONS

Registration and law
Registration Certificate
Microchips
Transporting elephants

Stall in truck

SHELTER AND FOOD

Shelter
Water
Food

Social and economic factors in food

Natural food
Cultivated foods in tourist camps

Cultivated foods, practical aspects

Fodder
Vegetables and fruits
Supplements

High energy foods
Tonics

CONTROLLING ELEPHANTS

Tools

Hook
Bush knife
Ear halter
Hobbles
Tethering chains
Rope and wire rope

Elephants that fight their chains

Special equipment for problem situations

Spiked hobble
Spiked collar
Spiked grappling pole
Spear

Guidelines for tethering elephants
Absolute prohibitions in controlling elephants
Dragging gear

LIFE-CYCLE EVENTS

Determining age
Determining heat (Oestrus)

Predicting heat

Pairing
Mating
Pregnancy
Birth
Weaning

Food for calves

Musth
Disposal of elephant carcasses

Methods of disposal
Diseases requiring caution during disposal

PRIMARY MEDICAL CARE

Medicines and drugs to have at hand
Tools and equipment

Equipment at an elephant camp
Equipment for a small camp and traveling
Hygiene

Collecting samples for analysis
Determining health
Using a thermometer
Medicating orally
Medicating rectally
Mahouts giving injections
Caring for sick elephants on the ground
Health conditions caused by humans

Overwork (Exhaustion)
Malnutrition
Stress
Heat stroke
Collapse from cold

Wounds

Treating wounds
Stanching bleeding
Wound cleaning materials
Hot and cold applications
Types of wounds

Abrasions
Blunt-edge wounds
Slice wounds
Puncture wounds
Gunshot wounds
Bites
Pressure wounds
Burns
Impact wounds
Wounds from explosives

Abscesses

Acute abscesses
Chronic abscesses

Toxins

THE OUTSIDE OF THE ELEPHANT

Skin

Papilloma
Fungus on the skin
Ventral oedema

External parasites

Gad flies
Fleas and mites on the tail
Hair lice
Tabanus flies

Head

Eyes

Medicating eyes

Ear infections
Trunk

Tusks

Feet and nails

THE INSIDE OF THE ELEPHANT

Muscles
Bones

Arthritis

Alimentary tract

Parasites in the alimentary tract

1. Liver flukes
2. Cestode worms
3. Round worms
Recommendations on using Ivermectin

Dyspepsia
Constipation
Diarrhoea

Diarrhoea without germs
Diarrhoea caused by germs

Enterotoxemia
Salmonellosis
Colibacillosis

Disease

Pneumonia
Anthrax
Haemorrhagic septicaemia (Pasteurellosis)
Tetanus
Tuberculosis
Herpes virus
Foot and mouth disease
Elephant pox
Rabies
Trypanosomiasis (Surra)

PHOTOGRAPHS

APPENDIXES

Recommendations to veterinarians
Table 1: Elephant food
Table 2: Medicinal plants

REFERENCES

Back Cover