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India

by Ms Mukul Singh, Dr

Introduction

The institutions in India that play a role in the implementation of the Code of Conduct are as below:

Government of India

Ministry of Agriculture
Department of Agriculture and Cooperation
Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi

Secretariat of Central Insecticides Board & Registration Committee

Government of India
Ministry of Agriculture
Department of Agriculture & Cooperation
Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage
NH IV, Faridabad-121 001, Haryana

States Departments of Agriculture

Indian Agriculture and Research Institute

Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan
New Delhi

Indian Council of Agriculture and Research

Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan
New Delhi

Ministry of Environment and Forest

Government of India

The Insecticides Act, 1968, which came into force in 1971, regulates import, manufacture, sale, transport, distribution and use of insecticides (including herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, etc.) for the sake of prevention of risk to human beings and animals. Ministry of Agriculture (Government of India), being the user Ministry administers this Act. Secretary of the Central Insecticides Board and Registration Committee, Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine and Storage, Ministry of Agriculture are the authorities concerned on requirements for consideration of grant of registration and other related matters.

Central Insecticides Board (CIB) and the Registration Committee (RC) are two "high-powered" bodies under this Act. CIB is the Apex Advisory Body, which advises the Central and the State Governments on technical matters arising out of administration of this Act. It comprises eminent scientists of all disciplines/fields concerned. Whereas, the RC grants registrations to the persons, desiring to import or manufacture insecticides, after scrutinizing their formulae and verifying claims with respect to their bio-efficacy and safety to human beings and animals. A Secretary, who is also the Secretary to CIB, and expert scientists from the field of Chemistry, Entomology, Plant Pathology, Weed Science, Medical Toxicology and Packaging Engineering support the functioning of the CIB

& RC. Obtaining registrations for manufacturing/importing insecticides is mandatory under the law. Though the members of the RC are also the members of the CIB yet as far as decision-making is concerned, the two are independent of each other. However, consultation with the CIB is essentially required by the Central or State Governments in making the Rules under this Act to facilitate its implementation.

The Insecticides Act, 1968 had been last amended in the year 2000 to make penal provisions of the act more stringent to discourage and deter regular offenders.

Status of the regulatory measures in pesticide management, list of regulation and legislation

NATIONAL LEGISLATION

No.

Legislation

Administered by

1

Insecticide Act, 1968 and the Insecticides Rules, 1971

Ministry of Agriculture Department of Agriculture & Cooperation

2

Environment Protection Act, 1986

Ministry of Environment & Forest

3

Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954

Ministry of Health & Family Welfare

A. Pest and pesticide management

Keeping in view the global concern about harmful impact of pesticides on the environment, the Govt. of India recognized the benefits of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programme during 1985 and adopted IPM as the cardinal principle and main plank of plant protection strategy in the overall crop production programme. The objectives of IPM approach are to maximize crop production with minimum input cost, minimize environmental pollution and maintain ecological equilibrium. Pest surveillance/monitoring are the main activities of Central Integrated Pest Management Centres (CIPMCs).

The notable initiatives taken by the Govt. of India for the promotion of IPM on sustainable basis are:

1. Establishment of central IPM centers

There is adequate network of extension functionaries in the State Departments of Agriculture who are always available to educate and help the farmers. Department of Agriculture & Cooperation has also established 26 Central Integrated Pest Management Centres (CIPMCs) in most of the States/UTs to educate farmers and impart on-field practical training to them. The National Plant Protection Training Institute (NPPTI) at Hyderabad imparts training to the State Plant Protection functionaries.

2. Organization of the Farmers Field Schools

Farmers Field Schools are regularly organised under the IPM programme in addition to Season Long Training for Masters Trainers' under which State Extension Functionaries are trained for full cropping period of various crops. State Agricultural Universities, Krishi Vigyan Kendras and State Department of Agriculture also organise training to the farmers on safe use of pesticides.

A large number of bio-pesticides based on fungi, viruses and bacteria, pesticides based on plant origin viz. neem, pyrethrum, cymbopogon have been registered which are safe to human beings, animals and the environment.

Infrastructural Development

Human Resource Development

Policy Support

Research support

A national centre for IPM has been established by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) to compliment and supplement research inputs on IPM.

Development of IPM Packages of Practices

With a view of wide publicity and adaptation of IPM practice at the grass root level, Government of India, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine and Storage get technical inputs from ICAR and the state Agricultural Universities, State Departments of Agriculture and Horticulture have developed 77 IPM packages of practice for major crops for the use of farmers and extension functionaries.

Pest Surveillance and monitoring

It is conducted by CIPMC to keep a close and regular watch over the development of pest, their natural enemies with reference to the prevailing weather factors in the crop ecosystem and helps in forewarning the likely pest build up to facilitate planning and adaptation of suitable IPM strategy.

Contraints in the way of IPM

IPM is the most environment-friendly approach of crop-protection and prescribes use of chemical pesticides as the last resort. However, most of the large farming community in India is not much educated. IPM takes time to show results whereas human beings, by their very nature, are accustomed to see results right under their eyes. Therefore, they are averse to adopt the programme. Moreover, most of the bio-control agents are location/climate specific whereas temperature changes in different areas in India are drastic most of the time. It leads to failure of bio-control agents at several places. Therefore, education and right kind of bio-pesticides, which can survive a wide range of climate variations, are essential for this programme to succeed.

  1. Though the IPM technology in rice, sugarcane and cotton pests is fully available but the same in other crops are yet to be developed.

  2. Selective pesticides, effective against crop pests, but safer against natural enemies are still not very much available.

  3. One of the basic point of IPM is ETL, which has not been worked out for all the pests and combination of pests for different varieties and regions. Also the potential of biocontrol agents has not been considered in ETL developed so far.

  4. Techniques of mass rearing of several bioagents are still not well developed.

  5. The Indian farmers, by and large not well educated and have different socio-economic environment which is also a constraint in introducing a new technology.

  6. A few IPM demonstrations here and there in the country may not make much impact in accepting this technology by the farming community of the country. There is an urgent need for extension and development efforts on large scale for transfer of IPM technology at field level. This certainly requires a strong infrastructure and facilities.

  7. Most of the chemical pesticide manufacturers/firms/dealers are not coming forward in strength in creating awareness among general masses about hazardous effects of chemical pesticides and are still advocating the advantages of their product just to sell them in the market for their own profits.

  8. A joint survey team comprising officials from both Agriculture and Horticulture University, Dept. of Agriculture & Horticulture and Centre Government be made to monitor the build up of various pests and their defenders at regular intervals and accordingly control measures should be applied.

  9. Department of Agriculture and Horticulture, should not fix the targets for selling the pesticides by their officials at sales point.

  10. IPM training programmes and FFS in farmer's field be carried out on large scale throughout the country to create awareness among farming community regarding adverse effects of indiscriminate use of pesticides and usefulness of IPM practices.

  11. One should not be depend wholly on laborers for carrying out pesticide spray. Technically qualified person should supervise the pesticide spray programme.

  12. Many spurious pesticides have hit the market on large scale. Some pesticide manufacturers use the containers of big and popular brands to sell their products. So, an effective check should be there and defaulters should be punished.

  13. Centre Government as well as State Governments must try to highlight the adverse effects of chemical pesticides and usefulness of IPM through AIR and Doordarshan more frequently to create awareness among the masses in general and farmers in particular.

  14. Govt. should enact rules under which every farmer going for pesticidal spray beyond specific limit must obtain prior permission from Department of Agriculture and Horticulture and the defaulters should be punished for polluting the environment.

  15. Participation of NGO's, women organization, Panchayti Raj Institutions be encouraged to have greater physical impact of IPM programme at grass root level.

  16. Production of biocontrol agents and biopesticides should be given special attention through mass rearing in laboratory and their subsequent releases.

  17. Farmers should be given subsidy only on biopesticides, bioagents, biofertilizers and neem based pesticides in order to reduce load of chemical pesticides.

  18. There is an IPM authority at National and State level which should be made responsible for execution of IPM programme at National and State level on sustainable basis.

  19. Periodical reviews of all IPM programmes being carried out by Centre/State/Private agencies be made by IPM authority constituted for the purpose.

  20. Under implementation strategy, partnership with ICAR, SAUs, Govt. agencies, NGOs and International partnership is essentially required.

  21. Some system may be developed for production, inspection and quality insurance of biopesticides/bioagents/biofertilizers/pesticides of plant origin e.g. neem.

  22. There must be an advanced research centre on organic farming in various states of the country where the potentials of biopesticides/bioagents/biofertilizers could be fully explored.

  23. There is urgent need to start graduate/post graduate courses on organic farming in SAUs/ICAR Institutes/deemed universities.

  24. Govt. shoud provide structural and infrastructural support for establishment of organic markets and bio-villages in different states. The produce should be certified by a competent recognized authority.

IPM future thrust

B. Testing, quality control and effects in the field

Wherever there are sheep, there are black sheep too. India is a vast country. Instances of availability of spurious pesticides in some parts of the country do come to notice. India has a standard framing agency, called Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The method of analysis of an insecticide is submitted by an applicant at the time of its registration is verified and then adopted after a cumbersome process to ensure its practicality by a large group of scientists from the field. Samples failing to meet quality standards are referred to as "misbranded" pesticides. Importing, manufacturing, distributing, selling misbranded or banned pesticides or causing to use unapproved pesticide is a punishable offence under the provisions of the Insecticides Act, 1968 and the rules framed thereunder. These standards are followed in monitoring the quality of a product. In case of international business, if required, FAO/WHO specifications are followed too as per the agreement between the seller and the purchaser. India is a signatory to FAO Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides and in implementing its provisions. The Insecticide Act, 1968 and the rules framed thereunder take care of by and large all the provisions of the Code of Conduct except for the advertisement.

For the enforcement of the quality of pesticides, four important functionaries are notified under the provisions of the Insecticide Act/Rules viz., Licensing Officers, Appellate Authority, Insecticide Inspectors and Insecticide Analysts.

A network of 46 Pesticides Testing Laboratories, situated in 18 States and 1 Union Territory across the length and breadth of the country, with an annual analysis capacity of over 55 666 samples of pesticides is available in the country for continuously monitoring the quality of pesticides. One of the notified functionaries of the Government, Insecticide Inspectors can enter and search, at all reasonable times and with such assistance as he considers necessary in which he has the reason to believe that an offence under the Insecticides Act, 1968 and the Rules made there under has been or is being or is about to be committed, or for the purpose of satisfying himself that the provisions of this Act or the Rules made there under or the conditions of any certificate of registration or license issued there under are being complied with. Insecticide Inspectors also draw samples of pesticides, Insecticide Analysts, carry out their analysis. Besides, the Central Government has also established two Regional Pesticides Testing Laboratories to supplement the resources of the States/UTs, who do not either have a Pesticide Testing Laboratory or adequate analysis capacity or adequate analysis facility for monitoring the quality of pesticides. Any disputes in the results of analysis are settled by a referral laboratory of the Central Government, called the Central Insecticides Laboratory (CIL). In order to strengthen the existing laboratories and to set up new Pesticides Testing Laboratories, the Central Government also extends financial assistance to the States/UTs as grants-in-aid. Besides, State Governments also establish additional Pesticides Testing Laboratories with their own resources.

The Central and State Governments also hold meetings with the associations of pesticide industry to know their genuine difficulties/problems and find appropriate solutions by mutual interaction. Pesticide Industry also helps in Human Resource Development by adopting villages and imparting training to farmers. Some of the members of the industry have made efforts to keep fields pesticide free by using only bio-control methods of pest control. Farmers are trained in observing waiting periods, which are arrived at after continuous monitoring of pesticide residues. They are also trained on biological magnification of pesticides so that they do not compromise on observing waiting periods.

C. Health and environmental information

The Insecticide Act, 1968 and the rules framed thereunder regulates the import, manufacture, sale, transport, distribution and use of pesticides with a view to prevent risk to the human beings and animals and the matter related therewith. The Committee registers the pesticide only after satisfying itself regarding the efficacy of the pesticide and its safety to human health and animals. The Insecticide Rules takes care of the safety culture in pesticide handling and use. It covers protective clothing, respiratory devices, symptoms of poisoning, safety precautions antidotes and first aid medicines, training of workers and disposal of used packages, surplus materials and washing of insecticides.

India has four poison information centers including the National Information Centre at All India Institute of Medical Science in New Delhi. The Poison Information Centre is a specialized unit providing information on prevention, treatment of poisoning and hazard management. The information on poisoning due to pesticide is regularly collected and discussed in the national conferences however there are some constraints due to unavailability of the complete report due to unavailability of the complete report due to unavailability of the complete report.

While registration of pesticide under the Insecticide Act 1968 for use in the county, it is ensured that no residue of pesticide is left at the time of harvest of the crop. The maximum Residual limits (MRL) are fixed by Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MOH&F) under the PFA Act 1954 on the basis of the residue and the Toxicological Information provided by the Ministry of Agriculture and thus the monitoring of the pesticide residues fall under the preview of the MOH&F. However, Directorate of Agriculture & Co-operation has been allocated the pesticide monitoring recently. A central Scheme "monitoring of pesticide residues" have been formulated/approved with an outlay of Rs. 24 crores with an objective to ascertain the prevalence of pesticide residues at farm-gate and marked yards so that remedial measures could be undertaken through IPM campaign to eliminate the risk of pesticide residues from agricultural commodities with special emphasis on export products.

D. Trends in pesticide manufacture, use and trade

The information is being regularly obtained from the different States and the Union Territory and is periodically reviewed by DAC with the States during zonal/national conferences on agriculture for Kharif/Rabi campaigns. The details are in the Questionaire annexed. At present there is no provision to regularly obtain the information from the pesticide industries. There are some gaps in the available information. Some cases of illegal trade of pesticides have come to notice.

E. Selected standards

Under the Insecticide Act, compulsory registration of pesticides is provided. The manufacture, import, export and use of chemicals pesticides can be initiated only after the proper registration by the Registration Committee, after close scrutiny of the data about bio-efficacy and safety of human beings, wildlife, birds, domestic animals, beneficial parasites and predators.

The Insecticide Rules takes care of the safety culture in pesticide handling and use. It covers periodical clothing, respiratory devices, antidotes and first aid medicines, training of workers and disposal of used packages, surplus materials and washing of insecticides. Besides, training is imparted to the doctors of Health Centres of States by the medical experts of the Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage.

The Registration Committee reviews the pesticide from time to time and the recommendations are considered by the Ministry of Agriculture. The committee as the policy has decided not to register WHO class IA and IB pesticide unless there is sufficient justification.

The Directorate of Plant Protection & Quarantine has good schemes for training at the State level. The National Plant Protection Training Institute (NPPTI) at Hyderabad imparts training to the State Plant Protection functionaries. Farmers Field Schools are regularly organized under the IPM programme in addition to season-long training for Masters Trainers under which State Extension Functionaries are trained for full cropping periods of various crops. State Agricultural Universities, Krishi Vigyan Kendras and State Department of Agriculture also organize training to farmers on safe use of pesticides.

Pesticide disposal

The common practice is to collect obsolete pesticides and used containers and dispose of them by effective incineration or burying deep in strong caustic environment in desert. Some stock of obsolete pesticides is present in the country.

National Legislation and Enforcement

PESTICIDE CONTROL LEGISLATION

No.

Legislation

1

Insecticide Act, 1968 and the rules framed under it Insecticide Rules, 1971

2

Environment Protection Act, 1986

3

Prevention of food Adulteration Act, 1954

4

Factories Act, 1948

Under the Act, compulsory registration of pesticides is provided. The registration certificate has the number. After the grant of registration, a prospective manufacturer is required to obtain a license to manufacture a particular pesticide from the State government where the manufacturing unit is located. Manufacturing License is granted after proper inspection and ensuring availability of essential infrastructure for the purpose. Besides, State Governments concerned issue licenses for distribution or sale of insecticides without necessitating a registration. Plant Protection Adviser to the Government of India issues licenses for commercial pest control after ensuring technical competence of the operator.

Conclusions and comments

Area of Code that are particularly important in India

Article 3.11 of Pesticide Management with reference to 3.11 promoting resistance management strategies is especially important for our country.

Problems relating to pesticides that need attention

Strengthening of the risk assessment

While registration of pesticide under the Insecticide Act 1968 for use in the county, it is ensured that no residue of pesticide is left at the time of harvest of the crop. However a better system of risk assessment is required for the country.

Strengthening of IPM

IPM is the most environment-friendly approach of crop-protection and prescribes use of chemical pesticides as the last resort. However, most of the large farming community in India is not much educated. IPM takes time to show results whereas human beings, by their very nature, are accustomed to see results right under their eyes. Therefore, they are averse to adopt the programme. Moreover, most of the bio-control agents are location/climate specific whereas temperature changes in different areas in India are drastic most of the time. It leads to failure of bio-control agents at several places. There is need to develop IPM technologies for more crops and ETL for many more pest and the combination of the pests. Techniques of mass rearing of several bioagents are still to be developed.

Therefore, education and right kind of bio-pesticides, which can survive a wide range of climate variations, are essential for this programme to succeed.

Quality control laboratories

Though India has a network of 46 quality control laboratories with a capacity of analyzing about 56 616 samples per year but there is a need to increase their capacity/develop more fully equipped centers for the purpose of better monitoring of the quality of the pesticides.

Inventory of the obsolete pesticides and safe disposal of the pesticide

There is a need to develop an inventory to have the information about the obsolete pesticide and better means for their disposal.

Strengths and weaknesses of the present pesticide management system

The Insecticide Act and the rules framed under is the greatest strength. Since India is a vast country the implementation of the various provisions of the Act for effective pesticides management and to control spurious and misbranded pesticides is a challenging task.

Major bottlenecks to ensure sound pesticide management

The import of the pesticide in disguise of other chemicals. Under such situations it become very difficult to manage the pesticide.

Enforcement of the pesticide management

Since India is a vast country the implementation of the various provisions of the act for effective pesticides management and to control spurious and misbranded pesticides is a challenging task. due to shortage of enforcement staff.

Priority areas for strengthening pesticide management

QUESTIONAIRE SUMMARY

India

Selected Country Statistics:

Agricultural Population

553 million

Agricultural Land

170 million ha

GDP $598 966 million

Agric. GDP: 22.7%

GNI per capita: $530

Hunger: 21%

FAOSTAT Pesticide Data

Export $374.9 million

Import: $107.6 million

Use: 91 487 ton

GDP = Gross Domestic Product; GNI = Gross National Income; Hunger = Population below minimum energy requirement; FAOSTAT = latest data entry between 1998 and 2002

Institutional Profile

Ministry

Legislation

Registration

Licensing

Enforcement

Testing

Training

Monitoring

Environm.

Health

Agriculture


PPQS

States

States

ICAR, IARI, PLT

NPPTI



Environment









Health





ICMR




Other









Industry Associations: CropLife India, Indian Pest Control Assoc., Crop Care Fed. of India, Pestic. Manuf. & Formul. Assoc. of India

Non-Governmental Associations: Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), Voluntary Health Assoc. of India

A. Pest and Pesticide Management

IPM policy declared?

Yes

IPM mentioned in...



Crop Protection Policy?

Yes

Agric. Sector Policy?

Yes

Other laws/documents?

Yes

National IPM Program?

Yes



Dept: PPQS


IPM extension projects?

Yes

IPM research projects?

Yes

Pest resistance problems?

Yes


B. Testing, Quality Control and Effects

Laws for pesticide specifications?

Yes

Low quality products in market?


Quality control laboratory?

Yes


Own analyses in 2004: 42 900


Outside analyses in 2004:


|

C. Health and Environmental Information

Data on pesticide poisoning cases?

Yes


Total cases (2003/04): 4 789


occupational exposure cases: ?


accidental exposure cases: ?


intentional/suicide cases: ?

Yes

Pesticide poison facilities?



Number of facilities: 5

Yes

Poison Information and Control Centers?



Number of centers: 1

-

Significant environmental contamination?

-

Data on effects on wildlife & ecosystems?

Yes

Pesticide residue monitoring system?



Number of analyses 2004:



D. Pesticide Manufacture, Use and Trade

Pesticide Volume

Tons

$'000 Value

Imports

11 050

89 796

Manufacture



Exports

69 052

396 360

Sales






Pesticide Use Profile

Tons

$'000 Value




Agriculture (total)

41 020



Insecticides

65%


Fungicides

19%


Herbicides

15%


Other

1%


Veterinary



Public Health



Household



Other



TOTAL




E. Selected Standards of Code of Conduct

Illegal trade estimates?

-

Estimated amount 2004


Collection of old containers and pesticides?

-

Inventory of outdated/obsolete products?

-

Operational pesticide registration system?

Yes


Violations in 2004


Existing facility licensing system?

Yes


Inspections in 2004


Highly toxic products restricted?

-

Questionnaire responses: Yes = Yes; - = No;? = don't know; (blank) = no answer


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