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APPENDICES

1. Status of tree seed education at agricultural colleges

Table 1: Countries and institutes/colleges visited, their sources of funding, programmes offered, duration and agroforestry education

Country, name and address of institution

Funding

Programmes

Programme duration (years)

Programme with agroforestry education

Kenya

Baraka Agricultural College

P. O. Box 52

Molo - 20106

Tel. 00254 051 721091

Fax. 00254 051 721310

Baraka@sustainableag.org



Non-governmental



Certificate Certificate in Sustainable agriculture and rural development

Diploma in Sustainable agriculture and rural development

Demand driven farmers courses



1 year 4 months





2 years





1 - 2 weeks



Agroforestry is a full paper

Bukura Agricultural College

P. O. Box 23

Bukura

Tel. 00254 056 620440

Government

Diploma in agriculture

Diploma in horticulture

Diploma in agriculture & home economics

Diploma in animal science

2

2

2

2

Agroforestry is a full paper

Agroforestry not taught

Agroforestry not taught

Agroforestry not taught

Londiani Forestry College

P. O. Box 8

Londiani

Tel. 00254 052 64029

Government

Certificate in forestry

Diploma in forestry

2

1

Silviculture fully taught

Silvirculture fully taught

Tanzania

Forestry Training Institute- Olmotonyi (FTI)

P. O. Box 943

Arusha

Tel. 00255 027 2509637

Fax. 00255 027 2509795

fti@africaonline.co.tz

Ministry of Agriculture Training Institute, Tengeru (MATI)

P. O. Box 3101

Arusha

Tel. 00255 027 2553034

Fax. 00255 027 2553027

<mati-tengeru@yahoo.com

Government

Government

Diploma in forestry

Diploma in beekeeping

Certificate on forestry

Certificate in beekeeping

Certificate in animal health & production

Diploma in horticulture

Diploma in general agriculture

Diploma in animal production

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Agroforestry & silviculture fully taught

Agroforestry is a full paper

Agroforestry & silviculture fully taught

Agroforestry is a full paper

Agroforestry is not a full paper

Agroforestry is a full paper

Agroforestry is part of natural resource

management

Uganda

Bukalasa Agricultural College

P. O. Box 174

Wobulenzi

Tel. 00256 (0) 777 65265

Fax. 00256 (0) 416 20020

Government

Diploma in crop production

Diploma in animal production

Diploma in agriculture

Diploma in animal husbandry

2

2

3

3

Agroforestry & silviculture not taught

Agroforestry & silviculture not taught

Agroforestry & silviculture not taught

Agroforestry & silviculture not taught

Table 2: Institutes/colleges, human resources capacity, area of specialization and subjects taught

Name of institution

Qualification

(staff)

Number of staff

Area of specialization

Gender

Subject taught

Baraka Agricultural College

BSc

1

Livestock

M

Environment education

BSc

3

Agroforestry

M

Agroforestry components

BSc

1

Engineering

M

Soil and water conservation

Certificate

1

Agriculture

M

Fruit growing

Certificate

1

Agriculture

M

Nursery management

Londiani Forestry College

BSc

1

Forestry

M

Forestry-related subjects

Diploma

4

Forestry

2M, 2F

Forestry-related subjects

Diploma

2

Forestry

1M, 1F

Silviculture

Bukura Agricultural College

Not indicated

-

-

-

-

Forest Training Institute - Olmotonyi (FTI)

Diploma

4

Beekeeping

3M, 1F

Beekeeping

BSc

1

Marine biology

M

Marine biology

BSc

6

Forestry

M

Forestry

Forest Training Institute - Olmotonyi (FTI)

MSc

1

Agroforestry

M

Agroforestry and some forestry courses

MSc

1

Forestry

M

Forestry

M.Phil

1

Environmental education

F

Tree seed, soil fertility and environmental education

PhD

1

Forest economist

M

Economist, climatology, logging

Ministry of Agriculture Training Institute, Tengeru (MATI)

MSc

1

Soil science / land management

M

Natural resource management

Diploma

1

Crop science

M

Agroforestry

MSc

1

Tropical animal production

M

Tree seed and animal science

Bukalasa Agricultural College

BSc

1

Animal production

M

Poultry, small ruminants, rabbits, pasture production and management

Nyabyeya Forestry College

MSc

11

Forestry

M

Forestry-related subjects

BSc

5

Forestry

3F, 2M

Forestry-related subjects

Diploma

5

Forestry/apiculture

4F, 1M

Forestry-related subjects

Table 3: Current tree seed curricula, status, deficiencies and constraints in colleges visited.

Name of college

Course/ subject

Tree seed component

Contact hours

Deficiencies in the curriculum

Constraints to teaching tree seed education

Present conditions & facilities

Baraka Agricultural College

Agro-

forestry

Seed collection/

storage

2

Seed collection and sources, seed selection and treatment, storage, marketing, viability and maturity

Unavailability of literature, quality seed, storage facilities, lack of seed technologist, introduce appropriate technology,

Preserving agents, are not available, packaging material not easily available

Fruit growing

Seed collection

2

   

Short courses

Seed collection, cleaning and storage

2

   

Kenya Forestry College, Londiani.

Silvicul-ture

Flowering and production of seed

14

Seed biology, genetics provenances, seed collection, handling & documentation, marketing, seed biotechnology (cloning, tissue culture, etc.

Unavailability of literature/informat-ion, training and motivation, laboratory resources, transport for fieldwork.

-Good laboratories but no technicians

-Reagents not available

-Literature not adequate

-Seed banks good, available from KEFRI

 

Seed product-ion

Tree seed

48

Seed processing, storage, procurement, testing, dormancy and pre-treatment, health quarantines, certification

   

Bukura Agricultural College

Agro-forestry

Seed collection

22

Tree seed collection, identification, methods for seed scarification, seed sowing, seedling pooling, pricking, tree nursery management

Inadequate personnel, availability, poly tubes, unavailable literature, seed collection tools.

Efforts should be made where possible to improvise with locally available materials, tools and equipment.

Nursery, laboratory, reference books

 

Seed sowing

2

     
 

Scarification

2

     

Forestry Training Institute- Olmotonyi (FTI)

Silvcul-ture, forest extens-ion, comm-unity forestry, agro-forestry

Seed sources, collection, extraction, cleaning, drying, germination test, storage and distribution

18

Seed sources, seed collection, processing, procurement, germination tests, seed ordering and supply, distribution, seed extraction, cleaning and drying, equipment for tree seed practical, time limiting factor.

No laboratory and associated facilities, relevant textbooks, limited knowledge on indigenous tree seeds.

Ladders, drying pan available, drying wires need to be purchased, drying shades need renovation, and store very small and old, new one needed.

Ministry of Agriculture Training Institute, Tengeru (MATI)

Agro-forestry

Seed collection, treatment, storage

Tree nursery establishment

5

9

Seed storage, seed quality, species
identification, seedling development,

development, hardening and planting out

Time allocation, shortage of literature (out-dated material) shortage of teaching facilities, financial support lacking

Seed store old and needs renovation, institution does not have forestry training facilities

 

Pasture and fodder product-ion

Seed formation, development, maturation, seed scarifications, germination test, purity analysis, browse plants & utilization

12 (3T&

9P)

Seed concept, seed formation, seed development and maturation, seed germination, dormancy, viability and vigour

   
 

Land re-sources manage-ment

Methods of establishing trees and shrubs

9

Seed treatment,

   
 

Tree nursery establi-shment

Tree nursery establishment, seed collection, treatment and storage

5

Tree species, and different methods for obtaining high quality seeds.

   

Bukalasa Agricultural College

 

No tree seed component taught

 

Introduction to plant propagation, types of planting materials, viability, management of tree seed (storage, pre- treatment, dormancy, raising seedlings, species selection, procurement, seed certification

Trained labour, support staff availability, low motivation of staff, lack of relevant literature, teaching facilities, no internet facilities, trained manpower,

Nothing is in place; however, seed laboratory

Nyabyeya Forestry College

Silvicul-ture,

Seed and tree nursery production (taught to all programmes), nursery & seed supply,

90

 

Limited infor- mation/literature, limited direct benefits from the seed that hinders their profit, time limited, seed collection and storage facilities lacking, no cold room

Genetic considerations, seed collection equipment very limited, poor seed storage facilities, seed processing equipment limited, tree nursery, enough space for teaching practicals, seed treatment equipment is very limited and good seed sources (Budongo Natural Forest), transport of seed and extraction present and good, seed quality and dormancy facilities present

Nyabyeya Forestry College

Tree nursery

Seed production

16

Seed procurement policies, seed quarantine measures

Lack of training equipment /tools, lack of motivation to staff, transport to take students for practicals

 
 

Nursery operat-ions

Nursery establishment

33

     
 

Market-ing

Demand/

supply, technical advice to farmers

10

     

Table 4. Summary of deficiencies and constraints to teaching tree seed science as currently taught.

Deficiencies in the curriculum

Constraints to teaching tree seed education

Tree seed maturity, collection and supply sources, seed procurement policies, seed selection and treatment, storage, viability, marketing

Inadequate literature, lack of seed handling facilities, lack of seed technologists, preservatives not available, packaging material not easily available

Seed biology, genetics, provenances, seed biotechnology (cloning, tissue culture, etc.)

Very limited literature and information, inadequate laboratory resources, lack of facilities to support field exercises

Tree seed processing, testing, dormancy & pre-treatment, health quarantines, certification

Inadequate linkages with tree seed sources and authorities.

Tree seed scarification, seed sowing, seedling pooling, pricking, tree nursery management

Lack of tools of nursery management, lack of resources, no practical experience.

Species identification, seedling development, hardening & planting out

Lack of experience in nursery management, available land not designated for tree planting

Table 5: Tree seed curricula and teaching needs identified by lecturers of agricultural and forestry colleges visited in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

Institutes/colleges

Teaching materials on tree seed

Topics to be incorporated in the tree seed modules / teaching

Suggested contact hours

Facilities and human resources required

Baraka Agricultural College

Adequate stationary,

teaching manuals, reference books, pamphlets or brochures.

Seed sources, selection, collection, testing for quality, treatment, storage, marketing.

2 hours theory / week and 2 hours practical /week

No laboratories and associated facilities.

Bukura Agricultural College

Range of tree species for various uses.

Tree seed identification, collection, dormancy, scarification, seed sowing and nursery management.

22 theory and practical

Laboratory, seed processing facilities and qualified personnel

Londiani Forestry College

Forest Training Institute- Olmotonyi (FTI)

Literature, packaging materials.

Relevant and up-to-date text- books, journals, periodicals.

Seed physiology, seed biology, genetic seed provenance, seed documentation, seed collection, handling, processing, dormancy and pre-treatment, testing, storage, procurement, seed quarantine / certification, marketing, seed biotechnology, seed phenology

Seed storage, seed quality, seedling

development, handling and planting out, seed source, seed collection, seed ordering and supply, seed extraction, seed processing

Diploma - 14 theory and 14 practical.

Certificate - 20 theory and 28 practical

23 theory: 27

practical hours (50)

10 theory: 30 practical hours (40)

Laboratory, seed stands and orchards, seed storage facilities

Qualified personnel

Relevant equipment for seed quality tests, laboratory and accessories, storage facilities, sorting, grading and packaging equipment, qualified staff, transport and funds for fieldwork

Institutes/Colleges Ministry of Agriculture Training Institute, Tengeru (MATI)

Literature, relevant teaching materials, literature on tree species and their uses.

Seed procurement, processing, testing, germination, time allocated to the tree seed needs to be considered, seed treatment, tree seed species, seed quality, seed concepts, seed sources establishment and maintenance, seed formation, maturation, dormancy, viability, vigour & storage

50%

24 theory: 36 practical hours

23 theory; 27 practical hours

30 theory: 60 practical

Seed laboratories with accessories, facilities and equipment for testing for quality, storing, sorting and grading seeds, personnel (tree seed specialists).

Bukalasa Agricultural College

Trained trainers, reference books and related literature, nursery and reagents.

Plant propagation, types of planting materials, seed procurement, viability, management of tree seed sources, storage, treatment, raising of seedlings (nursery management), seed dormancy, propagation, seed certification, diseases and pests.

40 hours

50 hours

Laboratory facilities, seed storage, seed sources, seed testing equipment,

qualified technicians.

Nyabyeya Forestry College

Chemicals

Seed procurement guidelines, seed quarantine measures, tree climbing, tree phenology especially flower bud formation and fruiting.

36 - 50 theory and 45 -56 practical hours; 20 theory and 30 practical hours

50% of the time

Seed collection, extraction equipment, seed preservation equipment, seed storage facilities, and transport for seed collection.

Table 6. Tree seed organizations (local & external) linked to the Agricultural and Forestry Colleges

Country

Institutes / colleges

Collaborating institutions

Nature of linkage

Uganda

Bukalasa Agricultural College

African Network for Agroforestry Education (ANAFE)

Training, provision of literature and technical backstopping

Nyabyeya Forestry College

National Tree Seed Centre (Uganda)

Purchase of tree seed and technical aspects of tree seed.

Makerere University

Training.

ICRAF

Literature, training and technical backstopping.

V1 - Tree Seed Centre

Pamphlets and seed purchase.

DANIDA Tree Seed Center (Denmark)

Literature on tree seed

Kenya

Baraka Agricultural College

Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI)

Provide training and relevant materials on tree seed

ANAFE

A member of network

Kenya Agriculture Research Institute (KARI)

Partner in research information dissemination and sharing.

Bukura Agricultural College

ANAFE

A member of network, provision of technical backstopping.

Kenya Forestry College, Londiani.

Kenya Forestry Research Institute

ANAFE

Teaching (practicals) and provision of industrial plantation seeds. Basic research information sharing and technical backstopping.

Training staff and AF education.

Tanzania

Forest Training Institute- Olmotonyi (FTI)

Tanzania Tree Seed Agency

Supply of good quality tree seed for the institute nursery. Procurement of tree seeds.

Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI)

Sharing of research findings

Ministry of Agriculture Training Institute, Tengeru (MATI)

Tanzania Official Seed Certification Agency (TOSCA) seed testing unit

Advise and assist in seed certification (training).

Horticultural research

Research findings

National vegetable seed

Training

World Vegetable Centre (AVRDC)

Training

Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI)

Research findings on pests, diseases and control (quarantine)

Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)

Technical advice, training

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