The fruit and vegetable production sector of Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and Eastern Europe is facing a new situation where, on the one hand, supermarket chains account for an increasing percentage of the domestic food retail market and, on the other hand, producers must compete in an increasingly demanding global market for non-traditional and off-season fruits and vegetables. Producers with the necessary financial, management and technological skills are already meeting the new challenges; however, small farmers are increasingly being marginalized and will be facing unequal market conditions unless they are able to change their practices to meet the needs of a modern food marketing system. Regardless of the production system, the technological challenge is to increase returns through the rational use of available resources, reducing production costs and post-harvest losses, enhancing competitiveness and adding value to the final product. On the basis of these principles, this manual analyses the techniques for reducing post-harvest losses and ensuring quality and food safety from harvest to consumption. The new concept of quality involves ensuring total quality for increasing competitiveness and providing produce that better satisfies the demands of food retailers and, ultimately, the consumers.