PARTICIPATORY RURAL COMMUNICATION APPRAISAL Starting with the People

A Handbook
Second Edition

Prepared by
Chike Anyaegbunam
Paolo Mefalopulos
Titus Moetsabi

for
the SADC Centre of Communication for Development
in collaboration with
the Communication for Development Group
Extension, Education and Communication Service
Sustainable Development Department


FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

Rome, 2004

 

Table of Contents


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations or of the SADC Centre of Communication for Development concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-105251-4

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing Management Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to copyright@ fao.org

Copyright 2004
© SADC Centre of Communication for Development Harare and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Second Edition, Rome, 2004

Compiled by: Chike Anyaegbunam, Paolo Mefalopulos, Titus Moetsabi
Photographs: SADC Centre of Communication for Development

Available from:
FAO
Communication for Development Group
Extension, Education and Communication Service
Research, Extension and Training Division
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy
E-mail: SDRE@fao.org
www.fao.org

and

SADC Centre of Communication for Development
43 Robson Manyika Avenue
6th Floor, Merchant House
P.O. Box 4046
Harare, ZIMBABWE
Tel: (263 - 4) 722723, 722734, 726821/5/6, 726831, 726836
Fax: (263 - 4)722713
E-mail: comdev@fanr-sadc.co.zw


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

INTRODUCTION

1. How this handbook can help
2. Who can benefit from this handbook?
3. Suggestions for using this handbook

CHAPTER 1: COMMUNICATION FOR DEVELOPMENT IN ACTION

1.1 Sustainable human development - The communication imperative
1.2 Why rural development often falls?

1.2.1 Poor planning and programme formulation
1.2.2 Misallocation of project resources
1.2.3 Rural people's low sense of power
1.2.4 Provision of inappropriate technology
1.2.5 Inadequate promotion
1.2.6 Ineffective training methodologies
1.2.7 Lack of enabling policy

1.3 How can Communication for Development help?

1.3.1 What is Communication for Development?
1.3.2 Role of communication and participation in development

1.4 Communication for Development programme planning and implementation: An overview

1.4.1 Phases of the Communication for Development programme

1.5 Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal (PRCA): A definition

1.5.1 What is Partipatory Rural Communication Appraisal (PRCA)?
1.5.2 The historical background of PRCA

CHAPTER 2: SITUATION ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK IN PRCA

2.1 Situation analysis framework (SAF): Purpose and rationale

2.1.1 What is Situation Analysis Framework (SAF)?
2.1.2. Main components of SAF

2.2 The problem tree: Cause-effect analysis of critical issues

2.2.1 What is a problem tree?
2.2.2 Developing the problem tree: Identification and analysis of focal problems
2.2.3 Identification, prioritisation and analysis of focal problems

2.3 Role of SAF in communication programme planning and implementation

2.3.1 SAF for preliminary assessment of the situation
2.3.2 SAF for Field PRCA
2.3.3 SAF for Communication Strategy Organisation and Management
2.3.4 SAF for monitoring
2.3.5 SAF for evaluation

CHAPTER 3: PRCA METHODOLOGY

3.1 Why PRCA?

3.1.1 Perceptions and communication
3.1.2 Differences between PRCA and traditional communication research
3.1.3 Differences between PRCA and other participatory methods

3.2 Principles of PRCA

3.2.1 Principles that guide a good PRCA are:

3.3 Common biases to be avoided in PRCA

3.3.1 The common types of biases

3.4 Types of PRCA

3.4.1 Exploratory PRCA
3.4.2 Topical PRCA

3.5 What a PRCA should accomplish

3.5.1 Essential information needed for the design of a communication strategy
3.5.2 Profile of the community
3.5.3 Information and communication resources and networks of the community
3.5.4 Community perceptions of their needs, opportunities, problems and solutions (NOPS)
3.5.5 Potential interaction groups in the community and their portraits
3.5.6 Indicators

CHAPTER 4: PRCA TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

4.1 Overview of PRCA tools and techniques
4.2 PRCA tools and techniques for getting to know one another, warming-up and energising

4.2.1 Tools and techniques for getting to know one another
4.2.2 Tools and techniques for warming up
4.2.3 Tools and techniques for energising

4.3 PRCA tools and techniques to know more about the community

4.3.1 Tools and techniques for collecting geographical data
4.3.2 Tools and techniques for collecting historical and other time-related data

4.4 PRCA tools and techniques for data collection on communication issues

4.4.1 Tools and techniques for identifying community communication resources and networks
4.4.2 Tools and techniques for revealing community perceptions
4.4.3 Tools and techniques for studying community beliefs, knowledge and practices

4.5 PRCA tools and techniques for probing and analysing critical issues

4.5.1 Tools and techniques for problem identification and analysis
4.5.2 Tools and techniques for matching, grading and rating
4.5.3 Tools and techniques for probing

CHAPTER 5: BASELINE STUDY IN PRCA

5.1. Rationale and purpose of the baseline study in PRCA

5.1.1 What is a baseline study?
5.1.2 Rationale for baseline studies

5.2 Using PRCA findings to focus baseline studies
5.3 Designing the baseline study

5.3.1 Formulating the study purpose
5.3.2 Formulating the problem statement
5.3.3 Research justification/rationale
5.3.4 Literature review
5.3.5 Setting study objectives
5.3.6 Methodology

5.4. Implementation of the baseline study in the field

5.4.1 Revision of questionnaire based on results of PRCA
5.4.2 Pre-testing the baseline questionarie
5.4.3 Implementation of the baseline in the field

5.5 Presentation of survey findings

5.5.1 Presenting baseline study findings
5.5.2 Preparing the baseline study report
5.5.3 Synthesing PRCA and baseline findings

CHAPTER 6: HOW TO PLAN AND CONDUCT PRCA AND BASELINE STUDY

6.1 Identify and define the crucial issues
6.2 Prepare and plan for the field

6.2.1 Define a preliminary situation analysis framework (SAF) for the appraisal.
6.2.2 Define a preliminary research purpose
6.2.3 Select communities to participate in the study
6.2.4 Assess community situation (including secondary data review)
6.2.5 Prepare a methodological guide for the PRCA (including initial tools for the appraisal)
6.2.6 Design a preliminary baseline study plan
6.2.7 Prepare a research proposal
6.2.8 Prepare the field

6.3 PRCA data collection in the field

6.3.1 Live with the community
6.3.2 Build trust and rapport
6.3.3 Hold fruitful PRCA sessions with the community
6.3.4 Discover essential information and knowledge with the community

6.4 Analyse and synthesise PRCA findings

6.4.1 Analysis and reflection with the community
6.4.2 Daily reflections by PRCA team
6.4.3 Summative analysis and synthesis
6.4.4 Report back to the community

6.5 Prepare and conduct the baseline study

6.5.1 Select respondents
6.5.2 Refine baseline study purpose, justification and objectives
6.5.3 Prepare and translate a refined questionnaire for the study
6.5.4 Pretest questionnaire
6.5.5 Administer questionnaire
6.5.6 Analyse the findings

6.6 Synthesise and present the PRCA and baseline study results
6.7 Ready for next steps

CHAPTER 7: PRCA TOOLBOX

Exercises and Games
Warm-up 1: Back to back
Warm-up 2: Let's sway and move
Warm-up 3: All people wearing something blue
Introductions 1: Tell and demonstrate
Introductions 2: Paired Introductions
Team building 1: Animal game
Team building 2: The human knot
Team building 3: Signals
Creative blockbusting 1: Faces
Creative blockbusting 2: Wink
Creative blockbusting 3: Mighty machine
PRCA Tools and techniques

Tool No. 1: The problem tree
Tool No. 2: Brainstorming
Tool No. 3: Sketch maps
Tool No 4: Transect
Tool No. 5: Farm sketches for farming systems analysis
Tool No. 6: Time lines
Tool No. 7: Trend lines
Tool No. 8: Seasonal calendar
Tool No. 9: Wealth ranking
Tool No. 10: Ranking
Preference ranking without criteria
Preference ranking with criteria
Pair-wise ranking
Relative preference ranking
Shopping
Tool No. 11: Chapati or Venn diagramming
Tool No. 12: Livelihood mapping
Linkage diagram
Tool No. 13: Gender analysis
Tool No. 14: In-depth interviews
Tool No. 15: Key informant interview
Tool No. 16: Focus group discussions
Ten tips for moderator

ANNEX 1: Example of a PRCA Proposal Outline for an on-going project

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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