Status of research and application of crop biotechnologies in developing countries

STATUS OF RESEARCH
AND APPLICATION
OF CROP BIOTECHNOLOGIES
IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Preliminary assessment

Z. Dhlamini
Associate Professional Officer (Biotechnology)
FAO Research and Technology Development Service

C. Spillane
FAO Consultant
Science Foundation Ireland Investigator
Department of Biochemistry, University College Cork, Ireland

J.P. Moss
FAO Consultant
Former Director of the Cellular and Molecular Biology Division
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Hyderabad, India

J. Ruane
Agricultural Officer (Biotechnology)
FAO Working Group on Biotechnology

N. Urquia
Seed and Plant Genetic Resources Officer
FAO Seed and Plant Genetic Resources Service

A. Sonnino
Senior Agricultural Research Officer
FAO Research and Technology Development Service

Table of Contents

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2005


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. 

ISBN 92-5-105290-5

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© FAO 2005

CONTENTS

Abbreviations

Executive summary

1. Introduction

2. Scope and methodology of the FAO-BioDeC

3. Analysis of the FAO-BioDeC data on non-GM biotechnologies

3.1 Microbial products for agriculture

3.1.1 Microbial agents for the biocontrol of pests

3.1.2 Biofertilizers

3.1.3 Fermentation technology and food processing

3.1.4 Environmental biotechnology

3.2 Applied plant cell biology techniques

3.2.1 Micropropagation

3.2.2 Anther and pollen culture

3.2.3 Embryo rescue

3.2.4 In vitro regeneration and somaclonal variation

3.2.5 In vitro germplasm conservation and cryopreservation

3.3 Molecular marker techniques  

3.4 DNA and immuno-diagnostic techniques 

4. Analysis of the FAO-BioDeC data on genetically modified (GM)crop varieties

4.1 Transgenic crop varieties resistant to pathogens

4.1.1 Development of transgenic crop varieties resistant to viral diseases

4.1.2 Development of transgenic crop varieties resistant to bacterial diseases 

4.1.3 Development of transgenic crop varieties resistant to fungal diseases

4.2 Development of transgenic crop varieties with enhanced resistance to pests and herbicides 

4.2.1 Resistance to insect pests 

4.2.2 Development of transgenic crop varieties resistant to nematode pests

4.2.3 Development of transgenic crop varieties resistant to herbicides for weed control 

4.3 Transgenic varieties resistant or tolerant to abiotic stresses 

4.4 Transgenic varieties with modified quality traits 

4.4.1 Protein content and amino-acid profiles

4.4.2 Vitamin profiles

4.4.3 Mineral profiles

4.4.4 Oil composition

4.4.5 Plant growth traits

4.5 `Stacking' transgenes – generating crop varieties with multiple transgenic traits 

5. Conclusions

5.1 Challenges for biotechnology application in developing countries 

References

Appendix 1 – List of countries by region covered by FAO-BioDeC

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