AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REPORT 1

AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REPORT 1

Production and processing of small seeds for birds

by
Edo Lin
FAO Consultant


FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2005
 

Table of Contents


The Agricultural and Food Engineering Technical Reports bring to a broad audience the results of studies and field experience related to agricultural and food engineering within agrifood systems. The reports help us take stock of what we know and clearly identify what we do not know; and in so doing they provide information to both the public and private sectors. The Agricultural and Food Engineering Technical Reports serve to direct further work within agrifood systems. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention or omission of specific companies, their products or brand names does not imply any endorsement or judgement by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to:

Chief
Publishing Management Service
Information Division
FAO
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy
or by e-mail to:
copyright@fao.org

© FAO 2005


Contents

Acknowledgements

Abbreviations and units of measurement

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. General overview of the market

Introduction
Market segments
Ingredients of bird food
Origin
Substitution
Trends
Major players

Brokers
Packers/wholesalers
Retail

Chapter 3. Major grains used in bird seed

Wild bird mixtures
Caged and companion birds

Nutritional needs
Bird classification
Basic mixtures
Treats
Sprouted seeds

Pigeon food

Introduction
Typical composition of pigeon food

Cover crops for hunting and wildlife habitat creation

Chapter 4. Bird food grains with potential for the tropics and semi-tropics

Niger seed (Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass.)

Description and agronomy
Varietal development
Production and trade
Opportunities

Canary seed (Phalaris canariensis L.)

Description and agronomy
Processing and storage
Varietal development
Production and trade
Marketing

Millets

Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.)
Spray millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv and Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.)
Japanese millet (Echinochloa crusgalli var. frumentacea)
Other millets used in bird food

Sunflower (Helianthus anuus L.)

Opportunities

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

Opportunities

Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Opportunities

Minor crops used in bird food

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

New crops

Chapter 5. Processing, quality and trading standards

Processing and storage
General guidelines for quality bird food
Packaging

Packaging for transport and export
Packaging for storage
Packaging for retail

Non-GMO certification
Traceability, HACCP and GMP

Chapter 6. Possible entry strategies for farmers and entrepreneurs in developing countries

Introductory remarks
Production of commodity grain
Non-grain ingredients
Manufacturing and selling of prepared bird food

Chapter 7. Conclusions and recommendations

Conclusions
Recommendations

References and selected bibliography

Appendixes

Appendix 1. Useful references and sources of information
Appendix 2. Major brokerage and packing firms in bird seed
Appendix 3. Genetic resources
Appendix 4. Typical composition of some bird foods
Appendix 5. Typical retail prices for selected bird food (ingredients)

Back Cover