Organisms

Publication No. 11
April 2004

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR
PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES

PEST RISK ANALYSIS FOR QUARANTINE
PESTS, INCLUDING ANALYSIS OF
ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS AND
LIVING MODIFIED ORGANISMS

ISPM No. 11


Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2005

 

Table of Contents



The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing Management Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to copyright@fao.org

© FAO 2005


CONTENTS

Endorsement

Application

Review and amendment

Distribution

INTRODUCTION

SCOPE
REFERENCES
DEFINITIONS
OUTLINE OF REQUIREMENTS

PEST RISK ANALYSIS FOR QUARANTINE PESTS

1. Stage 1: Initiation

1.1 Initiation points

1.1.1 PRA initiated by the identification of a pathway
1.1.2 PRA initiated by the identification of a pest
1.1.3 PRA initiated by the review or revision of a policy

1.2 Identification of PRA area
1.3 Information

1.3.1 Previous PRA

1.4 Conclusion of initiation

2. Stage 2: Pest Risk Assessment

2.1 Pest categorization

2.1.1 Elements of categorization

2.1.1.1 Identity of pest
2.1.1.2 Presence or absence in PRA area
2.1.1.3 Regulatory status
2.1.1.4 Potential for establishment and spread in PRA area
2.1.1.5 Potential for economic consequences in PRA area

2.1.2 Conclusion of pest categorization

2.2 Assessment of the probability of introduction and spread

2.2.1 Probability of entry of a pest

2.2.1.1 Identification of pathways for a PRA initiated by a pest
2.2.1.2 Probability of the pest being associated with the pathway at origin
2.2.1.3 Probability of survival during transport or storage
2.2.1.4 Probability of pest surviving existing pest management procedures
2.2.1.5 Probability of transfer to a suitable host

2.2.2 Probability of establishment

2.2.2.1 Availability of suitable hosts, alternate hosts and vectors in the PRA area
2.2.2.2 Suitability of environment
2.2.2.3 Cultural practices and control measures
2.2.2.4 Other characteristics of the pest affecting the probability of establishment

2.2.3 Probability of spread after establishment
2.2.4 Conclusion on the probability of introduction and spread

2.2.4.1 Conclusion regarding endangered areas

2.3 Assessment of potential economic consequences

2.3.1 Pest effects

2.3.1.1 Direct pest effects
2.3.1.2 Indirect pest effects

2.3.2 Analysis of economic consequences

2.3.2.1 Time and place factors
2.3.2.2 Analysis of commercial consequences
2.3.2.3 Analytical techniques
2.3.2.4 Non-commercial and environmental consequences

2.3.3 Conclusion of the assessment of economic consequences

2.3.3.1 Endangered area

2.4 Degree of uncertainty
2.5 Conclusion of the pest risk assessment stage

3. Stage 3: Pest Risk Management

3.1 Level of risk
3.2 Technical information required
3.3 Acceptability of risk
3.4 Identification and selection of appropriate risk management options

3.4.1 Options for consignments
3.4.2 Options preventing or reducing infestation in the crop
3.4.3 Options ensuring that the area, place or site of production or crop is free from the pest
3.4.4 Options for other types of pathways
3.4.5 Options within the importing country
3.4.6 Prohibition of commodities

3.5 Phytosanitary certificates and other compliance measures
3.6 Conclusion of pest risk management

3.6.1 Monitoring and review of phytosanitary measures

4. Documentation of Pest Risk Analysis

4.1 Documentation requirements

ANNEX 1
Comments on the scope of the IPPC in regard to environmental risks

ANNEX 2
Comments on the scope of the IPPC in regard to pest risk analysis for living modified organisms

ANNEX 3
Determining the potential for a living modified organism to be a pest