It was agreed at the brainstorming session on 19 October 2001 that this report and the Programme should cover water-lifting technologies appropriate for irrigation of units up to about 30 hectares (ha). This is to include most of the range of smallholder farmers in West Africa, and the smaller village schemes, though most applications will involve less than 1 ha. Also included are any water-supply applications that may fall into a similar range of lifts and discharges. They therefore do not cover water-lifting for larger irrigation schemes, such as the formal state-sponsored schemes, nor the informal medium-sized irrigation schemes' of Ghana.
The scope of the Programme depends on what is meant by the word appropriate' in this study's title. It is assumed that in this context it means that water-lifting technologies should be cost-effective, sustainable (technically, financially and socially) and replicable. To achieve these aims a water-lifting technology needs to be well matched to the local situation and to the application, i.e. to the job that needs to be done. Many of the problems with newly introduced technologies have been the result of bad matching, for instance using motorized pumpsets at much less than their design head and/or speed, or using the wrong sort of treadle pump. This report therefore starts with the concept of matching technologies to applications and situations. The matching is between the supply side and the demand side of water-lifting, as shown in Table 2.1; the supply side is represented by location-neutral technologies, and the demand side by location-specific applications and situations.
It is significant that the Programme is required to cover both applied research and technology uptake. Uptake means the process by which information is delivered in a useable form to the people who need it, in order that water-lifting technology may be well chosen, delivered, and maintained. This report therefore covers uptake promotion, training, communication and dissemination as well as research.
It is assumed that for this report's purposes West Africa comprises Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. The proposed Programme's outputs on the supply' side would be useful for adjacent countries such as Chad and Cameroon, and to a considerable extent for the whole of Africa.
TABLE 2.1 Framework for consideration of appropriate water-lifting technologies
|Supply side (Technology-specific)|| Technology: a water-lifting technology is characterized by the:
|Demand side (Place-specific)|| Application, the job to be done: a specific water-lifting application
is characterized by the:
| Situation: the relevant conditions in the particular location;
for irrigation these include:
At the brainstorming session on 19 October 2001, it was explicitly agreed that the following activities would be covered by the Programme:
diagnostic and fact-finding work to evaluate and document the situations and applications that are relevant in particular countries and regions;
diagnostic studies to clarify the relevant constraints and the typical conditions for successful application of water-lifting technology;
preparation of decision-making guides on matching water-lifting technologies to water-lifting applications and situations;
collation and/or development of test methods, test reporting formats, and perhaps testing facilities for relevant water-lifting equipment;
development of quality control methods and regimes for manufacture of relevant water-lifting equipment;
training and capacity-building in direct relation to water-lifting technology (potentially including guidelines on the setting up of such training); and
preparing indicators and procedures for monitoring and evaluation.
To these were added later, because of their importance,
promotion of the uptake of water-lifting technologies in West Africa.
At a meeting at IFAD on 6 December 2001, the following two topics were agreed to be relevant to the programme:
linkages with other field operations, in particular those of IFAD.
Part of defining the scope of the Programme is to clarify some things it does not cover. The definition of situations in which water-lifting technology is used, as set out in Table 2.1, includes some relevant aspects such as soil and water resources, land tenure, farm family characteristics, or irrigation method. The Programme is not intended to include either research or uptake work on these topics. In particular, the following aspects, which were mentioned or suggested at the brainstorming meeting on 19 October 2001, are not within the scope of the Programme:
guidelines and know-how for irrigation development.
Whether or not the Programme should include direct development of technologies was not explicitly agreed at the brainstorming session, though it was not included in the list of proposed activities. This is discussed further at the end of Chapter 6.
 Some village schemes are
larger than 30 ha; however they are often best operated as several pumping units
of around 20 ha each.|