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9. References


Abric, S., Bom, G.J., Lacas, J.G. & Oumarou, H. 2000. Agence nigérienne pour la promotion de l'irrigation privée (ANPIP); Composante Irrigation Mécanisée (AFVP); Rapport d'analyse provisoire, Banc d'essais motopompe; (copy obtained from one of the authors).

Arby, D. 2001. Location et location - vente de groupes motopompes: créneau nouveau pour la promotion de l'irrigation privée dans la région de Tombouctou au Nord du Mali; Journées de l'irrigation en Afrique de l'Ouest et du Centre, 20 au 26 avril 2001, Ouagadougou.

Arby, D. & van't Hof, S. 2000. Evaluation d'une motopompe Kirloskar TV-1/NW9ME à Kakondji, Tombouctou, Mali. (www.hipponet.nl/ressources/kirloskar.htm)

Berney, O. 2001. Personal communication, October 2001.

Bom, G.J. 2001. Rapport sur l'amélioration de la pompe chinoise, le développement d'un nouveau filtre à air et l'appui technique aux essais de réglage du carburateur; SOLARTEC, février 2001 (unpublished).

Bom, G.J., van Raalten, D., Majundar, S., Duali, R.J. & Majunder, B.N. 2001. Improved fuel efficiency of diesel irrigation pumpsets in India. Energy for Sustainable Development, 5(3), September 2001.

Bromley, P.D. 2000. The Pedley Wheel - a water wheel driven electricity generator. World Renewable Energy Congress VI (WREC 2000); Elsevier: pp.1 635 - 1 638.

EWW-ANPIP. 2001. Private Irrigation Pilot Project, Niger: Nigerien Agency for the Promotion of Private Irrigation (ANPIP); Technical Notes - Improved Manual Irrigation Component. Enterprise Works (Niger) and ANPIP, July 2001.

EWBF. 2001. Projet DIPAC / APIPAC: Présentation d'activités conduites et de résultats obtenus sur la période mai 2000 - avril 2001; Note rédigée pour être présentée aux Journées de l'irrigation en Afrique de l'Ouest et du Centre, Ouagadougou. Enterprise Works.

FAO. 1999. Pressurised irrigation techniques (provisional draft); part of Irrigation Guidelines, Land and Water Digital Media Series, CD-Rom No. 12. Rome.

Fraenkel, P. 1997. Water-pumping devices - a handbook for users and choosers. London, Intermediate Technology Publications, ISBN 1 85339 346 0. (A 1986 edition of this book was also published by FAO as Irrigation and drainage paper 43. It does not cover treadle pumps. An updated version, corresponding approximately to the state of technology in 1999 - 2000, was to be published by Intermediate Technology Publications in 2002, possibly with a slightly different title such as Water-Lifting Devices, and with more emphasis on water supply applications as well as irrigation. Further information can be obtained from IT Power http://www.itpower.co.uk

Gadelle, F. 2001. Nouveaux équipements pour la petite irrigation en Afrique de l'Ouest et du Centre; Bilan en début 2001; Journées de l'irrigation en Afrique de l'Ouest et du Centre, Ouagadougou. (Reproduced as Annex G to this report.)

Gotoh, M., Kowata, H., Okuyama, T. & Katayama, S. 2000. Damming-up effect of a current water wheel set in a rectangular channel; World Renewable Energy Congress VI (WREC - 2000); Elsevier pp. 1 615 - 1 618.

Kay, M. & Brabben, T.E. 2000. Treadle pumps for irrigation in Africa; IPTRID knowledge synthesis report No. 1; IPTRID Secretariat, Rome.

Kedge, C. 2001a. The introduction of treadle pumps into South Africa; South African Irrigation Association (SABI) Congress at Warmbaths, 11 - 13 September 2001 (reporting research carried out with ARC-ILI).

Kedge, C. 2001b. An evaluation of selected appropriate irrigation technologies for small-scale farmers. University of Natal School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology. (Unpublished M.Sc. thesis)

Keïta,A. 2001a. Expérimentations de techniques et matériels d'irrigation, Projet GCP/RAF/340/ JAP; Journées de l'irrigation en Afrique de l'Ouest et du Centre, Ouagadougou.

Keïta, A. 2001b. Expérimentations d'un système d'arrosage avec pompe à pédales destiné à l'irrigation à petite échelle: le système PP-RM; Amadou Keïta; Journées de l'irrigation en Afrique de l'Ouest et du Centre, Ouagadougou.

Nepveu de Villemarceau, A. 2001. Etat des lieux des informations fournies par le projet ANPIP sur les techniques d'exhaure. Annex to IPTRID duty mission report on Niger 13 - 20 July 2001.

van't Hof, S. 2000. Pompage à basse pression pour le développement de la petite irrigation: Sélection de matériels adaptés. Document de formation, Amersfoot, Pays Bas (http://www.hipponet.nl/ressources/manuel abstract.htm)

van't Hof, S. 2001a. Supporting market-led importation of small-scale irrigation equipment in West and Central Africa; Journées de l'irrigation en Afrique de l'Ouest et du Centre, Ouagadougou. (reproduced as Annex I to this report.)

van't Hof, S. 2001b. Selection and procurement of efficient and affordable equipment from Asia for small-scale irrigation development in West and Central Africa. Submission to The Irrigation Association by the HIPPO Foundation.

van't Hof, S. 2001c. Roving course on pump selection: Burkina Faso and Niger. Journées de l'irrigation en Afrique de l'Ouest et du Centre, Ouagadougou.


Annex A
Logical frameworks for the Programme's component tasks

This annex presents preliminary versions of the logical frameworks (logframes) for the individual tasks described under Interventions recommended in the main report, and for Task M3, which is described under Organization and management and Appendix C.

The intervention logic columns are complete, though preliminary, while many of the cells in the indicators, verification and assumptions columns are not filled in at this stage. It is intended that these should be completed during the Programme by the Programme Management Team and research contract bidders.

Outputs to be used in several West Africa countries will be provided in French and English. Outputs for the guidance of specialists will generally be provided in one or those languages only, with a glossary in the other. In a few cases, these logframes include explicit statements on the languages to be used.

Tentative logical framework for Task K1a
Identify demand for water-lifting technology in West Africa

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Establish an easily accessible knowledge management system centred on a database of information on demand and use of small-scale water-lifting technologies in West Africa, with provision for periodic updating and the identification of case studies representing good practice for particular situations.     (Purpose to goal)
Decision-makers and other participants use the information.
Outputs 1. Systematic database framework for storing, accessing and updating information, by country and region, on the situations (water source details, uses, farm sizes, farm family situations, tax and credit regimes, fuel prices, etc.), and on the present status of provision of water-lifting technology, including history of aid projects, subsidies, supply chains, etc. All categories and terminology to be defined in English and French, with a comprehensive bilingual glossary to explain them.   Inception Report (output to purpose)
2. Information collected on these aspects, and entered into the database, for all West African countries named by IFAD at the time of the research project. Data will be entered in English or French; whichever is the usual language for technical matters in the country concerned.   Interim Report, database Information is accurate enough to be useful.
3. A printed manual and on-line help and tutorial to enable potential database users to quickly learn how to access the information.   Interim Report  
4. A website giving access to the database for parties authorised by IFAD.   Website Potential users have internet access
5. Identification and description of five cases or examples of good practice (especially regarding the importation, distribution, sale and backup of water-lifting equipment). Cases chosen to cover common situations, and fully described to help others to learn from them.   Supplement to Interim Report Case studies, collectively, are relevant for most situations and provide useful examples.
6. Maintenance and administration of the database for 12 months, providing access to all authorized parties who request it.   Enquiries to sample of website users  
7. A printed manual for the guidance of those who will maintain and administer the database thereafter.   Manual, Final Report  
Activities 1. Define categories and fields for database, standardize terminology in both languages, formulate methodology for information collection, set all these out in the Inception Report.     (Activity to output)
2. Collect available information in all countries, enter it into database, identify missing information, and set up processes to provide missing information.     Information holders willing to provide access.
3. Set up access arrangements, including preliminary versions of website, manual and tutorial: Interim Report.      
4. Complete the data gathering by adding the information that was missing in the first round.      
5. Identify and describe case studies, submit draft form as a supplement to Interim Report, refine for final form.     Good case studies can be found.
6. Maintain and administer the database for 12 months, prepare manual for those tasks: Final Report.      

Tentative logical framework for Task K2a
Identify supply of water-lifting technology

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Make available in accessible form up-to-date and comparable information, including efficiencies, for all known relevant devices, to enable potential users and providers to choose appropriate technology for each application and situation.     (Purpose to goal) Users & providers under stand the need for matching.
Outputs 1. Database (in French and English) containing mutually comparable data on all known relevant devices, using the test methods, reporting formats and test results from Tasks K5 and K6.   Database (Output to purpose)
2. Arrangements for access to this database via the internet and by other means appropriate to potential users in West Africa (and, as far as is practicable without significant extra cost, beyond the region).     Users are able to access the chosen medium.
3. Clearly defined procedures for the maintenance and periodic updating of the database and access arrangements, after the end of this research project.   Maintenance Manual Someone is willing to maintain the database.
Activities 1. Draft the database structure and presentation format circulate for comment, modify and finalize.     (Activity to output)
2. Set up database, initially using published data and later using test results from Task K6.     Task K6 gives adequate data, and provides updates.
3. Set up access arrangements, periodically update the database.    
4. Set up and describe maintenance and updating procedures, in a Maintenance Manual in French and English.      

Tentative logical framework for Task K3a
Compare technology supply and demand, find gaps

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Review presently available water-lifting technologies, identifying and publicizing gaps where new, more efficient, more robust or less expensive technology is needed; encourage innovative development by others to fill gaps.     (Purpose to goal)
Others willing to develop technologies.
Outputs 1. Report on ability of water-lifting devices described by Task K2a to cover all applications and situations in West Africa identified by Task K1a (Interim Report).   Final Report (Output to purpose) Tasks K1a and K2a provide adequate information.
2. Clear description of gaps to enable and encourage innovators to fill them by developing, modifying or improving technologies (Final Report).  
Activities 1. Review coverage of applications and situations, prepare Interim Report.     (Activity to output)
2. Identify and describe gaps, prepare Final Report.    

Tentative logical framework for Task K4a
Prepare technology choice guides

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Provide user-friendly guides to help people choose appropriate technologies for their particular situations and applications.     (Purpose to goal)
Devices, and information about them, are available.
Outputs 1. A set of published guides, in French and English, explaining how the first version of the technology database from Task K2a can be used to choose an appropriate water-lifting device for any application, within the constraints of any situation.   Technology choice guides (Output to purpose)
Task K2a provides adequate information early in Phase 1, and updates it effectively.
2. Updated versions of the guides at intervals through the Phase 1 period, enabling users to take advantage of improved versions of the database and ongoing results of the technology review process of Task K3a.  
Activities 1. Use early and partial outputs of Tasks K1a, K2a and K3a to prepare first versions of the set of guides, covering at least treadle pumps and petrol-driven pumps.     (Activity to output) Task K2a provides adequate information.
2. Use information produced by those ongoing tasks to update the guides at intervals of roughly six months, covering other types of water-lifting device and improved information in the databases.    

Tentative logical framework for Task K5
Identify test methods and reporting formats

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Provide a standard set of test methods and reporting formats so that results of device tests from different sources can be directly compared. The set must include tests for fuel or energy consumption over a range of operating conditions, including conditions far from each device’s optimum regime.     (Purpose to goal)
Manufacturers and distributors prove willing to use the standard tests and reporting formats.
Outputs 1. List of previously available test methods relevant to small water-lifting devices.     (Output to purpose)
Resources are sufficient to develop a new test wherever there is no suitable existing test
2. Review of these tests, showing to what extent they are mutually compatible and collectively fill all the requirements: identification of gaps needing new tests.   Inception Report
3. Newly developed tests to fill any gaps.   Manual, Final Report
4. Standard reporting formats in French and English, for results of old and new tests, to enable all results to be mutually comparable.  
5. Standard procedures for converting results from one test to be comparable with results from another, wherever this is practicable.  
6. A comprehensive set of test descriptions and a manual explaining how results are to be calculated, converted where necessary and reported.  
Activities 1. Collect information on all potentially relevant test methods already available, and in each case determine which devices have been tested by each method. Together with the international tests, national tests in the main device producing countries will be examined.     (Activity to output)
Information holders willing to provide access.
2. Review this set of tests against the requirements of this Programme, and determine existing gaps requiring new tests or modified versions of the old, report this in Inception Report.      
3. Develop new tests to fill any such gaps.     Resources and time sufficient.
4. Develop standard reporting formats and conversion procedures.      
5. Prepare test descriptions and manual: Final Report.      

Tentative logical framework for Task K6
Collect test data in standard formats

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Produce a comprehensive set of mutually comparable test results covering all known relevant water-lifting devices. The set includes fuel or energy consumption over a range of operating conditions, including conditions far from each device’s optimum regime. Pumps must be covered separately from engines, and complete pumpsets with foot-valves must be included.     (Purpose to goal)
Users and choosers wish to compare devices.
Outputs 1. Compilation of relevant test results that are already available anywhere in the world.   Interim Report (Output to purpose) Task K5 produces adequate tests and conversion procedures.
2. New test results to fill any gaps.   Final Report
3. Comprehensive bilingual report (French and English) on all test results, using standard test result formats developed by Task K5.  
Activities 1. Collect all readily available results in a first round of enquiries; convert results, list them in an Interim Report.     (Activity to output)
Information holders willing to provide access.
2. Initiate and pursue wider enquiries to find any other available results which were not located in the first round.    
3. Identify apparent gaps, conduct tests to fill them.     Time & resources sufficient.
4. Prepare Final Report on all relevant test results.      

Tentative logical framework for Task K7
Improve technology of human-powered devices

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Provide more cost-effective, efficient, robust, and long-lasting human-powered water-lifting devices.     (Purpose to goal)
People are willing to use human power for lifting water.
Outputs 1. Review of all relevant results of research and testing of human-powered water-lifting devices in any country.   Interim Report, contributions to database (Output to purpose)
Task K3a provides clear and correct identification of gaps in available technology.
2. Advice on devices and methods able to fill gaps identified by Task K3a for West Africa.  
3. New devices or variants of existing ones, to complete the range and cover all applications and situations.   Final Report, contributions to database
4. Clear reporting of appropriate devices and ways to make them available.  
Activities 1. Collate all relevant information on devices in any country (including mutually comparable test results), review their usefulness for West Africa, draw up advice for dissemination via Interim Report and additions to the database via Task K2b.     (Activity to output)
Resources allocated to this task are adequate for the amount of new development required.
2. Identify necessary new devices or modifications, find out if other parties will develop them: Interim Report.    
3. Develop new or modified devices where necessary.    
4. Disseminate results through a Final Report and additions to the database of Task K2b.    

Tentative logical framework for Task K8
Improve technology of engine-powered devices

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Provide more cost-effective, efficient, robust, and long-lasting engine-powered water-lifting devices appropriate to these applications.     (Purpose to goal)
Outputs 1. Review all relevant results of research and testing of engine-powered water-lifting devices in any country.   Interim Report, contributions to database (Output to purpose)
Task K3a provides clear and correct identification of gaps in available technology.
2. Advice on devices and methods able to fill some of the gaps identified by Task K3a, for West Africa.  
3. New devices or variants of those existing, to complete the range and cover all applications and situations.   Final Report, contributions to database
4. Clear reporting of appropriate devices and ways to make them available.  
Activities 1. Collate all relevant information on devices in any country (including mutually comparable test results), review their usefulness for West Africa, draw up advice for dissemination via Interim Report and additions to the database via Task K2b.     (Activity to output)
Resources allocated to this task are adequate for the amount of new development required.
2. Identify necessary new devices or modifications, find out if other parties will develop them.    
3. Develop new or modified devices where necessary.    
4. Disseminate results through a Final Report and additions to the database of Task K2b.    

Tentative logical framework for Task U1
Study ways of introducing new technologies

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Provide policy-guidelines on ways to introduce technologies that are new to a particular area, especially regarding the use of credit and subsidies and the role of the private sector.     (Purpose to goal)
Governments and funding agencies remain interested.
Outputs 1. Collection of information on past experience with the introduction of water-lifting technologies in West Africa and comparable regions, especially the effects of subsidies and credit arrangements on users’ and distributors’ attitudes, choice of technologies, and standards of maintenance and backup.   Inception Report (Output to purpose)
2. Critical analysis of the implications of various policies on subsidy to assist resource-poor people to use water-lifting technologies; of the effects of subsidies on incentives and on choice of technology; and of ways to mitigate problems.   Interim Report  
3. Similarly, critical analysis of the effects of different credit arrangements.   Interim Report  
4. Analysis of any systematic relationships which these subsidy and credit arrangements may have with the manufacture and distribution strategies and options studied in Task U2.   Interim Report There is sufficient common ground between different countries or regions to enable useful conclusions to be drawn.
5. Analysis of ways of grouping demand (farmer groups for sharing pump ownership, leasing arrangements, etc.).   Interim Report
6. Analysis of relationships between policies relevant for small water-lifting devices and wider national trade and financial policies, such as import tariffs or quotas, currency restrictions, or centralizes importation of equipment by government agencies or aid projects.   Interim Report
7. Analysis of the effects that aid donors’ and lenders’ policies and procedures have on the above-mentioned relationships.   Interim Report
8. Policy guidelines for governments and donors/lenders, backed up by summaries of the above analyses.   Final Report
Activities 1. Collect information, prepare brief Inception Report.     (Activity to output)
Information holders willing to provide access.
2. Conduct analyses for outputs 2 to 7, summarize in Interim Report.    
3. Obtain feedback on Interim Report from governments and donors/lenders, revise analysis.     Governments and donors/lenders respond promptly to Interim Report.
4. Formulation of guidelines, Final Report (guided by feedback from Interim Report).    

Tentative logical framework for Task U2
Study supply chain options

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Provide guidance to makers and distributors of water-lifting equipment, and to governments and funding agencies, to enable them to fund, manufacture and distribute appropriate equipment widely and cost-effectively.     (Purpose to goal)
Governments and funding agencies remain interested.
Outputs 1. Review and analysis of global markets for the relevant types of water-lifting device, covering experience with both centralized and decentralized manufacture, and hybrid methods such as centralized manufacture of core components and local assembly of complete devices near to point of use.     (Output to purpose)Market and other conditions in the various countries show sufficiently consistent patterns to allow useful conclusions and recommendations to be derived.
2. Review and analysis of quality control arrangements used by different manufacturers and promoters, including NGOs.   Interim Report
3. Review of backup arrangements (advice to users, servicing, spares) in different markets and situations.   Interim Report
4. Analysis of any relationships between manufacturing strategy and credit or other financing arrangements.   Interim Report
5. Study to identify main conditions for financially sustainable manufacturing and distribution, and for satisfactory service to users, including provision of an adequate range of devices.   Final Report
6. Summary and recommendations, identifying, with five to seven case studies, the more promising integrated approaches to manufacture, quality control, distribution, promotion and backup.   Final Report
Activities 1. Collect information on prevailing prices, market conditions and manufacture-distribution methods in all major West African countries, and in other countries where small water-lifting devices are made or used on a significant scale, including India, China, Japan, Kenya, Zambia, South Africa, and at least two others; study factors affecting importation into West Africa.     (Activity to output)
Information holders are willing to provide access.
2. Analyse findings and prepare critical reviews on manufacture, quality control, marketing, financing and backup arrangements: Interim Report.      
3. Identify (in Interim Report) and then describe five to seven case studies to demonstrate successful arrangements in a variety of situations and for different types of device (at least two cases for treadle pumps, at least two for small motorized pumps).     Useful case studies can be found.
4. Prepare Final Report with summary of key findings, and recommendations for different device types and situations.      

Tentative logical framework for Task U3
Promote technology uptake

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project Purpose Identify and then implement appropriate technology uptake pathways and practices for water lifting technology.     (Purpose to goal)
Outputs 1. Manual on appropriate technology uptake pathways and procedures for water lifting technology.   Interim Report
Final Report
Uptake Manual
(Output to purpose)
2. Application and refinement of the identified processes and procedures for water lifting technology uptake.   Interim Report
Final Report
increase in number of units taken up and durability of use
 
Activities 1. Study existing similar technology uptake pathways and procedures in the region and formulate recommended pathways and procedures, incorporating international experience. Integrate with experience from Tasks K1, K2, K3 and K4.   Interim Report (Activity to output)
Similar technologies exist in the region and those involved cooperate with the study.
2. Prepare, test and have reviewed manualon appropriate technology uptake pathwaysand procedures.   Uptake manual, first version  
3. Identify and train technology agents and promoters in recommended uptake processes and procedures (training to be done under Task U4a).   Number of trained personnel Technology agents exist and are interested in promoting this technology.
4. Promote sustainable technology uptake through trained uptake agents and promoters.   Increase in number of units taken up, and durability.
  • Technology supply chain functions;
  • Technology seen as desirable and affordable by target group;
  • Technology agents act professionally in the interests of the users.
5. Monitor and evaluate uptake, and refine processes and procedures based on experience.   Monthly reports, Final M&E Report  
6. Revise and finalize uptake manual and associated training material, print and introduce to appropriate institutions to facilitate sustainable long-term use in the region.   Printed manual, Printed training material, Number of institutions purchasing manual and training material Suitable local and regional organizations exist and are interested in the technology and its outputs.
7. Promote uptake adoption by local institutions.  

Tentative logical framework for Task U4a
Training materials for users and choosers of water-lifting devices

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Provide training and awareness-building materials to enable technical staff, extension workers, equipment dealers and device users to understand how to match technologies to particular applications and situations, and to promote uptake.     (Purpose to goal)
Materials are used.
Outputs 1. Analysis of training and awareness building needs, with descriptions of target audiences.   Inception Report (Output to purpose)
2. Training and awareness-building materials in various media most suited to the audiences and their situations, using the outputs of Tasks U2a and U4a.   Materials Suitable trainees can be found, and use the skills.
3. People trained in support of Task U3a.   Task U3a reports
4. Guidance manuals on the use of the materials.   Manuals  
Activities 1. Analyse potential target audiences, using early information and insights from Task K1a: prepare Inception Report.     (Activity to output)
2. Define the knowledge to be transmitted, using early versions of the database from Task K2a.     Tasks K2a and K4a provide suitable data and choice guides.
3. Develop and test the materials by using them to train about 100 persons in support of Task U3a, using the technology choice guides produced by Task U4a.    
4. Prepare guidance manuals on their use.      

Tentative logical framework for Task U4b
Training of users and choosers of water-lifting devices

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Raise awareness of the need to match water-lifting technologies to particular applications and situations, and train significant numbers of technical staff, extension workers, equipment dealers and device users to do so.     (Purpose to goal)
Appropriate devices are available at affordable prices.
Outputs 1. Successful training courses held in all relevant West African countries named by IFAD at the time of the research project   Interim Report, Final Report (Output to purpose)
2. Trained people use the knowledge.   Observations by Programme Management Team Trained people subsequently work in the field.
Activities 1. Find potential trainers fluent in the relevant languages, and use materials developed by Task U4a to train them.     (Activity to output)
Materials are effective, suitable trainers and trainees are found.
2. Conduct training courses, improving the methods and materials as the training continues.    
3. Prepare Interim Report summarizing work done so far and describing improvements to training materials and methods.      
4. Prepare Final Report summarizing work done.      

Tentative logical framework for Task U5a
Training materials for mechanics

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Provide training materials to enable mechanics to service, maintain, adjust and repair the relevant types of water-lifting device efficiently and effectively.     (Purpose to goal)
Materials are used.
Outputs 1. Analysis of training needs, with descriptions of target audiences.   Inception Report (Output to purpose)
2. Training materials, including coverage of work needed to maintain or improve the fuel and energy efficiency of the devices.   Materials  
3. Some people trained in support of Task U3a.   Task U3a reports Suitable trainees can be found, and use the skills.
4. Guidance manuals on the use of the materials.   Manuals  
Activities 1. Analyse potential target audiences, using early information from Task K1a: prepare Inception Report.     (Activity to output)
2. Define the knowledge to be transmitted, using early versions of the database from Task K2a to define the types of device, and contact with manufacturers to determine best practice.     Task K2a provides suitable data.
3. Develop and test the materials by using them to train about 100 mechanics in support of Task U3a.      
4. Prepare guidance manuals on their use.      

Tentative logical framework for Task U5b
Training of mechanics

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Enable local mechanics in all regions that use small water-lifting devices to maintain, adjust and repair the relevant types of water-lifting device efficiently and effectively, maintaining or improving the fuel and energy efficiency of the devices.     (Purpose to goal)
Appropriate devices are available at affordable prices.
Outputs 1. Successful training courses held in all relevant West African countries named by IFAD at the time of the research project.   Interim Report, Final Report (Output to purpose)
2. Trained mechanics using the knowledge.   Observations by Programme Management Team Trained people subsequently work in the field.
Activities 1. Find potential trainers fluent in the relevant languages, and use materials developed by Task U5a to train them.     (Activity to output)
Materials are effective, suitable trainers and trainees are found.
2. Conduct training courses, improving the methods and materials as the training continues, especially with early results from technical research under Tasks K7 and K8.    
3. Prepare Interim Report summarizing work done so far and describing improvements to training materials and methods.      
4. Prepare Final Report summarizing work done.      

Tentative logical framework for Task U6a
Capacity-building materials for policy-makers

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Provide materials to equip the relevant policy-makers in West African countries to understand and improve the policy, institutional and financial environments for the efficient release and use of appropriate water-lifting technologies in their communities, and to promote uptake.     (Purpose to goal)
Materials get used
Outputs 1. Synthesis of the policy implications of lessons learned and information collected under Task U1 and other ongoing parts of the Programme.   Inception Report (Output to purpose)
Policy-makers are motivated to use this knowledge and understanding.
2. Capacity-building materials to disseminate this knowledge and understanding.   Materials
3. Significant numbers of present and likely future policy-makers made aware of this knowledge and understanding.   Task U3a reports, Final Report
Activities 1. Extract useful lessons and information from research under the Programme, summarized in Inception Report.     (Activity to output)
2. Prepare capacity-building materials.      
3. Develop and test the materials by using them to raise capacity of about 50 persons in support of Task U3a.     Suitable trainees can be found, and use the skills.
4. Prepare Final Report summarizing work done.      

Tentative logical framework for Task U6b
Capacity-building for policy-makers

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Equip the relevant policy-makers in West African countries to understand and improve the policy, institutional and financial environments for the efficient release and use of appropriate water-lifting technologies in their communities, and to promote uptake.     (Purpose to goal)
Policies give adequate priority to water-lifting.
Outputs 1. Successful capacity-building courses held in all relevant West African countries named by IFAD at the time of the research project.   Interim Report, Final Report (Output to purpose)
2. People trained use the knowledge.   Observations by Programme Management Team Trained people subsequently work in the field.
Activities 1. Find potential trainers fluent in the relevant languages, and use materials developed by Task U6a to train them.     (Activity to output)
Materials are effective, suitable trainers and trainees are found.
2. Conduct capacity-building courses, improving the methods and materials as the training continues.    
3. Prepare Interim Report summarizing work done so far and describing improvements to materials and methods.      
4. Prepare Final Report summarizing work done.      

Tentative logical framework for Task M3
Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)

  Intervention logic Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Assumptions
Goal Enhance livelihoods by enabling people to lift water efficiently and cost-effectively for small-scale irrigation and similar applications.      
Project purpose Set up and operate a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system to measure improvements in the provision of efficient and cost-effective water-lifting equipment.     (Purpose to goal)
M&E reports are used to improve future actions.
Outputs 1. A set of indicators, using information gathered under Task K1a, to gauge the effectiveness of efforts to improve the provision and uptake of water-lifting equipment in West Africa.     (Output to purpose)
Enough good data are collected.
2. A printed baseline report describing comprehensively the status of relevant water-lifting technologies in the region at the time of the initial data collection, to serve as baseline for later monitoring of progress.     Someone uses the process in later years.
3. A systematic process for periodic evaluation using those indicators to compare progress against baseline.   M&E manual
4. Periodic reports on the impact of the Programme (one near the end of Phase 1 to guide planning of Phase 2).     Someone acts on the report.
Activities 1. Study information being gathered by Task K1a, prepare draft set of indicators, circulate it for discussion, receive comments, and finalize indicator set.     (Activity to output)
Information collected in different countries has enough common content.
2. Use information from Task K1a to draw up baseline report.    
3. Prepare draft M&E manual, circulate it for discussion, receive comments, finalize.    
4. Use the indicators to assess the impact of the Programme near the end of Phase 1.    



Appendix B
Tentative schedules for Phase 1 and its Component Tasks

Explanation:

The months are numbered from 1 to 30 for the entire Phase 1: individual tasks take place in only part of that period.

The first page shows the schedule for the entire Phase, and subsequent pages show details for the individual tasks.

Within the task schedules, prerequisite activities in other tasks are indicated thus: K1a/2> indicates that the activity which follows requires inputs from activity 2 of Task K1a.

The numbering of activities corresponds to the logframes in Appendix A.

Tentative schedule for the complete Programme

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Task K1a
Identify demand for water-lifting technology in West Africa


Note: The months are numbered from the start of the Programme

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Task K2a
Identify supply of water-lifting technology


Note: The months are numbered from the start of the Programme

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Task K3a
Compare technology supply and demand, find gaps


Note: The months are numbered from the start of the Programme

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Task K4a
Prepare technology choice guides


Note: The months are numbered from the start of the Programme

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Task K5
Identify test methods and reporting formats


Note: The months are numbered from the start of the Programme

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Task K6
Collect test data in standard formats


Note: The months are numbered from the start of the Programme

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Task U1
Study ways of introducing new technologies


Note: The months are numbered from the start of the Programme

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Task U2
Study supply chain options


Note: The months are numbered from the start of the Programme

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Task U3a
Promote technology uptake


Note: The months are numbered from the start of the Programme

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Task U4a
Training materials for users and choosers of water-lifting devices


Note: The months are numbered from the start of the Programme

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Task U5a
Training materials for mechanics


Note: The months are numbered from the start of the Programme

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Task U6a
Capacity-building materials for policy-makers


Note: The months are numbered from the start of the Programme

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Annex C


C.1 PROGRAMME SUPERVISION AND MANAGEMENT TASKS

INTRODUCTION

This is an annex to the final report of January 2002 entitled Appropriate water-lifting technologies in West Africa: Findings of a preliminary study and a research and uptake programme proposal. The Annex provides suggestions for the specific activities involved in the supervision and management tasks, namely Tasks M1, M2 and M3, which are referred to in the main report Chapter 7 under Selection of contractors.

C.2 TASK M1, PROGRAMME SUPERVISION

The activities of the Programme Supervisor for Phase 1 will include:

a) The signing of a contract with IFAD governing Task M1.

b) When research tasks are funded by parties, other than IFAD, enter into appropriate contractual and financial arrangements with these parties.

c) In consultation with IFAD, set up a Steering Committee of three to five suitably qualified and experienced persons able to assess and review the Programme’s overall progress and outputs. If necessary, suggest modifications to the Programme or to the specifications of its research tasks.

d) Organize and finance four meetings of the Steering Committee over the Phase 1 period, and inform committee members between meetings by forwarding the Programme Management Team’s quarterly reports and any technical outputs, draft or final, which may be of interest to particular members.

e) Draw up the Terms of Reference and contractual arrangements for the Programme Management Team (see a list of its suggested activities below).

f) In consultation with IFAD, and by competitive bidding as described in the next section, select a company or institution to undertake the role of Programme Management Team.

g) Negotiate and sign a contract with this party, and act as client for the contract, supervising the Programme Management Team and ensuring its activities are carried out satisfactorily.

h) Help the Programme Management Team to find and use opportunities for action research links to ongoing or new development projects (see management activity (e) below).

i) Administer the Programme’s overall budget, by either channelling funds to the Programme Management Team or certifying periodic payments directly from IFAD, and any other funding bodies to the Programme Management Team.

j) Pass on all useful outputs from the research contracts promptly to IFAD, indicating whether a particular document or other product is final or whether it is a draft subject to review.

k) At three-month intervals, provide IFAD brief quarterly progress reports covering administrative, contractual and financial matters in sufficient detail to sustain confidence in the management of the Programme. In addition, provide brief summaries of technical progress accompanied by lists of new technical reports for interested readers to consult for details.

l) Provide IFAD and the Steering Committee members two annual progress reports, at approximately months 13 and 25, each giving a brief but comprehensive summary of all work on the Programme in the year.

m) Using the dissemination and publicizing activities of the Programme Management Team, research contractors, and the Programme Supervisor's own channels and efforts, ensure the timely issue of the Programme's outputs to those who can use them. (Normally this would only be done with final outputs having the approval of the Programme Management Team and the Programme Supervisor. However, the Programme Supervisor may also distribute clearly labelled preliminary or partial outputs to selected parties, who may be invited to comment on them).

n) One month before the end of Phase 1, present proposals to IFAD, at least to the level of detail of this report, for the content, timing and implementation of Phase 2.

o) At the end of the Programme, submit to IFAD and any other donors a final report on the Programme, listing all final output documents or other research products. In addition, provide an accounting of all funds disbursed and recording all contractual dealings with the research contractors.

C.3 TASK M2, PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT

During Phase I, the activities of the Programme Management Team for Task M2 will include:

a) Deciding how much of Phase 1 work will be done by the Programme Management Team's own in-house task teams, and how much will be done by research contractors. (Monitoring and evaluation, Task M3 as described below, must be done in-house by the Programme Management Team).

b) Sign a contract with the Programme Supervisor governing Task M2.

c) Formulate the detailed contractual conditions, terms of reference, and schedules of all the Programme's research tasks, and agree on them with the Programme Supervisor. (Most conditions and part of the terms of reference may be common to all or most tasks).

d) Refine and periodically revise the overall Programme Schedule.

e) Set up, administer and finance a Panel of Experts comprising five to seven specialists who are able to critically and independently review the task-related work of the Programme Management Team's in-house task teams, and of any research contractors.

f) Review the work of ARID, CORAF/WECARD and any other relevant regional organization, and ensure duplication is avoided and communication is established.

g) Review development projects under way, or about to start, in West Africa. Investigate possibilities of attaching or linking appropriate research tasks to some of them, using the action research approach discussed near the end of the last chapter. Approach the agencies concerned and negotiate practical links where possible.

h) Finalize Terms of Reference for tasks, both those to be done in-house and those to be done by research contract.

i) Publicize the Programme and invite applications from companies or institutions wishing to be considered for any available research contracts, with special attention given to institutions in West Africa.

j) Prepare a long-list of potential research contractors and, in consultation with the Programme Supervisor, reduce it to a short-list. (See Chapter 7 Selection of contractors in main report; this and related activities will be spread out over time in accordance with the schedule, since some research tasks will start later than others).

k) Invite bids from short-listed parties for the various research contracts.

l) Evaluate the bids and, in consultation with the Programme Supervisor but retaining final responsibility for the selection, choose a preferred bidder for each task (taking advantage, where possible, of cost-effective grouping of two or more tasks in one contract).

m) Negotiate and sign a contract for each research task or group of tasks. (Each contract will be between the Programme Management contractor and the particular task's research contractor). At that time act as client to the research contractors, applying contractually regulated penalties or sanctions if they fall significantly behind their schedules or fail to produce satisfactory work.

n) Pay the research contractors at contractually determined intervals, upon evidence of progress.

o) Supervise the technical work of each in-house task team or research contractor, by receiving and reviewing progress reports at intervals of not more than three months, by organizing two to four joint workshops during the course of Phase 1, and by close inspection of the work at two or three key stages in each task. This will be done by using interim or draft reports from contractors, where appropriate, and employing members of the Panel of Experts to carry out technical reviews and, where appropriate, visiting the research contractors. The aggregate attendance at all workshops is expected to amount to about 100 person-days, of which at least half will be persons from task teams and research contractors who are directly involved in ongoing task work.

p) Continually review the Programme's schedule and make periodic adjustments, in particular with regard to cases where one research task depends on final or intermediate outputs from another.

q) Arrange for professional review of the task teams' and contractors' draft and final outputs, employing members of the Panel of Experts or others hired for the purpose and ensuring timely receipt of the review conclusions by the contractors (normally within three weeks of submission of an output).

r) Pass on the useful outputs of the research tasks to the Programme Supervisor within 14 days of receipt, indicating whether a particular document or other product is final and carries the Programme Management Team's endorsement, or whether it is a draft subject to review.

s) Submit to the Programme Supervisor, at three-monthly intervals, Programme progress reports summarizing the work done and the funds expended in the report period, relative to the schedule, and indicating any current or expected problems that might affect the Programme in the following months.

t) Publicize the outputs of the Programme from time-to-time, by means agreed in advance with the Programme Supervisor.

u) Submit to the Programme Supervisor, at agreed intervals, requests for payment to cover the funds disbursed to research contractors and for the Programme Management Team's own reimbursement. (If agreed with IFAD, the Programme Management Team may be given funds in advance that can then be drawn down and, when accounted for, replenished from time to time).

v) Two months before the end of Phase 1, present proposals to the Programme Supervisor, at least to the level of detail of this report, for the content, timing and implementation of Phase 2.

w) At the end of the Phase submit a final report on the Programme to the Programme Supervisor, listing all final output documents or other research products, accounting for all funds disbursed and recording all contractual dealings with the research contractors.

C.4 TASK M3, MONITORING AND EVALUATION (M&E)

This task is also carried out by the Programme Management Team, for which a brief logframe is provided in Annex A, and will include the following activities:

a) Using the outputs of the research tasks, especially Task K1, draw up a set of M&E indicators capable of measuring progress in both the provision and the uptake of relevant water-lifting devices in West Africa (Suggestions may be found in Chapter 8 of the main report).

b) Set up a baseline in the form of values of these indicators representing the state of affairs at the start of the Programme.

c) Use the same indicators to measure progress up to a moment three months before the end of the Phase.

d) Hand over to IFAD, through the Programme Supervisor, an adequate and clearly documented M&E procedure, with a manual, for subsequent use.

IPTRID Secretariat

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
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Tel.: (+39) 06 57052068 - 57056847
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E-mail: iptrid@fao.org
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