24. FAO Consultant, Ms Judith Swan, presented the IPOA-IUU, explaining in detail the:
objectives and principles;
implementation of measures;
special requirements of developing countries;
role of FAO.
25. In introducing the presentation, Ms Swan summarized relevant international law and practice. The role of RFMOs, as outlined in the IPOA-IUU, was also explained and the status and responsibilities of members, cooperating and non-cooperating States was discussed. She emphasized the range of measures that States need to take to combat IUU fishing individually and through RFMOs. In doing so, she pointed out that States should select those measures that are most appropriate for their purposes, in keeping with the "toolbox" approach adopted by the IPOA-IUU.
26. Discussion was wide-ranging, and included reference to international instruments, RFMOs, national legislation, enforcement of laws beyond the national jurisdiction and other measures that can be taken, consistent with international law, to combat IUU fishing. It was emphasized that although the IPOA-IUU was voluntary, many of the actions and measures it encouraged were based on international law.
27. The Workshop also focused on implementing the IPOA-IUU in national legislation, and, in particular, through State control over nationals, MCS and penalties and sanctions at appropriate levels, including deterrent penalties for serious offences. It was noted that the fisheries legislation of several countries in the Caribbean subregion was developed prior to the adoption of the post-1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) fisheries instruments, and that, in some cases, there had been substantial delays in the revision process. The Workshop acknowledged that the IPOA-IUU would serve as a useful guide in furthering the process of revision.