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35. Ms Swan presented a model case study of a SIDS showing how such countries could develop and implement NPOAs-IUU. A fisheries profile of a fictitious State was described, which drew on typical existing circumstances. Elements of a possible NPOA-IUU that could be elaborated for that State were reviewed, taking into account the framework suggested in the FAO Technical Guideline No. 9. The model case study is attached as Appendix I.

36. Ms Swan emphasized that the NPOA-IUU should incorporate a phased approach to implementation. This would cater to the needs and limited resources of SIDS where priorities could be set and financial and technical resources secured on an ongoing basis.

37. The Workshop recognized the importance of ensuring that States maintained a proper balance between sustainability of fisheries resources and maximization of social and economic benefits. Ms Swan noted that conservation and management approaches, such as the precautionary approach, were available to underpin the elaboration of sustainability.

38. The Workshop acknowledged the importance of the deterrent effect of fines and penalties, and considered that the maximum level should, where appropriate, be revisited in this context.

39. In relation to evidentiary provisions, Ms Swan emphasized the need to ensure that countries had updated legal provisions to cater for new technologies such as digital photographs and VMS. In addition, she further noted the successful implementation by some countries of legislation that allows certificates to be introduced as evidence in specific situations, thereby facilitating the legal process. The Workshop considered requirements for obtaining evidence and then the procedure for introducing it into legal proceedings.

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