Identification of risks and management of invasive alien species using the IPPC framework

Proceedings of a workshop in Braunschweig, Germany
22-26 September 2003

Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


Table of Contents

The workshop entitled “Invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention” was held in Braunschweig, Germany, 22-26 September 2003. Papers from this workshop have been prepared for publication by the Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention, FAO. Editing, supplementary text, page layout and cover design by Barbara Hedley, Byword Pacific Ltd, New Zealand.

Recommended citation:

IPPC Secretariat. 2005. Identification of risks and management of invasive alien species using the IPPC framework. Proceedings of the workshop on invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention, Braunschweig, Germany, 22-26 September 2003. Rome, Italy, FAO. xii + 301 pp.

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© FAO 2005

To contact the IPPC Secretariat:
IPPC Secretariat, Plant Protection Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, ITALY
Tel.: (+39) 06 5705 4812
Fax: (+39) 06 5705 6347
Web site:


Welcoming address to the workshop

Section 1: Global overview of the management of invasive alien species

Information digest of section 1

1 The International Plant Protection Convention and invasive alien species
Ralf Lopian

Relationship between invasive alien species and quarantine pests
Overlapping mandates of international and regional organizations
IPPC activities in relation to invasive alien species
The CBD’s guiding principles on invasive alien species and the IPPC
Future activities

2 The Convention on Biological Diversity’s programme of work on invasive alien species
Robert Höft

Collaborative initiatives
Programme of work on invasive alien species

3 Overview of the management of invasive alien species from the environmental perspective
Clare Shine

Why are invasive alien species an international environmental issue?
What instruments and tools have been developed?
What are the main gaps and constraints from the environmental perspective?
How should we move forward at the global, regional and national levels?

Section 2: Regional management of invasive alien species

Information digest of section 2

4 EPPO’s regional approach to invasive alien species
Ian M. Smith

Quarantine pest concept
EPPO regional approach
Origins and pathways
Application of EPPO regional standards

5 Developing the European Strategy on Invasive Alien Species
Clare Shine and Piero Genovesi

Why does Europe need a strategy on invasive alien species?
Why develop the strategy under the Bern Convention?
Process for development of the strategy
Who is the strategy for?
Summary of content

6 The EU phytosanitary system and the CBD guiding principles on invasive alien species
Jens-Georg Unger

Border control of imports and other pathways from non-EU countries
Measures between and within EU member states
Information exchange, monitoring and research
Regulated organisms, the precautionary principle and pest risk analysis
Other elements referred to in the guiding principles

Section 3: Legislative frameworks for phytosanitary measures

Information digest of section 3

7 Methodology for assessing the legal regime for phytosanitary control of invasive alien species
George Agyemang Sarpong

Outline of the methodology
Nature and sources of introduction of invasive alien species
Applicable global and regional instruments
Ratification status of applicable instruments
Existing relevant legislation and institutions
Conformity of existing legislation with international instruments
Determination of form and content of legislation
Capacity for implementation

8 Harmonization of national phytosanitary regulations in China
Wang Chunlin, Zhang Zongyi and Huang Youling

Impacts of invasive alien species in China
Reasons for alien species invading China
The existing phytosanitary system
Developing harmonization of national regulations with international agreements
Harmonization of national phytosanitary standards with the IPPC
Achievements and future direction
Invasive alien species and international cooperation

9 The plant quarantine order in India
Amand Shah

Plant quarantine structure and policy in India
Why a new plant quarantine regulation?
Salient features of the new Order
Harmony with the IPPC
Issue of import permits
Enhancement of plant quarantine facilities
Action plan for pest risk analysis
Policy for the control of invasive alien species in India and related policy initiatives

Section 4: Pest risk analysis, including analysis of environmental risk

Information digest of section 4

10 Pest risk analysis: global harmonization benefits biodiversity
Bram de Hoop

Pest risk analysis
Phytosanitary measures
More specific standards
New developments
Dispute settlement and jurisprudence

11 Assessing environmental risks of invasive species using ISPM 11: where to start
Mary Megan Quinlan, Nick M. Pasiecznik and Soetikno S. Sastroutomo

Current guidelines for pest risk analysis
Identifying species or pathways that pose an environmental risk
Pest risk analysis for pests causing indirect injury to plants
Uncertainty in environmental risk analysis
Conclusions and recommendations

12 Pest risk assessments: tools, resources and key challenges
Richard Baker and Alan MacLeod

National and international data sources
Assessing entry potential
Assessing establishment potential
Assessing economic, environmental and social impacts

13 Adaptation of regional pest risk assessment to the revised ISPM 11
Gritta Schrader

Analysis of environmental risks
The EPPO pest risk assessment scheme
Structure of the EPPO PRA scheme
Adaptations to the revised ISPM 11
Applicability of the EPPO scheme to plants as pests
Outlook and conclusions

14 Use of the weed risk assessment tool in Australia’s approach to pest risk analysis
Paul Pheloung

The WRA system in operation

15 Experiences and limitations with pest risk analysis in the Galapagos Islands
Helmuth Rogg, Chris Buddenhagen and Charlotte Causton

Introduction to Galapagos
The problem of alien species
Development of regulations and control systems
Adapting the weed risk assessment model
Measures for invertebrate species

16 Science and regulation: a Canadian approach to invasive alien species
Eric Allen and Lesley Cree

Introduction to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Pest risk assessment within the CFIA
Traditional pest risk assessments
The Phytophthora ramorum example
Other non-traditional pest risk assessments
Canadian Forest Service invasive alien species programme
Canadian Forest Service and the international community
Benefits and challenges of the partnership approach

Section 5: National perspectives on invasive alien species

Information digest of section 5

17 Invasive alien species from a nature conservation point of view in Germany
Frank Klingenstein and Thuweba Diwani

Evaluating the problem of invasive alien species
What does “invasive” mean for nature conservation?
Conditions and measures
Nature conservation activities in Germany

18 Development of a German national strategy on invasive alien species
Christiane Hubo and Arthur Steinmann

The political background
Elements of the German national strategy
Focal points of legal problems

19 Invasive alien species: toward a national plan for Canada
Mark Hovorka

Progress to date
Toward a national plan: a discussion document
A focus on plants
Invasive alien species and the IPPC: an environment perspective

Section 6: Policies for pest risk management

Information digest of section 6

20 Translating pest risk analysis into policy: the CFIA approach
Gregory Wolff

Pest risk analysis
International obligations and principles
Plant protection strategies
International standards
Dialogue and communications

21 Contingency planning for plant pest incursions in Australia
Paul Pheloung

Planning for pest incursions
Offshore activities
Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy
Diagnostics and biology of pests
Legislative and administrative aspects
Preparedness and response planning
Case studies of incursion preparedness and responses for specific pests

22 Contingency planning in the Netherlands
Maarten Steeghs

General aspects of contingency planning
Results of the planning process

Section 7: Implementation and national delivery capacity

Information digest of section 7

23 Phytosanitary capacity evaluation: the tool, its results and its relation to invasive alien species
Felipe Canale

PCE aims
PCE rationale
PCE strategy
PCE outcomes
PCE conclusions
PCE results in relation to invasive alien species

24 Biological control in invasive species management: experiences and lessons of using ISPM 3
Moses Kairo, Matthew J.W. Cock and Mary Megan Quinlan

Main provisions of ISPM 3
Approach to assessing use of ISPM 3
Key findings
Conclusions on the use of ISPM 3

25 Speed detection of pests in China
Ning Hong

General pest detection measures and methods in China
Researching speed detection methods for phytosanitary use
Rapid detection methods for pests of citrus
Application of the speed detection methods in China

26 Invasive alien species in Kenya: status and management
Chagema Kedera and Benson Kuria

Quarantine measures to prevent unintentional introductions
Quarantine measures taken during intentional introduction of alien species
Eradication, containment and control
Research and monitoring of alien invasive species
Regional and international cooperation
Capacity building
Education and public awareness

27 Phytosanitary programmes in Germany
Reiner Schrage

Organization of the plant protection service in Germany
Phytosanitary operations in North Rhine-Westphalia

28 Monitoring the delivery of plant health controls in the EU
Lars Christoffersen

Implementation of the work

29 Invasive species and the Working for Water programme in South Africa
Jan Hendrik Venter

The Working for Water programme
Removal or eradication of invasive plants
Implementation of the programme
Sustainable development
Other key components of the programme

30 Combining CBD and IPPC implementation: dealing with ecological complexity in pest risk assessment
Maj De Poorter

Introduction to the threat to biodiversity
Implications for pest risk analysis
The way forward
How the Invasive Species Specialist Group can help

31 Web tools to identify, report and map invasive species in North America
John Pickering

Introduction to Discover Life
Web tools relating to invasive alien species

32 BioNET: a regional approach to capacity building in taxonomy for sustainable development
Richard Smith

The taxonomic impediment
BioNET and the LOOPs
LOOPs, the IPPC and invasive alien species
BioNET, the CBD and the IPPC

33 Identification of capacity-building needs in ASEAN for the management of invasive alien species
Soetikno S. Sastroutomo, Keng-Yeang Lum and Wai-Hong Loke

Survey objectives

34 SAFRINET strategy and the International Plant Protection Convention
Arundel Sakala

SAFRINET strategy
SAFRINET achievements
SAFRINET, IPPC and technology developers partnerships

Section 8: Information exchange

Information digest of section 8

35 Information exchange and the International Phytosanitary Portal
Brent Larson

IPPC obligations for information exchange
Development of the International Phytosanitary Portal

36 EPPO information exchange
Ian M. Smith

EPPO information sources on paper
EPPO electronic information sources

37 NAPPO and exotic pest information
Woodward D. Bailey

Response to exotic pests by the United States
Cooperative action through NAPPO
The Phytosanitary Alert System Panel

38 Sources of invasive species information in the South Pacific
Maj De Poorter

List of information sources

39 Invasive alien species and the IPPC: the role of CAB International
Roger Day

Development and publication of information products
Taxonomy and pest identification
Networking and coordination
Support for standard setting
Global Invasive Species Programme

Recommendations arising from the workshop


Appendix 1: List of international standards for phytosanitary measures

Appendix 2: Workshop exercises and discussion

Introduction to the exercises
Exercise 1: Methodology for review of a legal regime for the phytosanitary control of invasive alien species
Exercise 2: Pest risk analysis
Exercise 3: Weed risk assessment

Appendix 3: List of workshop participants and workshop programme

Appendix 4: Collected references