FAO AGRICULTURAL SERVICES BULLETIN 158

FAO AGRICULTURAL SERVICES BULLETIN 158

Freezing of fruits and Vegetables
An Agri-Business Alternative for Rural and Semi-Rural Areas

by
Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas
Washington State University Pullman, Washington, United States of America

Bilge Altunakar
Washington State University Pullman, Washington, United States of America

Danilo J. Mejía-Lorio
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, Italy


FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome 2005

 

Table of Contents


The mention or omission of specific companies, their products or brand names does not imply any endorsement or judgement by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country territory city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-105295-6
ISSN 1010-1365

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the sourceis fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing and Multimedia Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to: copyright@fao.org

© FAO 2005


Table of Contents

Foreword
Glossary

Chapter 1. Introduction to freezing

1.1 The importance of freezing as a preservation method
1.2 General recommendations on the freezing process

1.2.1 Freezing technology
1.2.2 Freezing process

Freezing point of foods
Freezing time
Freezing rate
Energy requirements

1.2.3 Refrigeration
1.2.4 Freezing capacity
1.2.5 Freezing systems
1.2.6 Freezing Equipment

Air-blast freezers
Contact freezers
Cryogenic freezers

1.2.7 Packaging
1.2.8 Frozen storage and distribution

1.3 Freezing fruits and vegetables in small and medium scale operations and its potential applications in warm climates

1.3.1 Freezing fruits

Production and harvesting
Pre-process handling and operations
Effect of ingredients
Packaging

1.3.2 Freezing vegetables

Crop cultivar, production, and maturity
Harvesting
Pre-process handling
Blanching
Packaging

Chapter 2. Formulation and processing of selected frozen food prototypes

2.1 Selecting a formulation for mixed fruits
2.2 Selecting a formulation for mixed vegetables
2.3 Recommendations for the processing site

2.3.1 Location
2.3.2 General plant layout

Chapter 3. Raw materials and required equipment

3.1 Ingredients for the proposed formulations
3.2 Freezing equipment
3.3 Processing equipment
3.4 Frozen Storage

Chapter 4. Recommendations for final product quality

4.1 Sensory quality

4.1.1 Physical aspects of freezing
4.1.2 Chemical aspects of freezing

4.2 Hygienic and sanitary quality: legal standards
4.3 Nutritional quality: energy contribution
4.4 Marketing the product

Chapter 5. Cost analysis and product price

5.1 Cost analysis

5.1.1 Investment cost
5.1.2 Production cost

5.2 Product price determination
5.3 Equilibrium production rate

References

FAO Technical Papers

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