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5. Catches by country


The world catches of the principal market species of tunas (other than southern bluefin) are shown in Figure 11. The catches of Japan have exceeded those of any other country throughout the second half of the 20th century, although they have leveled off since the mid-1980s. The catches of the United States were second to those of Japan until the mid-1980s, but after that its catches have been exceeded by those of the Taiwan Province of China and Indonesia. The catches of the Philippines and Mexico also increased considerably after the mid-1980s.

FIGURE 12
World catches (tonnes) of the principal market species of tunas (other than southern bluefin) by ocean by the top ten producers of tuna


FIGURE 13
World catches of swordfish, by ocean

The catches by the top ten tuna producers are individually plotted by oceans in Figure 12. Japan, the Taiwan Province of China and the Republic of Korea have tuna fisheries in all three oceans. The fisheries of the Taiwan Province of China and the Republic of Korea developed later than those of Japan, but in recent years the catches of the Taiwan Province of China have exceeded those of Japan in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Spain and France are major participants in the purse-seine fisheries of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and in recent years Spanish purse seiners have fished in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Vessels of Indonesia fish in both the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Vessels of the other countries, the United States, the Philippines, Mexico and Venezuela have fished mostly in the Pacific Ocean. During most of this period the catches of the United States were made mostly in the eastern Pacific Ocean, but more recently they have been made mostly in the western and central Pacific Ocean.

6. Swordfish fisheries

Swordfish is not one of the principal market species of tunas, so it is not included in most parts of this study. However, swordfish is one of the most important non-target species caught by most of the longliners that target tunas. Also, there are longliners that direct their effort at swordfish, either seasonally or throughout the year, by deploying longline gear specifically designed for the capture of swordfish.

The swordfish catches of the world, by oceans, are shown in Figure 13. The total annual catches increased from 1960 to the early 1990s. Since 1993, however, the catches have been stable at about 90 000 tonnes per year. The catches in the Atlantic Ocean exceeded those in the other two oceans combined until 1994. Even during the most recent years, the Atlantic catch has constituted about half of the world catch of swordfish. On the other hand, the catches of swordfish in the Pacific have been less than those in the other two oceans. The fishery for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean has been subject to management measures, with quotas since 1991, adopted by the members of ICCAT, which is one of the major reasons that the catches have decreased during the last ten years.

Almost all the catch of swordfish is taken by longlines. Much lesser quantities are taken by harpoons, gillnets and unknown gears.

7. Conclusions

It is hoped that the effects of the changes in fishing technology and procedures that have taken place and will continue to take place can be quantified. However, it is difficult to evaluate the contribution of each element of the many factors that affect fishing efficiency. Regulatory measures taken by the RFMOs for management of tuna stocks also affect the fishing procedures. Even if these developments cannot be quantified, they must be kept in mind when considering the management of fishing capacity.

There are also many factors that affect fishing capacity. International and national management policy of fleet size and restrictions on operation of fishing vessels are major elements. Those are very complicated and interactive. A policy taken by one country affects the actions of other countries in regard to fleet size and methods of operation, as already seen for the longline and purse-seine fleets. These management policies are related not only to the available tuna resources, but also to socio-economic factors, such as to protecting existing industries. The above factors are not discussed in this paper, as they are covered in other papers in this volume.

References

Delgado de Molina, A., Fonteneau, A., Pallares, P., Ariz, J., Moron, J., Gaertner, D. & Santana, C. 1999. Atlantic tropical tuna fisheries: general overview. Coll. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT, 49 (3): 241-252. Madrid.

Fonteneau, A. & Diouf, T. 1994. An efficient way of bait-fishing for tunas recently developed in Senegal. Aquatic Living Resources, 7 (3): 139-151.

Gyosen Kyokai (Association of Fishing Vessels) ed. 1986. Nihon gyosenn shi (Historical development of Japanese fishing vessels). Gyosen Kyokai Pbl. Tokyo, 446 pp.

Itano, D. G. 2003. Documentation and classification of fishing gear and technology on board tuna purse-seine vessels. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Joseph, J. 1994. The tuna-dolphin controversy in the eastern Pacific Ocean: biological, economic, and political impacts. Ocean. Develop. Inter. Law, 25 (1): 1-30. London.

Le Gall, J., Cayré, P. & Taquet, M. 2000. Pêche thonière et dispositifs de concentration de poissons. Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer. 684 pp.

Matsuda, Y. & Ouchi, K. 1984. Legal, political, and economic constraints on Japanese strategies for distant-water tuna and skipjack fisheries in southeast Asian seas and the western central Pacific. Mem. Kagoshima Univ. Res. Center S. Pacific, 5(2).

McNeely, R. L. 1961. The purse-seine revolution in tuna fishing. Pacific Fisherman, 59 (7): 27-58. Seattle.

Miyake, P. M., Miyabe, N. & Nakano, H. 2004. Historical trends of tuna catches in the world. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 467. Rome.

Orange, C. J. & Broadhead, G. C. 1959. 1958-1959 - A turning point for tuna purse-seine fishing? Pacific Fisherman, 57 (7): 20, 22, 25, 29. Seattle.

Pallares, P., Mina, X., Delgado de Molina, A., Artetxe, I., Ariz, J. & Arrizabalaga, H. 2002. Análisis de la actividad de los buques auxiliares en el Océano Atlántico y su efecto sobre el rendimiento de los atuneros congeladores. Coll. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT, 54 (1): 139-156. Madrid.

Perrin, W. F. 1969. Using porpoise to catch tuna. World Fishing, June 1969: 42-45. London.

Scofield, W. L. 1951. Purse seines and other roundhaul nets in California. Calif. Dept. Fish Game, Fish Bull., 81. Sacramento.

Shimada, B. M. & Schaefer, M. B. 1956. A study of changes in fishing effort, abundance, and yield for yellowfin and skipjack tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific. Inter-Amer. Trop. Tuna Comm., Bull., 1 (7): 351-469. La Jolla.

Suisanshinchosha. 1970. Katuo-maguro nenkan (Annual for Tuna Fisheries), 1969 Edition, Published by Suisanshinchosha, Tokyo, Japan.

Appendix 1

TABLE 1
Total annual nominal catches, in tonnes, of the principal market species of tunas (other than southern bluefin), by ocean

Year

Atlantic

Indian

Pacific

Total

1950

68 223

15 230

250 176

333 629

1951

66 939

9 130

327 156

403 225

1952

75 501

24 254

383 506

483 261

1953

76 405

28 368

358 638

463 411

1954

83 222

52 154

387 512

522 888

1955

82 275

79 570

393 770

555 615

1956

80 313

104 888

453 978

639 179

1957

111 802

80 965

485 957

678 724

1958

134 273

71 018

525 179

730 470

1959

148 403

74 085

525 726

748 214

1960

170 085

93 607

488 363

752 055

1961

163 215

99 457

594 376

857 047

1962

203 520

114429

615 222

933 171

1963

217712

92 835

623 151

933 698

1964

237 200

97 190

616 117

950 507

1965

253 201

100 043

592 141

945 385

1966

204 523

132 263

703 971

1 040 756

1967

210 136

137 496

704 291

1 051 923

1968

243 756

192129

650 160

1 086 044

1969

254 080

155 984

690 470

1 100 534

1970

253 115

127 476

748 736

1 129 326

1971

308 421

119 639

773 782

1 201 843

1972

316 571

113 163

824 916

1 254 651

1973

320 788

118 661

971 088

1 410 537

1974

385 512

150 049

1 034 802

1 570 364

1975

327 928

131 800

1 001 683

1 461 410

1976

345 121

126 901

1 188 857

1 660 879

1977

398 037

144 286

1 149 294

1 691 617

1978

389 066

154 295

1 288 462

1 831 823

1979

356 492

138 441

1 200 639

1 695 571

1980

387 956

137 827

1 243 214

1 768 997

1981

434 319

143 624

1 226 399

1 804 342

1982

490 840

176 815

1 187 982

1 855 638

1983

451 642

201 346

1 322 963

1 975 951

1984

398 377

273 858

1 443 271

2 115 506

1985

454 175

324 518

1 380 937

2 159 629

1986

444 031

383 880

1 621 055

2 448 966

1987

418 497

421 368

1 610 209

2 450 073

1988

436 1 54

510 610

1 724 164

2 670 928

1989

442 670

517 953

1 785 987

2 746 610

1990

508 664

529 632

1 911 852

2 950 148

1991

551 115

544 327

2 132 763

3 228 205

1992

516 131

628 701

2 064 969

3 209 801

1993

567 681

762 453

1 921 397

3 251 531

1994

596 088

719 802

2 064 817

3 380 706

1995

554 943

736 854

2 129 240

3 421 037

1996

533 136

757 262

2 052 827

3 343 226

1997

493 569

770 197

2 244 525

3 508 291

1998

494 851

777 394

2 581 215

3 853 460

1999

528 383

921 528

2 538 174

3 988 085

2000

478 358

818 301

2 590 535

3 887 194

2001

497 476

781 569

2 584 701

3 863 746

TABLE 2
Total annual nominal catches, in tonnes, of the principal market species of tunas, by species

Year

Albacore

Bigeye

Bluefin

Skipjack

Yellowfin

Southern bluefin

Total

1950

107 813

10 808

27 340

162 108

106 456

829

415 354

1951

82 269

11 651

31 274

166 445

91 435

829

383 903

1952

126 770

29 792

53 350

150 441

122 862

829

484 044

1953

108 798

30 648

55 812

154 800

113 330

4 399

467 787

1954

113 868

29 374

60 900

194 059

124 674

2 871

525 746

1955

97 799

44 624

66 481

187 492

159 122

2 286

557 804

1956

129 974

50 652

62 049

199 663

196 538

10 567

649 443

1957

148 517

67 011

68 931

187 953

205 633

24 172

702 217

1958

133 174

70 685

61 499

255 038

208 112

14 784

743 292

1959

132 883

65 759

48 559

281 175

217 282

64 378

810 036

1960

1 58 187

79 118

50 121

162 967

299 057

79 371

828 821

1961

143 476

100 386

57 271

257 345

295 794

81 605

935 876

1962

178 700

121 661

61 970

282 900

287 940

45 033

978 204

1963

191 632

147 491

61 063

266 687

266 825

65 923

999 621

1964

195 057

117 548

61 412

286 004

290 486

49 670

1 000 177

1965

202 872

117 223

55 448

288 094

281 748

47 565

992 950

1966

196 001

115 460

54 072

369 224

306 000

47 652

1 088 408

1967

220 564

120 924

46 177

392 614

271 644

65 638

1 117 561

1968

189 211

124 352

38 164

360 436

373 882

58 394

1 144 438

1969

196 678

149 019

33 559

332 896

388 382

58 528

1 159 062

1970

185 932

141 327

28 519

395 819

377 730

48 156

1 177 482

1971

223 160

148 458

35 249

454 499

340 476

45 148

1 246 991

1972

239 200

155 255

36 655

386 559

436 982

51 925

1 306 576

1973

243 706

167 651

35 307

492 730

471 142

41 205

1 451 742

1974

249 869

174 726

48 428

607 241

490 099

46 777

1 617 141

1975

187 338

203 106

48 160

513 917

508 889

32 982

1 494 392

1976

241 884

210 536

48 518

599 997

559 945

42 509

1 703 388

1977

186 615

242 823

44 271

639 317

578 590

42 178

1 733 795

1978

227 112

241 543

48 139

764 880

550 148

35 908

1 867 731

1979

192 798

208 045

51 129

675 070

568 152

38 673

1 733 868

1980

182 805

239 474

42 385

751 354

552 430

45 054

1 813 501

1981

179 537

218 013

51 299

742 027

612 523

45 104

1 848 503

1982

196 453

231 837

52 000

801 454

573 191

42 788

1 897 723

1983

166 332

230 913

44 172

947 257

586 582

42 881

2 018 138

1984

169 754

229 969

38 944

1 056 098

618 281

37 090

2150136

1985

174 540

268 631

41 322

908 105

764 320

33 325

2 190 243

1986

199 765

287 490

41 115

1 096 820

823 144

28 319

2 476 654

1987

190 196

297 484

35 778

1 034 407

892 000

25 575

2 475 439

1988

182 999

273 302

36 062

1 273 241

904 637

23 145

2 693 386

1989

184 198

287 637

34 708

1 280 346

959 479

17 843

2 764 212

1990

188 219

337 289

33 939

1 338 020

1 052 509

13 870

2 963 846

1991

156 153

344 871

44 301

1 649 386

1 033 400

13 692

3 241 804

1992

181 671

338 770

46 460

1 535 531

1 107 294

14217

3 223 944

1993

180 872

366 273

46 411

1 488 300

1 169 651

14 345

3 265 851

1994

210 032

416 136

62 258

1 591 307

1 100 616

13 246

3 393 594

1995

184 081

413 244

74 499

1 677 992

1 070 985

13 680

3 434 481

1996

204 850

416 491

73 652

1 594 855

1 053 208

16 501

3 359 556

1997

225 035

447 373

69 632

1 601 219

1 163 953

16 101

3 523 313

1998

236 249

434 370

54 390

1 927 868

1 199 295

17 981

3 870 152

1999

266 698

453 230

59 138

1 996 061

1 209 164

19 803

4 004 092

2000

241 284

422 317

62 304

2 008 414

1 150 920

15712

3 900 951

2001

252 465

386 362

46 080

1 886 654

1 290 439

16 002

3 878 003

TABLE 3
Total annual nominal catches, in tonnes, of the principal market species of tunas (other than southern bluefin) by fishing gear

Year

Purse-seine

Pole-and-line

Longline

Other

Total

1950

33 654

150 258

20 957

128 760

333 629

1951

34 942

241 498

16 728

110 057

403 225

1952

46 404

247 198

75 361

114 298

483 261

1953

45 768

228 325

86 271

103 047

463 411

1954

51 261

262 115

103 481

106 031

522 888

1955

55 867

257 720

134 355

107 673

555 615

1956

55 569

303 553

159 173

120 884

639 179

1957

52 593

311 427

188 667

126 037

678 724

1958

68 806

327 593

213 420

120 650

730 470

1959

79 113

315 106

234 370

119 625

748 214

1960

118 434

213 422

296 627

123 572

752 055

1961

168 775

253 908

319 931

114 434

857 047

1962

166 208

258 937

376 954

131 071

933 171

1963

177 080

231 734

384 062

140 822

933 698

1964

198 451

258 441

357 838

135 777

950 507

1965

173 915

292 116

350 858

128 495

945 385

1966

188 433

341 097

379 765

131 462

1 040 756

1967

234 115

320 812

333 838

163 157

1 051 923

1968

239 427

288 254

392 910

165 453

1 086 044

1969

246 989

302 877

394 779

155 889

1 100 534

1970

290 463

329715

353 580

155 568

1 129 326

1971

336 103

356 670

352 137

156 933

1 201 843

1972

359 692

340 198

373 293

181 467

1 254 651

1973

397 868

447 485

390 002

175 181

1 410 537

1974

462 577

532 220

376 768

198 800

1 570 364

1975

497 726

391 620

387 019

185 045

1 461 410

1976

559 686

501 445

414 679

185 068

1 660 879

1977

525 299

464 632

486 711

214 975

1 691 617

1978

605 477

521 969

484 208

220 170

1 831 823

1979

582 567

467 855

435 049

210 100

1 695 571

1980

612 968

517 139

462 336

176 553

1 768 997

1981

706 583

474 834

415 865

207 060

1 804 342

1982

739 690

450 128

456 526

209 294

1 855 638

1983

859 510

483 593

418 154

214 694

1 975 951

1984

951 382

565 844

383 986

214 293

2 115 506

1985

1 016 742

470 745

446 031

226 111

2 159 629

1986

1 153 290

539 590

500 463

255 622

2 448 966

1987

1 221 030

479 260

503 719

246 064

2 450 073

1988

1 361 788

527 091

485 397

296 652

2 670 928

1989

1 445 205

510 510

452 278

338 617

2 746 610

1990

1 603 774

448 484

535 842

362 048

2 950 148

1991

1 831 658

504 629

526 671

365 247

3 228 205

1992

1 821 133

452 508

578 575

357 585

3 209 801

1993

1 765 780

503 756

665 996

315 999

3 251 531

1994

1 878 469

498 028

631 134

373 074

3 380 706

1995

1 947 029

528 771

567 883

377 354

3 421 037

1996

1 855 485

482 910

606 115

398 716

3 343 226

1997

1 961 857

525 532

617 023

403 879

3 508 291

1998

2 171 184

569 723

659 037

453 517

3 853 460

1999

2 254 203

600 545

634 238

499 099

3 988 085

2000

2 249 460

547 1 58

591 141

499 435

3 887 194

2001

2 223 457

556 170

576 326

507 793

3 863 746

Appendix 2

FIGURE 1
Average annual catches, by 5-degree areas, by longline gear. The denser colours represent greater catches.


FIGURE 2
Average annual catches, by 5-degree areas, by purse-seine gear. The denser colours represent greater catches


FIGURE 3
Average annual catches, by 5-degree areas, by pole-and-line gear. The denser colours represent greater catche


FIGURE 4
Distributions of the catches, by species and major gears, during 1998. The denser colours represent greater catches


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