Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page


6. Results and discussion


6.1 General

Using the categorization scheme described in Section 4.5 and the sources of information given in Section 5, estimates of non-industrial tuna catches were made for each country for which non-industrial tuna fisheries are known to occur. These consisted mainly of catch estimates (or, at least, informed guesses) for the small-scale fisheries, and a summary of the readily available information on the "medium-scale".

These estimates, grouped into seven regions, are given in Appendixes 1 to 7. They are summarized in Table 1.

Although many of the country catch estimates are based upon data from sound statistical systems, that was not always possible, so information of lesser quality was used in order to arrive at catch estimates. The "educated guesswork" that was required for some countries, should not be judged too harshly, in view of the intended nature of the work, a qualitative study of the relative magnitude of the non-industrial fisheries.

TABLE 1
Regional summaries of tuna catches by small-scale fisheries


Small-scale catches (tonnes)

Total catches (tonnes)

Small-scale catches as percentages of totals

Sources of regional total catch estimates

Oceania

19 000

900 000

2.1

SPC Tuna Fishery Yearbook information covering SPC fisheries statistical area, less any included Indonesia and Philippines catches.

Eastern Pacific

40 500

750 000

5.4

J. Joseph (per. com. using FAO and IATTC data).

Western Atlantic

11 000

112 000

9.8

ICCAT database.

Eastern Atlantic

11 000

347 600

3.2

ICCAT database.

Mediterranean

1 700

28 500

6.0

ICCAT database.

Indian Ocean

52 000

880 000

5.9

IOTC database.

East and Southeast Asia (Pacific Ocean)

185 000

928 000

19.9

FAO database (NW Pacific); Appendixes 8 and 9 of his report.

Total

320 200

3 946 100

8.1



FIGURE 1
Relative importance of small-scale tuna fisheries

It is stressed that the catches given in the appendix tables are crude estimates. They are put forward to generate discussion in order to encourage future improvement. Most, if not all, of the country estimates could probably be improved by scrutiny by tuna fishery specialists familiar with the concerned countries.

It is not possible to make a similar compilation for the "medium-scale" tuna fisheries, the other component of the non-industrial tuna fisheries in the appendix tables. In most regions, the readily available information did not allow certain gear types (mainly longlines and, to a lesser extent, gillnets) to be segregated into industrial and non-industrial components.[32] For example, the catches in the category "longline" in some regions could consist of that from a 12 m vessel with four crew members undertaking short local trips (non-industrial according to the definition in Section 4.5), and the catches from a 30 m vessel involved in long voyages to locations outside the national Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) (industrial, according to the definition). Within the study period, the issue of the medium-scale fisheries in most regions could be taken only as far as presentation of relevant summary data for each of the 147 countries and making recommendations as to how the information could be improved in the future (Section 8).

The author's experience and access to information made it possible to estimate the tuna catches by medium-scale fishing in the Oceania region. The 39 000 tonnes of tuna taken by this category of fishing is about twice the catch of that from small-scale tuna fishing, or 4.3 percent of the catch in this region. Together the small-scale and the medium-scale fisheries form the non-industrial component, which accounts for about 6.4 percent of the catch in the region.

The results of this study indicate that the world-wide catch of tunas by small-scale fisheries is about 320 200 tonnes, or about eight percent of the total world catch. Apparently, there have been only a few reviews containing information with which these results can be compared. Joseph (2003) states "About 12 percent of the world catch is taken with gear other than purse-seine, longline, and pole-and-line. About one-half of this remaining 12 percent is taken by trolling vessels that fish for albacore, and the rest by a variety of other fishing gears, such as anchored and drifting gillnets, harpoons, and traps". Allen (2002) shows that the gear category "other or unknown"[33] grew steadily over the last few decades to about 400 000 tonnes in 2002. Considering the quality of the data available, these three estimates are not remarkably different from one another.

Some notable features of the results of the present study are:

6.2 Some regional features

Some miscellaneous observations on small-scale tuna fishing in the seven regions are summarized below.

6.2.1 Oceania

6.2.2 Eastern Pacific Ocean

6.2.3 Western Atlantic Ocean

6.2.4 Eastern Atlantic Ocean

6.2.5 Mediterranean Sea

6.2.6 Indian Ocean

6.2.7 Southeast and East Asia

7. Further thoughts on scale classification: industrial vs. non-industrial

The scheme used in the present study was to classify the fisheries into two general categories, industrial and non-industrial. The latter was sub-divided into (1) small-scale, and (2) medium-scale. The industrial and small-scale category are defined by gear and/or vessel attributes, and the medium-scale category includes those fishing operations that fall between small-scale and industrial categories.

With the benefit of hindsight, several observations can be made on the appropriateness of the scheme. Basing the categories on gear and/or vessel types was good from the perspective that much of the available data, national reports, and anecdotal recollections are similarly based. Difficulties were encountered, however, with (1) gear types for which there was a wide range in scales (creating difficulty in separating the industrial from the non-industrial operations) and (2) the inconsistency of this scheme with the practice of the regional tuna bodies to define, for some purposes, large fishing vessels as those being more than 24 m long.

Taking into consideration the various factors, it appears that a favourable solution would be to use a scheme that would have categories that are both oriented to management purposes and determined largely by functional characteristics (rather than mainly by vessel size). In other words, vessels should be grouped as much as possible by fleets and/or fisheries, rather than by vessel size. In addition, terms that have significantly different meanings in different regions (e.g. "artisanal") should be avoided.

The following tuna fishing scheme is suggested:[34]

Small-scale:

Medium-scale:

Large-scale:

It should be noted that such a scheme is not without difficulties. It would require catch data partitioned by vessels larger or smaller than 24 m in length, something that is not available for most regions at present. Universally applicable characteristics for the various scales are not possible, which explains the use of "generally" and "usually". As mentioned in Section 4.1, it also may be difficult to alter the classification schemes presently embedded in the legislation of some countries.

8. Improving the estimates of tuna catches by non-industrial fisheries

There are several ways to improve the estimates of tuna catches by non-industrial fisheries, in both the short and longer term.

In the short-term, the accuracy of the information in this report could be greatly improved by scrutiny by specialists with knowledge of national tuna fisheries. It is especially important for those experts to resolve the uncertainty associated with whether certain categories (or parts of categories) belong to medium-scale or to industrial-scale fisheries. For example, according to the IOTC database, in the 1997 to 2001 period, 1 862 tonnes of yellowfin (68 percent), skipjack (31 percent), and albacore (1 percent) were caught by handline and troll gear in the Indian Ocean. This could be considered small-scale fishing. If the "unclassified gear" category is added, however, the total increases to 54 421 tonnes and six percent of the total tuna catch. If gillnet gear is added to the three gears, the total increases to 178 892 tonnes and 20 percent of the total Indian Ocean tuna catch.

An intimate knowledge of national tuna fisheries could assist in resolving the issue of what should be allocated to the medium-scale category.

Other short-term actions to improve the non-industrial catch estimates include:

In the longer term, the accuracy of the estimates of the tuna catches by the non-industrial fisheries could be improved by consensus on standard classification of fishing scales (such as that proposed in Section 7) and subsequent collection and dissemination of data in a form compatible with those scales.

9. Concluding remarks

From the limited perspective obtained during the present review, it appears that the best option for a "clear division of scales", as requested by the FAO Project TAC, would be to use categories that are both oriented to management purposes and determined largely by functional characteristics, rather than strictly by vessel size. In summary, it is suggested that small-scale tuna fishing be defined as handlining, rod-and-reel fishing, sportfishing, and all kinds of tuna fishing from vessels, usually under 12 m, that are undecked and un-powered, or use outboard engines or sails. Medium-scale fishing is largely fishing from decked vessels, usually between 12 and 24 m in length, without mechanical freezing capacity. Large-scale fishing is usually fishing from vessels, usually longer than 24 m, that have mechanical freezing capacity.

The aim of this study was to gain a qualitative appreciation for the non-industrial tuna fisheries. A more ambitious objective was to estimate the catches of the principal market species of tuna from the fisheries for which fishing capacity calculations are impractical. These fisheries fall largely into the categories of non-industrial fisheries used in this review: small-scale and medium-scale. Although it was possible in this study to obtain at least a qualitative appreciation of the importance of the small-scale category, it was more difficult to do so for the medium-scale fisheries. This was due primarily to the problem of dividing the catches from the fleets that include a wide range of vessel sizes into industrial and non-industrial components. Some additional scrutiny by knowledgeable national tuna specialists of the catches provisionally allocated to the medium-scale category could resolve the problem, or at least permit a qualitative appreciation of the importance of the tuna catches by medium-scale tuna fisheries.

There are other reasons for studying the non-industrial catches of tuna, besides those related to calculating tuna fishing capacity. As pointed out in Section 3, for various reasons it may be difficult and/or undesirable to place capacity controls on many of the non-industrial tuna fisheries. These "semi-manageable fisheries" appear to correspond quite closely to the category of "small-scale" used in this study. It could be argued that catches by the small-scale tuna fisheries lie outside that which should be subject to capacity controls. In any case, the magnitude of these small-scale catches has important management implications, and therefore worthy of the attention received in this study.

References

Aiken, K. 1993. Marine fishery resources of the Antilles: Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, Jamaica, Cuba. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 326. Rome.

Alió, J. J., Marcano, L. A., Gutiérrez, X. & Fontiveros, R. 1994. Descriptive analysis of the artisanal fishery of billfish in the central coast of Venezuela. Coll. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT, 41: 253-264.

Allen, R. L. 2002. Global tuna resources: limits to growth and sustainability. In S. Subasinghe & P. Sudari, eds. Global tuna industry situation and outlook: resources, production & marketing trends and technological issues. Proceedings of the Tuna 2002 Kuala Lumpur, 7th INFOFISH World Tuna Trade Conference. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 30 May-1 June, 2002, pp. 3-12. Kuala Lumpur, INFOFISH. 208 pp.

Amoe, J. 2003. Fiji tuna and billfish fisheries. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Anderson, J. & Gates, P. 1996. Fish-aggregating device (FAD) manual-Volume one. South Pacific Commission (SPC), Noumea, New Caledonia.

Anon. 1998. Senegal's fishing industry faces critical transition (available at www.dakarcom.com/econreport.htm).

Badrudin, M. & Bahar, S. 1997. Catch rate fluctuations of skipjack and other tuna resources in the northern waters of Aceh. Institute for Fisheries Research Journal, 3 (1).

Bailey, C. & Dwiponggo, A. 1987. Indonesian marine capture fisheries. ICLARM Studies and Reviews 10. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM). Manila, Philippines.

Baldeo, R. 2002. National report of Grenada. National Reports and Technical Papers Presented at the First Meeting of the WECAFC ad Hoc Working Group on the Development of Sustainable Moored Fish-aggregating Device Fishing in the Lesser Antilles-Le Robert, Martinique, 8-11 October 2001. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 683, supplement. Rome.

Bargain, R. 2000. Trends in the Seychelles tuna fisheries. In D. Ardill, ed. Proceedings of the 7th Expert Consultation on Indian Ocean Tunas. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC). Victoria, Seychelles, 9-14 November, 1998.

Barut, N. 1996. The commercial fisheries resources of the Philippines with particular reference on tuna resources. In 2nd National Workshop on Policy Planning and Industry Development. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources and FAO.

Barut, N. 2003. National report (Philippines). Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

BFAR. 2003. Philippine fisheries profile, 2002. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Department of Agriculture. Manila, Philippines.

Bromhead, D. & Findlay, J. 2003. Tuna and billfish fisheries of the eastern Australian fishing zone and adjacent high seas. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Brown, D. 2000. Report of the multidisciplinary survey of the fisheries of the Dominican Republic. CFU Planning Mission to the Dominican Republic. CARICOM Fisheries Unit, Princess Margaret Drive, Belize City, Belize.

Chakalall, B. & Cochrane, K. 2004. Issues in the management of large-pelagic fisheries in CARICOM Countries. In R. Mahon and P. McConney, eds. Management of large pelagic fisheries in CARICOM countries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 464. Rome.

Chapman, L. 2004. Nearshore domestic fisheries development in Pacific island countries and territories. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). Noumea, New Caledonia.

Collett, B. & Nauen, C. 1983. Scombrids of the world. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol. 2. Rome.

CRFM. 2004. Report of the multidisciplinary survey of the fisheries of Haiti. Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism Secretariat. Belize City, Belize.

Dalzell, P., Adams, T. & Polunin, N. 1996. Coastal fisheries in the Pacific islands. Oceanography and Marine Biology, (34): 395-531.

De la Serna, J., Valeiras, J., Alot, E. & Godoy, D. 2003. El atún blanco (Thunnus alalunga) del Mediterráneo occidental. Coll. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT, 55 (1): 160-165.

Development Planning Unit. 1997. National integrated development strategy-fisheries development in the British Virgin Islands-Emerging issues. Government of the British Virgin Islands.

Dhammasak, P. 1998. Review of tuna fishing in Thailand. In D. Ardill, ed. Proceedings of the 7th Expert Consultation on Indian Ocean Tunas. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC). Victoria, Seychelles, 9-14 November, 1998.

Diaz, N., Doray, M., Gervain, P., Reynal, L. & Lagin, A. 2002. Pêche de poissons pélagiques hauturiers et développement de DCP ancres en Guadeloupe. National Reports and Technical Papers Presented at the First Meeting of the WECAFC ad Hoc Working Group on the Development of Sustainable Moored Fish-aggregating Device Fishing in the Lesser Antilles-Le Robert, Martinique, 8-11 October 2001. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 683, supplement. Rome.

Die, D. 2004. Status and assessment of large-pelagic resources. In R. Mahon and P. McConney, eds. Management of large pelagic fisheries in CARICOM countries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 464. Rome.

Dilrosun, F. 2002. Progress report on Curacao fishery monitoring programme. National Reports and Technical Papers Presented at the First Meeting of the WECAFC ad Hoc Working Group on the Development of Sustainable Moored Fish-aggregating Device Fishing in the Lesser Antilles-Le Robert, Martinique, 8-11 October 2001. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 683, supplement. Rome.

Dinara, Y. 2000. Seguimiento de los recursos capturados por la flota atunera uruguaya (1981-2000). Report of the South American Workshop on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels. Punta del Este, Uruguay, 24-28 September 2001.

Doray, M., Reynal, L., Carpentier, A. & Lagin, A. 2002. La pêche de poissons pélagiques hauturiers en Martinique. National Reports and Technical Papers Presented at the First Meeting of the WECAFC ad Hoc Working Group on the Development of Sustainable Moored Fish-aggregating Device Fishing in the Lesser Antilles-Le Robert, Martinique, 8-11 October 2001. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 683, supplement. Rome.

Etaix-Bonnin, R. 2003. New Caledonia tuna and billfish fisheries. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

FAO. 1996. Brief description of the fishery industry of China. GLOBEFISH Market Research Programme. Vol. 41. FAO, Rome.

FAO. 2000. Report of the technical consultation on the measurement of tuna fishing capacity. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 615. Rome.

FAO. 2003. Report of the 1st Meeting of Technical Advisory Committee (TAC). Management of Tuna Fishing Capacity: Conservation and Socio-economics (FAO Project GCP/INT/851/JPN). Rome.

FAO. 2004. Advisory Committee on Fisheries Research (ACFR). Report of the Second Session of the Working Party on Small-scale fisheries. Bangkok, Thailand, 18-21 November 2003. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 735. Rome.

FAO. Various years. Fishery Country Profiles Series (available at http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fcp.asp).

Flewwelling, P. 2000. Report on travel to Maldives. Mission Report No. 61, FAO FishCode Project, GCP/INT/648/NOR. Rome.

Fonseca, B. 1999. Expansion of pelagic fisheries in Cape Verde-A feasibility study. National Institute for Fisheries Development, Cape Verde & University of Akureyri.

Fonteneau, A. & Marcille, J. 1993. Resources, fishing, and biology of the tropical tunas of the Eastern Central Atlantic. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 292. Rome.

Freire, K. 2004. A database of landing data on Brazilian marine fisheries from 1980 to 2000. Fisheries Centre Research Reports.

Gillett, R. 1985. Traditional tuna fishing in Tokelau. Topic Review No. 27. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)-South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). South Pacific Commission. Noumea, New Caledonia.

Gillett, R. & Toloa, F. 1987. The importance of small scale tuna fishing in the Pacific islands: a case study at Fakaofo Atoll, Tokelau. In D. Doulman, ed. Tuna Issues and Perspectives in the Pacific Islands Region. Pacific Islands Development Programme. Honolulu, USA.

Gillett, R. 1996. Marine fisheries resources and management in Indonesia with emphasis on the extended economic zone. Strengthening Marine Fisheries Development in Indonesia (FAO Project TCP/INS/4553). Rome.

Gillett, R., Cusack, P., Pintz, W., Preston, G., Kuemlangan, B., Lightfoot, C., Walton, H. & James, D. 1998. Tonga fisheries sector review, Volume II: main report of the consultants. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Australian Agency for International Development.

Gillett, R. 1999. The inter-relationship between the tuna fishery and other key marine sectors in Palau. Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA). Honiara, Solomon Islands.

Gillett, R. & Lightfoot, C. 2001. The contribution of fisheries to the economies of Pacific island countries. Pacific Studies Series, Asian Development Bank (ADB), World Bank, Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA) & Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC).

Gillett, R., McCoy, M., Rodwell, L. & Tamate J. 2001. Tuna: a key economic resource in the Pacific islands. Pacific Studies Series. Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA).

Gillett, R. 2002. Pacific island fisheries: regional and country information. Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission & FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

Gillett, R. 2003. Domestic tuna industry development in the Pacific islands: the current situation and considerations for future development assistance. Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA). Honiara, Solomon Islands.

Gillett, R. 2004. The marine fisheries of Cambodia. FAO FishCode Review-FCR4. Rome.

Dhammasak, P. 1998. Review of tuna fishing in Thailand. In D. Ardill, ed. Proceedings of the 7th Expert Consultation on Indian Ocean Tunas. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC). Victoria, Seychelles, 9-14 November, 1998.

Hamba, S. 1998. The artisanal tuna fishery in Yemen. In D. Ardill, ed. Proceedings of the 7th Expert Consultation on Indian Ocean Tunas. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC). Victoria, Seychelles, 9-14 November, 1998.

Hampton, I., Boyer, D., Penney, A., Pereira, A. & Sardinh, M. 2000. Integrated overview of fisheries of the Benguela Current Region. United Nations Development Programme (available at www.bclme.org/factfig).

Herrera, M. 2002. Catches of artisanal and industrial fleets in Indonesia: an update. IOTC Proceedings, 5: 105-124. Fourth Session of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) Working Party on Tropical Tunas (WPTT). Shanghai, People's Republic of China, 3-11 June, 2002.

Heyliger, S. 2002. National report of Saint Kitts. National Reports and Technical Papers Presented at the First Meeting of the WECAFC ad Hoc Working Group on the Development of Sustainable Moored Fish-aggregating Device Fishing in the Lesser Antilles-Le Robert, Martinique, 8-11 October 2001. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 683, supplement. Rome.

ICCAT. 2003. Report of the Sixth GFCM-ICCAT Meeting on stocks of large pelagic fisheries in the Mediterranean. Coll. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT, 55 (1): 1-84.

INFOFISH. 2002. Papers of the 6th World Tuna Trade Conference. May 2002, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

IOTC. 2002. Data Summary No. 22, 1990-2000. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC). Victoria, Seychelles.

James, C. 2002. National report of Saint Lucia. National Reports and Technical Papers Presented at the First Meeting of the WECAFC ad Hoc Working Group on the Development of Sustainable Moored Fish-aggregating Device Fishing in the Lesser Antilles-Le Robert, Martinique, 8-11 October 2001. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 683, supplement. Rome.

Jiménez, R., García del Hoyo, J., González Galán, M. & García Ordaz, F. 2001. Analysis of tuna trap fishing in Spain. Departamento de Economía General y Estadística. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Huelva (available at www.ualg.pt/feua/uk/Papers/P66.pdf). Huelva, Spain.

Johnson, H. 2002. National report of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. National Reports and Technical Papers Presented at the First Meeting of the WECAFC ad Hoc Working Group on the Development of Sustainable Moored Fish-aggregating Device Fishing in the Lesser Antilles-Le Robert, Martinique, 8-11 October 2001. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 683, supplement. Rome.

Joseph, G. 2003. Marshall Islands national tuna fishery report, 2001-2002. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Joseph, J. 2003. Managing fishing capacity of the world tuna fleet. FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 982. Rome.

Kaymaram, F. & Talebzadeh, S. 1998. The status of tuna fisheries in the Islamic Republic of Iran. In D. Ardill, ed. Proceedings of the 7th Expert Consultation on Indian Ocean Tunas. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC). Victoria, Seychelles, 9-14 November, 1998.

Kirata, J. 2003. Kiribati national fisheries report 2002. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Kumoru, L. & A. Lewis. 2003. National fisheries report-Papua New Guinea. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Lalla, H. 2002. National report of Trinidad and Tobago. National Reports and Technical Papers Presented at the First Meeting of the WECAFC ad Hoc Working Group on the Development of Sustainable Moored Fish-aggregating Device Fishing in the Lesser Antilles-Le Robert, Martinique, 8-11 October 2001. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 683, supplement. Rome.

Lawson, T. 2002. Tuna fishery yearbook. Oceanic Fisheries Programme. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). Noumea, New Caledonia.

Looby, G. 2002. National report of Antigua and Barbuda. National Reports and Technical Papers Presented at the First Meeting of the WECAFC ad Hoc Working Group on the Development of Sustainable Moored Fish-aggregating Device Fishing in the Lesser Antilles-Le Robert, Martinique, 8-11 October 2001. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 683, supplement. Rome.

Mahon, R. 2004. Harvest sector. In R. Mahon and P. McConney, eds. Management of Large Pelagic Fisheries in CARICOM Countries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 464. Rome.

Maldeniya, R. & Amarasooriya, D. 1998. Tuna fisheries in Sri Lanka: an update. In D. Ardill, ed. Proceedings of the 7th Expert Consultation on Indian Ocean Tunas. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC). Victoria, Seychelles, 9-14 November, 1998.

Marcano, L. A., Alió J. J., Gutiérrez, X. & Guzmán, R. 1994. Análisis preliminar de la pesquería artesanal de peces de pico en la región nororiental de Venezuela. Coll. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT, 42 (2): 319-326.

Marcille, J., Boely, T., Unar, M., Merta, G. S., Sadhotomo, B. & Uktolseja, J. C. B. 1984. Tuna fishing in Indonesia. ORSTOM Document No. 181. Paris, France.

Martin, C. 2002. National report of Cuba. National Reports and Technical Papers Presented at the First Meeting of the WECAFC ad Hoc Working Group on the Development of Sustainable Moored Fish-aggregating Device Fishing in the Lesser Antilles-Le Robert, Martinique, 8-11 October 2001. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 683, supplement. Rome.

McElroy, J. 1989. Indonesia's tuna fisheries-past, present and future prospects. Marine Policy, 13 (4): 285-308.

Ministry of Fisheries. 2003. Tonga national tuna fisheries report. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Misselis, C. 2002. Status of the French Polynesia tuna fisheries. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 15th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 22-27 July 2002. Honolulu, USA.

Misselis, C. 2003. Tuna fisheries in French Polynesia in 2002. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Mitchell, J. 2003. Cook Islands national fisheries report. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Miyake, P. 2005. A review of the fishing capacity of the longline fleets of the world. This collection.

Miyake, P. M., Miyabe, N. & Nakano, H. 2004. Historical trends of tuna catches in the world. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 467. Rome.

MMAF. 2002. Statistical of capture fishery in Indonesia. Directorate General of Capture Fishery, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fishery.

Mullen, A. J., Barut, N. & Gafa, B. 1996. Examination of data relevant to tuna fisheries interactions in the Philippines and Indonesia. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 365. Rome.

Munprasit, A. & Prajakjitt, P. 2001. Tuna resource exploration with tuna longline in the South China Sea. Proceedings of the Fourth Technical Seminar on Marine Fishery Resources Survey in the South China Sea, Area IV: Vietnam Waters. Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC). Bangkok, Thailand.

Murray, T., Griggs, L. & Wallis, P. 2002. New Zealand domestic tuna fisheries, 1990-2001. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Naamin, N. & Gafa, B. 1998. Tuna baitfish and the pole-and-line fishery in Eastern Indonesia-An overview. Indonesian Fisheries Research Journal, 4 (2).

Naviti, W. 2003. National fisheries report for Vanuatu. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

NFMRA. 1998. Mwinoangan-the NFMRA news. Nauru Fisheries and Marine Resources Authority. May, April, June, and July issues.

NOAA. 2003. Fishery statistics of the Western Pacific. NOAA Fisheries PIFSC Admin. Report H-03-02.

Oray, I. & Karakulak, F. 2003. Short description of the Turkish bluefin tuna fishery in 2001. Coll. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT, 55 (1): 125-127.

Oreihaka, E. 2002. Domestic tuna fisheries in the Solomon Islands. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 15th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 22-27 July 2002. Honolulu, USA.

Pagdilao, C. & Querijero, B. 1993. Status of the Philippine tuna fisheries. Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development. Los Baños, Philippines.

Park, T. 2003. Federated States of Micronesia 2002 tuna fisheries review. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Pasisi, P. 2003. National fisheries report for Niue. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Poisson, F., Guyomard, D. & Rene, F. 1998. Collection of statistical and biological information on the Reunion Island Swordfish Fishery. In D. Ardill, ed. Proceedings of the 7th Expert Consultation on Indian Ocean Tunas. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC). Victoria, Seychelles, 9-14 November, 1998.

Proctor, C., Merta, G., Sondita, F., Wahu, R., Davis, T. & Andamari, R. 2003. A review of Indonesia's Indian Ocean tuna fisheries. ACIAR Project FIS/2001/079.

Republic of the Philippines. 1999. Philippine fisheries code of 1998 (Republic Act 8550). Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Department of Agriculture. Manila, Philippines.

Rivera, C. 2001. Guia informativa: Nicaragua y el sector pesquero. Administracion Nacional de le Pesca, Managua, Nicaragua.

Roberts, S. 2002. Compilation of data on pelagic tuna fisheries in Vietnam. Report to the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). Gillett, Preston and Associates Inc.

Robins, C. & Caton, A. 1998. Review of Australian tuna fisheries in the Indian Ocean. In D. Ardill, ed. Proceedings of the 7th Expert Consultation on Indian Ocean Tunas. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC). Victoria, Seychelles, 9-14 November, 1998.

SADC. 1999. Marine fisheries & resources sector. South African Development Community (SADC).

Sebastian, R. 2002. National report of the Commonwealth of Dominica. National Reports and Technical Papers Presented at the First Meeting of the WECAFC ad Hoc Working Group on the Development of Sustainable Moored Fish-aggregating Device Fishing in the Lesser Antilles-Le Robert, Martinique, 8-11 October 2001. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 683, supplement. Rome.

SFLP. 2003. Présentation des pays et zones du projet pilot. Sustainable Fisheries Livelihood Programme, Cotonou, Benin.

Simorangkir, S. 2002. Indonesia's tuna industry situation and outlook. Proceedings of the INFOFISH World Tuna Trade Conference. May 2002, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Singh-Renton, S. 2002. Report of the CARICOM fisheries unit. SCRS/2002/162. Instituto Nacional de la Pesca. Carta Nacional Pesquera. Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales de México (SEMARNAT). Ciudad de México, México.

Sisior, K. 2003. Tuna fisheries in the waters of the Republic of Palau. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Somvanshi, V., Pillai, N. & John, M. 1998. Current status of fisheries for tunas and tuna-like fishes in India. In D. Ardill, ed. Proceedings of the 7th Expert Consultation on Indian Ocean Tunas. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC). Victoria, Seychelles, 9-14 November, 1998.

Ssentongo, G., Ukpe, E. & Ajayi, T. 1986. Marine fishery resources of Nigeria: a review of exploited fish stocks. Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF). CECAF/ECAF/SERIES/86/40 (available at www.fao.org/docrep/003/R9004E/R9004E00.htm).

Stocker, M. & Shaw, W. 2003. An update for Canadian tuna fisheries in the North and South Pacific Ocean for 2002. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Sua, T., Watt, P. & Imo, R. 2003. Samoa National tuna fishery report. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 16th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 July 2003. Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia.

Tan, C. K., Gillett, R., Sciortino, J. & Shawyer, M. 1996. Final report. Strengthening Marine Fisheries Development in Indonesia (FAO Project TCP/INS/4553). Rome.

Tawil, M. 2002. Historical catch of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and little tuna (Euthynnus alletteratus) from a Libyan trap net. Marine Biology Research Center. Tripoli, Libya.

Thomas, F. 1999. The commercial fisheries sector of the Philippines: a centennial chronical 1898-1998. LDC Printers, Philippines.

Tri, D. 2002. Vietnam fisheries report. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 15th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 22-27 July 2002. Honolulu, USA.

Try, I. 2003. Fish stocks and habitats of regional, global and transboundary significance in the South China Sea, Cambodia. Reversing Environmental Degradation Trends in the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Global Environment Facility (GEF).

Venema, S. 1997. Final report. Workshop on the Assessment of the Potential of the Marine Fishery Resources in Indonesia. Training in Fish Stock Assessment and Fishery Research Planning (FAO/DANIDA Project GCP/INT/575/DEN). Rome.

Watt, P. & Imo, R. 2002. Offshore fisheries section annual report, 2002. Fisheries Division. Samoa.

Weidner, D. & Serrano, J. 1997. World swordfish fisheries. NOAA Tech Memo F/SPO/27, NOAA Silver Springs, USA.

Williams, P. 2002. Current status of data available from the Indonesian and Philippines domestic tuna fisheries. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 15th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 22-27 July 2002. Honolulu, USA.

Williams, P. & Lawson, T. 2001. A review of catches of tuna and tuna-like species in the South China Seas area. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 14th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish, 9-16 August 2001. Nouméa, New Caledonia.

Appendix 1 - Non-industrial tuna fishing in Oceania


Small-scale tuna fishing

Medium-scale tuna fishing

Comments

Types of small-scale fishing

Information on landings by small-scale fishing

Types of medium-scale fishing

Information on landings by medium-scale fishing

American Samoa

Trolling and handlining (15 vessels) and small alia catamarans (27 vessels) have been reported.

Trolling and handlining: SKJ, 5 tonnes; YFT, 5.5 tonnes per year.

Longline vessels: 5 vessels <50 feet (15 m); 28 vessels > 50feet (15 m).

SKJ 218 tonnes, ALB 5 825 tonnes, YFT 399 tonnes, BET 191 tonnes per year.

Sources of information: unpublished data for the 2003 Western Pacific Pelagics Fishery Management Plan Report (2002 data), American Samoa Module.

Four FADs were reported in late 2003.

Alia fishing: SKJ, 13 tonnes; ALB, 131 tonnes; YFT, 86 tonnes; BET, 5 tonnes per year.

A total of 33 monohull longline vessels.

A total of 6 633 tonnes of tuna per year.



A total of 246 tonnes of tuna per year.




Australia

The category "minor line fisheries" includes trolling, handlining and droplining. The minor line catches in 2001 were very low, with no YFT being reported by Commonwealth-managed vessels. In 2002, 2.4 tonnes of YFT and 7.7 tonnes of SKJ were taken by minor line gear.

The minor line and recreational fisheries caught about 650 tonnes of tuna during a recent year.

The catches of SKJ by purse-seine and pole-and-line vessels in the eastern Australian fishing zone declined to 84 tonnes in 2002.

During 2000-2002, longline vessels caught an annual average of 3 417 tonnes* of YFT, SBF, BET and ALB (63 percent YFT).

Sources of information: Bromhead and Findlay (2003).

Using National Recreational Fishing Survey data, the total recreational catch of tuna and bonito in eastern Australia was estimated to be as high as 1 000 tonnes for the 2000-2001 year. About 32 percent of this was bonitos and tunas other than the principal market species of tuna.


The 114 longliners range from 15 m in length to industrial-size vessels capable of fishing far offshore. As the average number of hooks set per day is about 500, a significant portion of the longline fleet should probably be considered to be non-industrial.

*dressed weight (rather than round weight).


Cook Islands

The troll and handline tuna catches around the About 80 tonnes of tuna are caught main island of Rarotonga were 35 tonnes in 1998 per year. and 59 tonnes in 1999, but have decreased in recent years because of competition in the market with bycatches of longliners.

About 80 tonnes of tuna are caught per year.

14 local longliners 12 to 20 m in length, plus 7 foreign fishing vessels have been reported. At least some of these vessels should be considered to be industrial.

In 2002, a total of 1 117 tonnes of tuna was caught by the local and foreign fleets.

Sources of information: Mitchell (2003), staff of the Ministry of Marine Resources, SPC web site, Chapman (2004).

There is a very active FAD programme throughout the Cook Islands.





Federated States of Micronesia

Trolling for tuna produces about 57 tonnes of 1 957 tonnes of tuna per year. tuna per year, which is sold locally.

1957 tonnes of tuna per year

The domestic longline fleet has 18 vessels, some of which are industrial in scale.

The entire tuna catch of this fleet in 2002 was 259 tonnes.

Sources of information: Gillett et al.(2001), Park (2003).

Subsistence catches of tuna, mainly in the outer islands, taken by handlining and trolling with outboard-powered motorboats or by canoe. Subsistence fishing yields about 1 900 tonnes per year.





Fiji

Prior to deployments of FADs, mainly around Suva, at the end of 1991, artisanal tuna production was about 150 tonnes per year, after which it increased to about 250 tonnes during the following two years.

About 1 000 tonnes per year.

101 longliners (from 13 m up in length) in 2001 and 2002.

An average of 10 800 tonnes of tuna (74 percent ALB) has been reported for 2001 and 2002.

Sources of information: Amoe (2003), Anderson and Gates (1996), Gillett (2003).

Judging from the distribution of the population and fishing effort, it can be crudely estimated that about 25 percent of Fiji’s artisanal tuna production is from the Suva area.


2 to 3 pole-and-line vessels in 2001-2002.



French Polynesia1

The coastal tuna fishery uses two types of boats: (1) the poti marara, 237 vessels in 2002, 6 to 8 m in length, and (2) the bonitier, 55 vessels in 2002, 10 to 12 m in length.

In 2002 the bonitiers caught 919 tonnes of SKJ, YFT and ALB, and the poti marara caught 619 tonnes of SKJ, YFT and ALB.

The offshore longline fleet has four kinds of vessels:

The total catch from the fleet in 2002 was 5 713 tonnes of ALB, BET and YFT (80 percent ALB).

Sources of information: Misselis (2003), Misselis (2002).

In order to support the coastal fishery, the Fisheries Department maintains a permanent network of 30 FADs around the Windward Group (Tahiti, Moorea, Tetiaroa and Maiao) and approximately 10 FADs in the Leeward Group.

1 538 tonnes of tuna total.

1) Longlining bonitiers, 6 vessels in 2002, which are SKJ boats converted to longlining;

The two larger categories of longliners are considered industrial, and produced about half of the catch in 2002.




2) fresh-fish longliners, 30 vessels in 2002, which comprises boats 13 to 20 m in length made of steel or fibrereinforced plastic;





3) mixed longliners, 2 vessels in 2002, which are 21-m steel boats;





4) freezer longliners, 16 vessels in 2002: 25 to 26 m steel vessels.



Guam

12 to 48 foot (4 to 15 m) trolling, handlining and sport-fishing charter vessels (375 in total).

SKJ, 60.0 tonnes; YFT, 14.3 tonnes; 74.3 tonnes total per year.

None (only Guam-based foreign longline vessels).

None.

Sources of information: NOAA (2003).

Hawaii

Trolling (1 451 CMLs) and hand-lining (164 CMLs).

BET, 234 tonnes; YFT, 526 tonnes; SKJ, 80 tonnes per year.

Longline, 100 vessels.

Longline: BET, 4 395 tonnes; YFT, 571 tonnes; ALB, 26 tonnes; SKJ, 128 tonnes; total, 5 120 tonnes per year.

Sources of information: 2002 unpublished data, NOAA Fisheries Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center.

CML is a State of Hawaii commercial fishing license, which may or may not equate to a fishing vessel.

A total of 840 tonnes of tuna per year.

Pole-and-line, 5 vessels.

Pole-and-line: SKJ, 241 tonnes; YFT, 1 tonne per year.




Pole-and-line vessels range from about 55 to 70 feet (17 to 21 m), and the longliners from about 50 to 100 feet (15 to 30 m).



Kiribati

There are approximately 200 to 250 small, motorized skiffs based in South Tarawa, which troll for tuna and other large pelagic species. The weekly landings of tuna in Tarawa by these small-scale vessels are about 33 tonnes. The weekly production for the other 17 islands of Kiribati ranges from 0.5 to 20 tonnes per island, averaging 8 tonnes per island.

About 7 500 tonnes per year.

There is a 33 foot (10 m) catamaran longline vessel and an ex-US longline vessel, but there was very little fishing by these vessels in 2002.

Almost none.

Sources of information: Gillett and Lightfoot (2001), Kirata (2003).

Marshall Islands

It is estimated that 444 tonnes of fish are taken per year by small-scale commercial vessels. Government fisheries officials believe that tuna make up between 5 percent and 10 percent of these landings.

About 35 tonnes per year.

Although 54 longliners were based in the Marshall Islands in early 2003, these were all foreign-owned industrial vessels.

None.

Sources of information: Joseph (2003), Gillett (2003).

Nauru

The Nauru fisheries newsletter (NFMRA, 1998) gives the following information on monthly catches of "pelagic catches": May 1998, 9.5 tonnes; April 1998, 11.9 tonnes; June 1998, 14.9 tonnes; July 1998, 8.9 tonnes. It is likely that about 75 percent of these fish were tuna.

About 90 tonnes per year.

The Nauru Fisheries Corporation has two catamaran longliners (18 m and 15 m).

About 10 tonnes per year.

Sources of information: Gillett (2003), NFMRA (1998).



The tuna catch of the larger vessel in 2001 was "500 kg per week for a few months". There was not much fishing by these vessels in 2002.



New Caledonia

About 10 vessels participate occasionally in trolling.

Not likely to be more than 50 tonnes per year.

There were 25 longliners in 2002, of which 11 were less than 50 GRT and 14 were more than 50 GRT.

In 2002, 272 tonnes of YFT, 189 tonnes of BET and 1 165 tonnes of ALB were reported.

Sources of information: Etaix-Bonnin (2003), SPC staff, Chapman (2004).

Four or five FADs were reported to be deployed in late 2003.





A small amount of recreational fishing occurs.





New Zealand

"Other gear" caught about 3 tonnes of ALB and SKJ in 2001.

For the purpose of this report, the annual catch of tuna by small-scale fishing is assumed to be 10 percent of the troll catch, or about 350 tonnes per year.

Over 90 percent of the troll fleet (328 vessels in 2001) is less than 50 GRT, but some are more than 150 GRT.

Annual troll catches have averaged 3 472 tonnes of ALB, 24 tonnes of YFT, 16 tonnes of SKJ and 8 tonnes of SBF in the 1990s; a total of 3 520 tonnes of tuna.

Sources of information: Murray et al. (2002).

It is likely that a significant proportion of the troll catch (given to the right), comes from small-scale fishing activity, but information to enable partitioning it into categories of scale is not readily available.


About 65 percent of the longline fleet is less than 50 GRT, but some are more than 500 GRT.

The annual longline catches have averaged 981 tonnes ALB, 188 tonnes BET, 13 tonnes BFT, 303 tonnes SBF, 2 tonnes SKJ and 76 tonnes YFT; 1 563 tonnes of tuna.


Niue

The artisanal fleet consists of 100 outrigger canoes and 50 aluminium skiffs.

About 100 tonnes per year.

None.

None.

Sources of information: Pasisi (2003), Chapman (2004).

There is currently a FAD programme.





Many vessels, and probably all deployed FADs, were destroyed by a cyclone in January 2004.





Northern Marianas

The fleet consists of 12 to 24 foot (4 to 7 m) trolling and hand-lining vessels (142 subsistence and/or recreational plus 121 part- or full-time commercial fishing vessels), plus 27 sport-fishing charter boats.

SKJ. 60.9 tonnes; YFT, 6.6 tonnes; other tuna, 1.7 tonnes; total, 69.2 tonnes per year.

None.

None.

Sources of information: NOAA (2003).

There is currently a FAD programme.





Palau

There are about 20 to 30 boats from Koror that occasionally troll outside the reef. In addition, there are about 10 vessels that occasionally participate in commercial sport fishing.

About 75 tonnes per year.

The fleet consists of Asian-owned industrial longliners and one locally-owned industrial pole-and-line vessel.


Sources of information: Sisior (2003), Gillett (1999), Chapman (2004).

Eight Philippine-style handline boats operate near FADs. There are both government and private FAD programmes.





Papua New Guinea

Few data are available on subsistence catches of tuna, but 10 percent of the estimated annual subsistence production of 26 000 tonnes is thought to be comprised of pelagic species, including tuna.

About 3 000 tonnes per year.

In late 2002 there were 40 locally-based longline vessels, a few of which could be considered to be smaller than industrial in scale.

In 2002 the catches of the entire longline fleet were: 1 832 tonnes of YFT, 368 tonnes of BET, 159 tonnes of ALB; 2 359 tonnes total (70 percent YFT).

Sources of information: Gillett (2003).

There is some commercial catch of tuna.





Pitcairn Islands

The very small amount of fishing by the 47 residents does not target tuna.

Likely to be less than 3 tonnes per year.

None.

None.


Samoa

During the mid-1990s, trolling for tuna produced about 100 tonnes of tuna per year.

About 2 476 tonnes of tuna in 2001 (mostly ALB).

During 2001 the catches of tuna were as follows: 14 Class B-longline vessels (l0 to 12.5 m), 428 tonnes; 8 Class-C longline vessels (12.5 to 15 m), 992 tonnes; 11 Class D-longline vessels (longer than 15 m), 2 383 tonnes.

About 3 800 tonnes of tuna (mostly ALB) were caught in 2001.

The longline fleet contains vessels from 9 m to 25 m. For the purpose of this report, Class-A longline vessels (less than 10 m) are considered to be "small scale".

The 116 Class-A longline vessels (less than 10 m) caught 2 376 tonnes of tuna in 2001.




Sources of information: Sua et al. (2003), Watt and Imo (2003), Gillett (2003), staff of AusAID/ Samoa Fisheries Project.

Solomon Islands

Small-scale commercial landings of tuna have been estimated by a fish-marketing specialist to be about 300 tonnes per year.

About 1 600 tonnes per year in recent years.

Although there were 8 longline and 12 pole-and-line vessels operating in late 2002, these are considered to be industrial in scale.


Sources of information: Oreihaka (2002), Gillett (2003), staff of the EU Fisheries Project, Gillett and Lightfoot (2001), Chapman (2004).

During the mid-1980s, all small-scale landings of tuna (commercial and subsistence) were estimated to be about 10 percent of the entire small-scale fisheries catch.





The small-scale commercial and subsistence fish catch (all species) was estimated to be 16 200 tonnes in 2001.





There is a private-sector FAD programme.





Tokelau

There are many part-time subsistence fishers.

About 50 tonnes per year.

None.

None.

Sources of information: Gillett and Toloa (1987), Gillett (1985), Dalzell et al. (1996), Gillett (1985), Chapman (2004).

A large variety of traditional techniques is used, including catching YFT by noose from un-powered canoes.





It can be inferred from a study in the late 1980s that the present annual catch of tuna is about 50 tonnes. This is consistent with the information in an SPC report for the mid-1990s.





Tonga

Coastal trolling for tuna and other pelagic species is well-established in some fishing communities throughout Tonga, notably on ‘Eua, ‘Atata, Euaiki, ‘Uiha and Ofolaga, but no catch data are available.

For the purpose of this report, it is assumed that about 50 tonnes of tuna are taken per year.

Of the 33 longliners, 17 are locally-owned or based. About half of the longliners are more than 20 m long.

The longline tuna catch in 2002 was 1 455 tonnes (72 percent ALB).

Sources of information: Ministry of Fisheries (2003), Gillett et al. (1998).

There are about 10 commercial sport-fishing vessels.





Tuvalu

There is no fisheries statistical system, but various projects and studies have made estimates of the fisheries production. The information suggests that the annual small-scale commercial catch of tuna is about 110 tonnes. The subsistence catch of tuna is perhaps twice that amount.

330 tonnes, mostly SKJ, per year.

None, except for inter-island trolling by a large government vessel.

Very little.

Sources of information: Gillett and Lightfoot (2001).

Most of the fish are caught by trolling.





Vanuatu

Only very small tuna catches from sport fishing and bottom fishing vessels.

Likely to be less than 10 tonnes per year.

None.

None.

Sources of information: Naviti (2003).

Wallis and Futuna

There is only sporadic trolling outside the reef in Wallis. One FAD was reported off Futuna in late 2003.

Likely to be less than 10 tonnes per year.

None.

None.

Sources of information: Chapman (2004).

Appendix 2 - Non-industrial tuna fishing in the Eastern Pacific Ocean


Small-scale tuna fishing

Medium-scale tuna fishing

Comments

Types of small-scale fishing

Information on landings by small-scale fishing

Types of medium-scale fishing

Information on landings by medium-scale fishing

Canada

Recreational, if any.

Probably quite small.

The 150 to 250 vessels that fish for tuna in the eastern Pacific Ocean are divided into two fleets: (1) the coastal trolling fleet, which consists of vessels of 35 to 60 feet (11 to 18 m) in length; and (2) the offshore fleet, which is made up of vessels mostly greater than 60 feet (18 m).

In 2001, 4 826 tonnes of ALB was landed.

Sources of information: FAO database (Areas 67 and 77), Stocker and Shaw (2003).




In 2002, 4 866 tonnes of ALB was landed.


Chile

"Artisanal" swordfish vessels are defined as those less than 28 m in length.

Very small or insignificant.

A small amount of ALB, as bycatch of the swordfish fishery, is taken, but most of the bycatch is shark.

In 2000, 100 tonnes of YFT, BET, SKJ and ALB was landed.

Tropical tunas are more prevalent during El Niño conditions.




In 2001, 130 tonnes of YFT, BET, SKJ and ALB was landed.

Sources of information: Weidner and Serrano (1997), descriptions by IATTC staff; FAO data.

Colombia

Very little fishing targeting tuna.

Probably less than 10 tonnes per year.

About six shrimp boats do some longlining during the off-season, but there is no domestic Colombian commercial longline fleet.


Sources of information: descriptions by IATTC staff, Weidner and Serrano (1997).

Costa Rica

National statistics indicate there are 1 837 vessels in the "flota artesanal", which target tuna or occasionally catch tuna. Almost all of these vessels are outboard-powered, and about 87 percent are less than 10 m in length. They use a variety of gear, but most of the tuna is caught on small longlines and hand-lines. In addition to tuna, they catch dorado, sharks and marlins.

The following catches have been recorded: 1999: 1 042 tonnes of YFT and BET; 2000: 1 098 tonnes of YFT and BET; 2001: 1 144 tonnes of YFT and BET; 2002: 773 tonnes of YFT and BET.

There are 73 Costa Rica-flag longliners. These range from 10 to 25 m in length. Many vessels target sharks, rather than tuna.

The following catches have been recorded: 1999: 14 tonnes of YFT and BET; 2000: 12 tonnes of YFT and BET; 2001: 16 tonnes of YFT and BET; 2002: 7 tonnes of YFT and BET.

Relatively good statistics because of linking subsidized fuel with the provision of statistics.


The annual catch is about 1 000 tonnes of YFT and BET.



The small-scale tuna landings are about 10 times those of the longline fleet.





Sources of information: national statistics and reports provided by IATTC.

Ecuador

Various reports indicate that from 5 000 to 15 000 small outboard-powered fibreglass boats catch YFT and BET, using hand-lines and small longlines. Some operate from the shore, and others are towed offshore by motherships. Dorado are targeted part of the year.

Some fishery specialists believe that somewhat less than half of the 90 000 tonnes Ecuador tuna catch comes from the small-scale operations. This equates to 45 000 tonnes, or 4.5 tonnes per small boat per year.

In total, 181 large longliners and 3 pole-and-line vessels are reported. The number of vessels that would fit into the category of "medium scale" is unknown.

There is not enough information to make an estimate.

Only data for the exported tuna is available, but, according to knowledgeable individuals, it is likely that about 90 000 tonnes of tuna are caught per year.


Alternatively, an industry association reported that in recent years the average yearly YFT and BET landings from artisanal vessels to be 7 560 tonnes.



It is difficult to partition the estimated 90 000 tonnes of tuna landings into artisanal and industrial components.


In the absence of better data, in this report the catch of tuna by small-scale fisheries in Ecuador is assumed to be 25 000 tonnes, with the recognition that this estimate is little more than an educated guess.



Sources of information: descriptions by IATTC staff, tuna fishery consultants, Asociación de Exportadores de Pesca Blanca del Ecuador.

El Salvador

About 4 900 vessels (10-12 m) occasionally catch tuna, mainly by longline and handline, but the main target species are corvina, squid and snapper.

Likely to be less than 10 tonnes per year.

Only two to four longliners have been operational during the last few years. The two in 2000 were 22.85 and 20.42 m in length.

The following catches have been recorded in recent years: 2000: 17.9 tonnes of YFT and 11.3 tonnes of BET; 2001: 8.7 tonnes of YFT and 2.6 tonnes of BET; 2002: 20.8 tonnes of YFT and 7.3 tonnes of BET.

The artisanal fleet that catches tuna appears similar to that of Guatemala.





Sources of information: official documentation, descriptions by IATTC staff.

Guatemala

Vessels less than 10 m in length appear to be considered "artisanal". There are about 8 340 such vessels that occasionally catch tuna, but the primary targets are dorado, shark, corvina and pargo. Most of the tuna is caught by small-scale longline and gillnet vessels.

These vessels are likely to catch less than 5 tonnes per year.

There are 65 Guatemala-flag longliners, with carrying capacities ranging from 4 to 105 tonnes.

As these vessels do not target tuna, the catches of these are quite small, probably less than 10 tonnes per year.

National statistics coverage of small-scale tuna fishing, but only for the number of vessels.





Sources of information: national vessel registry, descriptions by IATTC staff.

Honduras

There is very little fishing targeting tuna.

Probably less than 10 tonnes per year.

Four longliners are larger than 10 m, but do not target tuna.

Probably less than 10 tonnes per year.

Only a very small Pacific coast.





Sources of information: descriptions by IATTC staff.

Mexico

There is no readily available information on catches of tuna by artisanal craft on the Pacific coast. Most tuna catches appear to be bycatches of vessels fishing for shark, pargo and bottom fish; the sport-fishing catches of tuna are probably significant near resort areas.

The small vessel handline fishery in Oaxaca state (one of 11 states which border the Pacific Ocean) caught an annual average of 235 tonnes of tuna during 1997-2002.

There are 127 longline and 8 pole-and-line vessels on the Pacific coast of Mexico, but only 2 of the pole-and-line vessels fished in 2002.

The two active pole-and-line vessels caught about 500 tonnes of SKJ and 300 tonnes of YFT in 2002.

Unlike other eastern Pacific countries, most tuna specialists in Mexico seem to focus on individual states, rather than the entire country, and therefore it is difficult to make even a crude estimation of the small-scale tuna catches all along the Pacific coast of Mexico.


In the absence of better data, in this report the catch of tuna by small-scale fisheries in Mexico is assumed to be 5 000 tonnes.

The IATTC database shows that during 1991-1995 an annual average of 130 tonnes of tuna was caught by other or unknown gear.


According to the IATTC staff, a study of the artisanal tuna fisheries will soon begin.





Sources of information: descriptions by IATTC staff, G. Compean (per. com.), J. Joseph (per. com.), Instituto Nacional de la Pesca (2001).

Nicaragua

Official documentation indicates three categories of artisanal craft: lancha (inboard engine, with cabin), panga (intermediate), and bote (dugout). There are approximately 4 900 artisanal craft in these three categories that catch tuna, along with dorado and sharks, mostly by small longlines and handlines.

The following catches, consisting mainly of YFT and SKJ, have been recorded: 1999, about 31 000 pounds (14 tonnes); 2000, about 27 000 pounds (12 tonnes); 2001, about 128 000 pounds (60 tonnes).

Although there are a many industrial vessels, there appear to be only 42 of these craft that occasionally catch tuna. The others are shrimpers, which catch tuna only sporadically.

The following catches have been recorded: 1999, 6 848 pounds (3 tonnes); 2000, about 24 000 pounds (10 tonnes); 2001, 649 pounds (0.3 tonnes).

The artisanal fleet that catches tuna appears to be similar to that of Guatemala.


The annual average is about 29 tonnes of YFT and SKJ.



Sources of information: official documentation, Rivera (2001), descriptions by IATTC staff.

Panama

There are about 6 000 outboard-powered craft less than 12 m in length that target tuna, dorado and sharks. There are several artisanal ports, but hundreds of artisanal landing points. Longlining is the principal technique for catching tuna from these vessels.

About 3 000 to 4 000 tonnes of tuna (mainly YFT) are caught per year.

There are 337 Panama-flag longline vessels, some of which could be medium scale.

It is difficult to distinguish the catches from those of flag-of-convenience vessels.

There are data on the artisanal fleet, other than approximate vessel numbers.





Sources of information: verbal communication from national authorities, US import data, descriptions by IATTC staff.

Peru


During 2002 2 227 tonnes of YFT and 1 920 tonnes of SKJ was landed by artisanal vessels. However, some fishery specialists believe that small-scale tuna fishing may result in catches as great as those in Ecuador.

There is some industrial longlining and some purse seining.


During 1997-2000 the official data show an annual average of about 3 500 tonnes of YFT and SKJ was landed by the industrial and small-scale fleets.


In the absence of better data, in this report the catch of tuna by small-scale fisheries is assumed to be 4 000 tonnes.



Sources of information: official documentation, descriptions by IATTC staff.

United States

Mainly recreational.

In 2000 recreational fishing resulted about 86 000 ALB, 6 000 PBF and 115 000 YFT being landed in California, Oregon and Washington. At 10 kg per fish, this represents about 2 000 tonnes.

There are commercial fisheries for tuna, using trolling, gillnet, longline, pole-and-line and hook-and-line gear.

In 2001, 11 078 tonnes of ALB, 45 tonnes of BET, 21 tonnes of PBF, 3 tonnes of SKJ, and 19 tonnes of YFT was landed on the US west coast; 11 166 tonnes total.

Sources of information: NOAA unpublished data, Southwest region PACFIN database; NOAA Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey database.


[32] "Flag of convenience" vessels also complicated the situation for some countries.
[33] The other categories are purse-seine, longline, pole/line and troll.
[34] This scheme benefited from input from the second meeting of the FAO project's Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) in March 2004. It was subsequently adopted by the TAC.

Previous Page Top of Page Next Page