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Appendix 3 - Non-industrial tuna fishing in the Western Atlantic Ocean



Small-scale tuna fishing

Medium-scale tuna fishing

Comments

Types of small-scale fishing

Information on landings by small-scale fishing

Types of medium-scale fishing

Information on landings by medium-scale fishing

Antigua and Barbuda

Most large pelagic fish are caught by sportfishing vessels. There are about 35 of these vessels, ranging from 6 to 17.5 m in length; some tuna are taken by gillnetting and trolling.

Probably less than 10 tonnes of tuna per year.

Longliners 7 to 15 m in length have been reported to operate in the past.

Presently none.

Sources of information: Looby 2002, Chakalall and Cochrane (2004), Mahon (2004), descriptions by the staff of FAO Subregional Office for the Caribbean.

Argentina

Because of the width of the Argentinean continental shelf, there is probably little, if any, tuna fishing from small vessels.

Likely to be very small.

Although there are 7 longliners operating in Argentina, they target bottom species. No tuna longlining has been reported in recent years.

Little, if any.

No tuna catch reported to ICCAT during 1998-2002.





Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO fishery country profile.

Bahamas

Fishing effort is directed primarily at demersal resources, but some large pelagic fish are caught by trolling.

Probably less than 50 tonnes per year.

Longlining has been banned, because of perceived conflicts.

Probably none.

During 1986-1996 an annual average of 62 tonnes of YFT was caught in the Bahamas zone by all types of fishing.

There is both commercial and private sport fishing.




Sources of information: Chakalall and Cochrane (2004), Die (2004), descriptions by staff of FAO Subregional Office for the Caribbean, staff of the CARICOM Fisheries Unit.

Barbados

Three classes of vessels, day boats (decked), ice boats (decked) and longliners, occasionally catch tuna. The first two classes of vessels catch tuna mostly by troll and gillnet gear.

Tuna represents about 5 percent of the total fish landings of about 2 500 tonnes in the Barbados.

The 31 local longliners are mostly 45 to 55 feet (14 to 17 m) in length, and are responsible for about 85 percent of the Barbados tuna catch.

About 105 tonnes in 2002.

During the 1990s annual averages of 7 tonnes of SKJ and 156 tonnes of YFT were reported to FAO.

There are about eight commercial sportfishing operations.

In 2002 the three smaller classes of vessels caught about 20 tonnes of tuna, about 90 percent of which was YFT.



Locally, "tuna" commonly does not include SKJ, which is often reported as bonito.





Sources of information: Barbados Fisheries Division officials; FAO documents.

Belize

The number of undecked boats with outboard engines is unknown. Because of the extensive reef system, there is little offshore fishing by small-scale vessels. There is some gillnetting, but this targets Scomberomorus.

Probably less than 10 tonnes per year.

Although there are a many Belize-registered longliners (reportedly about 900 flag of convenience vessels), only one longliner, less than 15 m in length, was reported to be operating in 2001.

Probably less than 10 tonnes of tuna is landed per year.

Sources of information: Chakalall and Cochrane (2004); Mahon (2004), descriptions by the staff of FAO Subregional Office for the Caribbean.

There is some sport fishing by both local residents and tourists.





Brazil

For statistical purposes, "artisanal" is defined to be fishing from boats less than 12 to 15 m in length, and less than 20 GRT.

The tuna landings by artisanal fisheries in 2000 were: YFT, 13 tonnes; ALB, 175.5 tonnes; SKJ, 22 tonnes; Thunnus spp., 1 197.5 tonnes; "bonito" (SKJ, Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleteratus, or Sarda sarda), 1 958.5 tonnes.

Because "artisanal" includes vessels up to 15 m in length, that category probably encompasses most non-industrial tuna fishing.

The pole-and-line fishery catches about 25 000 tonnes per year (85 percent SKJ).

Sources of information: Freire (2004), FAO/FIRM tuna database.


Depending on the composition of the "bonito" category, the above could perhaps represent about 2 000 tonnes of tuna.

There is a pole-and-line fishery in Brazil, but the size of the participating vessels is not readily available.



Canada

Fishing by harpoon, rod and reel and trapping was reported to ICCAT.

For these gears, an average of 477 tonnes per year during 1998-2002 was reported to ICCAT from the northwest Atlantic, of which about 96 percent was BFT and 3 percent BET.

Gillnetting is considered to be in this category.

Gillnetting did not produce any catch by Canadian vessels during 1998-2002.

Source of information: ICCAT database.



It was not possible to partition longliners by size. For the purpose of this study, Canadian longliners are all considered to be industrial.



Colombia

A few small longliners operate, primarily for sharks.

ICCAT data show that "unclassified" gear has taken 46 to 50 tonnes of YFT per year during recent years.

Little, if any.


Although Colombia has tuna resources, these are located predominantly on the Pacific Ocean.





Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO fishery country profile, NMFS web site "World Swordfish Fishery".

Costa Rica

There is very little tuna fishing on the Caribbean coast; but there is some commercial sport fishing.

0.72 tonnes of tuna was landed in 1992.

Little, if any.


Sources of information: government summary of unloading; sport fishing web sites.

Cuba

Three FADs were reported in 2001.

A catch of 15 tonnes of YFT was reported from sport fishing in 1999.

42 pole-and-line and longline vessels were reported in 2001. The pole-and- line vessels are about 18 m in length. Blackfin tuna makes up about one-third of the pole-and-line catch.

During 1998-2000, an annual average of 651 tonnes of SKJ was reported caught by the pole-and-line fleet. No catch was reported in 2001 or 2002.

Sources of information: Martin (2002), ICCAT database.


"Unclassified gear" caught YFT during most of the 1990s (40 tonnes in both 1996 and 1997).

Longliners target marlin and shark, but catch few tuna.

65 tonnes of YFT was reported caught by longline gear in 2002.


Dominica

961 artisanal vessel fished for coastal pelagic fish in 2001,

367 tonnes of "migratory pelagics" were reported caught in 1998. If one-quarter of these were tuna, and half of that was caught by artisanal vessels, the artisanal tuna catch would be about 45 tonnes per year.

Three longline vessels were reported in 2001.

The catch included in the 367 tonnes of "migratory pelagics" caught in 1998; perhaps 45 tonnes of tuna caught by longliners.

During 1998-2002 an annual average of 150 tonnes of tuna (60 percent YFT and 40 percent SKJ) was reported to ICCAT.

One commercial and two private sport fishing vessels were reported in 2002.




Sources of information: Sebastian (2002), FAO database, Chakalall and Cochrane (2004).

Dominican Republic

The "professional artisanal fishery" has vessels that fish in oceanic waters as far offshore as 40 km.

For the purpose of this report, the catch from small-scale tuna fishing is assumed to be about 250 tonnes per year.

For the purpose of this report, the catch from this category of tuna fishing is assumed to be about 250 tonnes per year.


According to the ICCAT database, "surface fisheries unclassified" have resulted in annual landings of about 255 tonnes of tuna during 1998-2002.

The annual catch of these vessels ranges from 2 to 8 tonnes per vessel, of which an unknown percentage is tuna.




The CARICOM Fisheries Unit reports 446 tonnes and 528 tonnes of tuna.

There is some commercial sport fishing.




According to a recent survey, large pelagic fish (king mackerel, bluefin tuna, wahoo, dolphin, barracuda, yellow fin tuna) make up 33 percent of the fish catch of the country, which, according to the FAO profile, is 11 579 tonnes per year.

There is a report of an increase in the use of FADs recently.




Sources of information: FAO country profile, ICCAT database, sport fishing web sites, Brown (2000), Singh-Renton (2002).

France (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Barthelemy and St. Martin)

In Guadeloupe the following categories of boats were involved in tuna fishing: 758 small boats, 8 coastal boats, and one open ocean boat in 2000. Trolling targets dorado and wahoo, but YFT makes up about 25 percent of the catch around FADs.

In Martinique in 1993 about 3 230 tonnes of fish was caught by trolling.

No information available.


A crude estimate was obtained by extrapolating one source of limited information, Martinique, to the other islands.

In Martinique there were 869 small boats, 41 coastal boats, and 32 open-ocean boats in 2000. In 1993 the pelagic trolling catch was about 25 percent YFT and/or SKJ.

Due to influence of the Amazon River, it is likely that there is very little tuna fishing off French Guiana.



No tuna catches have been reported to FAO/ICCAT from this area since the 1970s.


A crude estimate of the annual tuna catch by trolling in all these areas is about 1 200 tonnes.



Source: Diaz et al.(2002), Doray et al.(2002), descriptions by the staff of the FAO Subregional Office for the Caribbean.

Grenada

About 500 open boats with outboard engines and 30 medium longliners were reported in 2001.

The catch is about 4.5 tonnes of tuna per small longliner per year, or about 600 tonnes per year for the small longline fleet. The troll catch is unknown, but assumed for this report to be 1 tonne per pirogue per year, or a fleet total of 200 tonnes per year.

There are 63 longliners, 34 to 60 feet (10 to 18 m) in length.

About 40 000 to 50 000 pounds (18 to 23 tonnes) per vessel per year. Assuming that not all vessels are fully operational, the catch is about 1 000 tonnes per year for the fleet.

During the 1990s annual averages of 15 tonnes of SKJ, 360 tonnes of YFT, 3 tonnes of ALB and 8 tonnes of BET were reported to FAO (386 tonnes average annual total).

The following numbers of boats were involved in tuna fishing: 215 open pirogues (trolling), 75 small open longliners, and 30 medium longliners (less than 32 feet (10 m).

A crude annual estimate is 800 tonnes for the small longliners and trolling pirogues.

The Grenada Fisheries Division reports 65 such longliners in November 2003.


During 2000-2002 an annual average of about 600 tonnes is given in the ICCAT database.

The Grenada Fisheries Division reported about 150 small longliners in November 2003.




NMFA reports that 356.6 tonnes of YFT and BET were exported from Grenada to the United States in 2002.

Beach seining, which takes place throughout the year, catches juvenile YFT and SKJ.




Sources of information: Baldeo (2002), Mahon (2004), information from Grenada Fisheries Division staff, the staff of the CARICOM Fisheries Unit, FAO/ICCAT databases, US National Marine Fisheries Service import database.

Guatemala

Little, if any tuna fishing on Caribbean coast

Probably none.

Little, if any, such tuna fishing on Caribbean coast.

Probably none.

Sources of information: FAO/ICCAT databases, descriptions by the staff of the FAO Subregional Office for the Caribbean.

No catch is reported in the FAO/ICCAT databases.





Guyana

There is almost no directed tuna fishing, but some could be caught in conjunction with other fishing activities.

Probably less than 5 tonnes per year.

Almost no tuna fishing.

Probably none.

Sources of information: FAO/ICCAT databases, descriptions by the staff of the FAO Subregional Office for the Caribbean, the staff of the CARICOM Fisheries Unit.

There are no catch reports in the FAO/ICCAT databases.





Large pelagic fisheries are "just now developing" according to a recent report.





Haiti

No information is readily available.

Tuna resources are likely to bear some similarity to those of the Dominican Republic.

Due to lack of capital and infrastructure, there is likely to be little, if any, tuna fishing of this scale.


There are no catch reports in FAO/ICCAT databases; no exports to United States recorded; no FAO fishery country profile. There is some information in CRFM (2004).

36 percent of fishers in a recent survey claim to do some tuna fishing, but the survey report notes that this may express desire, rather than actuality.

For the purpose of this report, the small-scale tuna catches are assumed to be the same as those of the Dominican Republic, about 255 tonnes per year.




Honduras

Some sport fishing has been reported.

The catches are likely to be less than 10 tonnes per year.

There is little, if any, such tuna fishing.


No tuna catches are reported to FAO/ICCAT. There are no reports of artisanal or industrial tuna fishing in FAO fishery country profile.





Sources of information: FAO/ICCAT databases, sport fishing web sites.

Jamaica

475 open boats with outboard engines were reported in 2001. There is some gillnetting and trolling for pelagic fish.

For the purpose of this report, small-scale tuna catches are assumed to be 40 tonnes per year.

There is little, if any, such tuna fishing.


An annual average of 13 tonnes of YFT was caught in the Jamaica zone during 1986-1996 by all fishing methods.

According to the ICCAT database, in 1996 "unclassified fishing gear" caught 62 tonnes of SKJ and 21 tonnes of YFT.




Sources of information: Die (2004), Mahon (2004), Aiken (1993), descriptions by the staff of the FAO Subregional Office for the Caribbean, the staff of the CARICOM Fisheries Unit, ICCAT database.

Some sport fishing takes place.





Mexico

Although some of the longliners are reported to be small, for the purpose of this report, no longline fishing is considered to be in the category of small-scale.

None.

The typical longliner is greater than 10 GRT and carries from 6 to 18 crew members.

An annual average of 1 224 tonnes of tuna (about 90 percent YFT) was taken by Mexican longline gear in the Gulf of Mexico during 1997-2002.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, G. Compean (per. com.), Instituto Nacional de la Pesca (2001).

Nicaragua

Little, if any.

No tuna were caught in 2000.

Little, if any.

No tuna were caught in 2000.

Source of information: Rivera (2001).

Panama

According to the FAO fishery country profile, 95 percent of the fishing activity in Panama occurs in the Pacific Ocean. What little artisanal fishing occurs in the Caribbean Sea is directed primarily at lobster, octopus, crab and shrimp.

Probably none.

Probably none.


ICCAT records no tuna catches by Panamanian vessels during the past 20 years.





Source of information: FAO fishery country profile.

St. Kitts and Nevis

Large pelagic fish are caught by sport fishing and small-scale commercial fishing, mainly with trolling gear. There are 55 open boats with outboard engines that participate in commercial fishing. There are 13 commercial and 13 private sport-fishing vessels.

St. Kitts alone recorded an annual average of about 4.8 tonnes of "tuna/ mackerel" during 1995-2000.

There is no record of any medium-scale fishing. In addition, there is no safe harbour or facilities for larger boats, and there is a cultural aversion to multi-day trips.


Sources of information: Mahon (2004), Die (2004), Heyliger (2002), descriptions by the staff of the FAO Subregional Office for the Caribbean, ICCAT database, Singh- Renton (2002).

Recent increases in tuna landings are attributed to increasing use of FADs.

Probably about 5 tonnes are landed per year.




St. Pierre and Miquelon

The 1 tonne of BFT reported to ICCAT is likely to be from rod-and-reel fishing.

Probably none at present.

None.


In 1999, 1 tonne of BFT was reported to ICCAT.

No catches have been reported in any other years.




Source of information: ICCAT database.

St. Lucia

There are about 835 open vessels with outboard engines, plus about 20 to 30 commercial sport-fishing vessels.

From the amount of SKJ in the catch, it can be estimated that about 300 tonnes of tuna per year comes from trolling.

Four longliners in the size range of 7 to 15 m.

From the amount of SKJ in the catch, it can be estimated that about 30 tonnes of tuna per year comes from longlining.

Sources of information: FAO database, James (2002), Mahon (2004), descriptions by the staff of the FAO Subregional Office for the Caribbean, descriptions by the staff of the CARICOM Fisheries Unit.

An annual average of 332 tonnes of SKJ and YFT was landed during 1997-2001 by all gear types (trolling and longlining), of which 53 percent was SKJ and 47 percent was YFT.





Beach seining, which catches juvenile YFT and SKJ, takes place throughout the year.





St. Vincent and the Grenadines

There is a total of about 600 fishing vessels in the country. Flat transom boats, pirogues, canoes and launches participate in commercial tuna fishing. There are four commercial sportfishing vessels.

The proportion of the 181 tonnes of tuna that came from small-scale fishing is unknown. For the purpose of this report, it is assumed to be half, or about 90 tonnes, per year.

There are some longliners, ranging between 34.7 and 42 feet (11 and 13 m).

The proportion of the 181 tonnes of tuna that came from longlining is unknown. For the purpose of this report, it is assumed to be half, or about 90 tonnes, per year.

In the 1990s an annual average of 41 tonnes of SKJ, 38 tonnes of YFT and 1 tonne of BET was reported to FAO (annual average of 181 tonnes of all tuna).

Beach seining, which catches juvenile YFT and SKJ, takes place throughout the year.




Sources of information: James (2002), Die (2004), descriptions by the staff of the FAO Subregional Office for the Caribbean, descriptions by the staff of the CARICOM Fisheries Unit, Singh-Renton (2002).

Suriname

Artisanal fishing is defined as operations that take place in depths less than 10 m, implying there is no artisanal tuna fishing in Suriname.

Probably none.

Two longliners more than 15 m in length.

An annual average of 76 tonnes of YFT was caught around Suriname during 1986-1996 by all fishing methods.

Sources of information: FAO fishery country profile, Die (2004), Mahon (2004), descriptions by the staff of the FAO Subregional Office for the Caribbean.

The Netherlands Antilles (Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Maarten)

About 100 fishing vessels less than 12 m length operated in 2001.

Judging from the proportion of SKJ in the total tuna catch reported to ICCAT, the annual small-scale troll catch of tuna is likely to be about 60 tonnes.

Six semi-industrial longliners more than 12 m in length were reported in 2001. From the catch composition, it appears that this fleet targets swordfish.

Judging from the proportion of SKJ in the total tuna catch reported to ICCAT, the annual longline catch of tuna is likely to be about 70 tonnes.

During 1996-2000, an annual average of 30 tonnes of SKJ and 130 tonnes of YFT (both from "unclassified fishing gear") was reported to ICCAT.





Sources of information: Dilrosun (2002), Die (2004), descriptions by the staff of the FAO Subregional Office for the Caribbean.

Trinidad and Tobago

There are many open outboard-powered boats. Pelagic fishing targets wahoo, seerfish and sharks, and tuna are not often caught.

Probably less than 10 tonnes per year.

14 longliners between 7 and 15 m in length and 4 longliners more than 15 m in length.

Judging from past statistics, about 380 tonnes per year in recent years.

During the 1990s annual averages of 161 tonnes of YFT, 155 tonnes of ALB and 62 tonnes of BET were reported to FAO (annual average of 378 tonnes of all tuna).

In addition, the lack of SKJ in the catch statistics suggests that the catch of tuna by trolling is small.




Sources of information: Lalla (2002), Die (2004), descriptions by the staff of the FAO Subregional Office for the Caribbean.

UK -Virgin Islands

A 1991 survey found that there were about 300 artisanal fishermen operating in British Virgin Islands waters. Most artisanal fishing is carried out on the continental shelf, with very little tuna fishing being undertaken.

During 1997-2001 from 1 to 3 tonnes of YFT were reported to FAO.

Two locally based longliners started operating in the British Virgin Islands in 1985 and 1992.

Probably none.

Sources of information: Development Planning Unit (1997), FAO database.

About 60 commercial and private sportfishing operations were licensed during the mid-1990s. Many of these target inshore and slope species. Much of sport fishing in British Virgin Islands is foreign-based.

The present catches are not likely to be greater than about 5 tonnes per year.

Their present status is unknown, but low catch reports to FAO (less than 5 tonnes of tuna per year) suggest that the longliners are not active in tuna fishing.



UK - Bermuda

Sport fishing is quite important.

Rod-and-reel and "unclassified" gear types resulted in 37 to 67 tonnes of YFT per year during the past decade. No data are available for 2000.

34 tonnes of YFT longline-caught were reported in 2000, but the catch decreased to 1 tonne in 2001.

Little, if any.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, Bermuda on-line web site.

BFT were occasionally caught in the past, but are rare now.





It is likely that the "unclassified" catches are also rod-and-reel catches.





Other UK possessions in the tropical western Atlantic (Anguilla, Cayman Islands, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands)

Fishing is likely to be quite small, and limited to the bycatch of other types of small-scale fishing activities and sport fishing.

Not likely to be greater than 5 tonnes per year.

No information is readily available on such fishing.

Little, if any.

Source of information: descriptions by the staff of the FAO Subregional Office for the Caribbean.

USA (northwest Atlantic)

Fishing by handlines, rod-and-reel, trapping and trolling was reported to ICCAT.

An average of 5 077 tonnes per year from the northwestern Atlantic Ocean during 1998-2002 was reported to ICCAT. This consisted of about 71 percent YFT, 22 percent BFT and 6 percent ALB.

Gillnetting is considered to be in this category.

There were no catches of tuna by gillnetting during 1998-2002.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service annual landings web site.



As it was not possible to partition the longliners by size, for the purpose of this study, the longliners are all considered to be industrial.



USA (western tropical Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico)

Fishing by handlines, rod-and-reel, trapping and trolling was reported to ICCAT.

An average of 300 tonnes per year from the western tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico during 1998-2002 was reported to ICCAT. This consisted of about 86 percent YFT and 13 percent SKJ.

Gillnetting is considered to be in this category.

Gillnetting has produced between 1 and 3 tonnes per year during recent years.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service annual landings web site.



As it was not possible to partition the longliners by size, for the purpose of this study, the longliners are all considered industrial.



Uruguay

No information on any small-scale tuna fishing is available.

Little, if any.

There are 5 to 9 longliners targeting swordfish.

Catches of 15 to 224 tonnes of YFT, BET and ALB were reported to ICCAT annually during 1998-2002.

Sources of information: Dinara (2000), U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service fish import web site, seafood industry web sites.



54.6 tonnes of fresh YFT and BET were exported to the United States in 2002.



Venezuela

About 35 small gillnet vessels (7 to 10 m in length) make daily trips. The 2001 tuna catch consisted 15.4 tonnes of YFT, ALB and SKJ. About 70 to 75 vessels 9 to 14 m in length, which make 5 to 20 day trips, use handlines and pelagic longlines with 400 to 600 hooks. The 2001 tuna catch consisted of 68.5 tonnes of YFT, ALB and blackfin.

About 80 tonnes.

The U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service reported that 564 tonnes of fresh YFT and BET was imported into the United States during 2002.

During 1998-2002, annual longline catches of 266 to 561 tonnes were reported to ICCAT.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service fish import web site, sport fishing web sites, FAO fishery country profile, Alio et al.(1994), Marcano et al.(1994), J. Alio (per. com.), F. Arocha (per. com.), Venezuela’s National Report to ICCAT in 2002.

According to sport fishing web sites, there is some sport fishing for tuna in the Venezuela. A yacht club on the central coast recorded the capture of 651 YFT during 1990-2000.


No information is readily available on the sizes of the longliners.








Appendix 4 - Non-industrial tuna fishing in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean


Small-scale tuna fishing

Medium-scale tuna fishing

Comments

Types of small-scale fishing

Information on landings by small- scale fishing

Types of medium-scale fishing

Information on landings by medium-scale fishing

Angola

No small-scale fishing has been reported to ICCAT in recent years. Although the artisanal fisheries are very important in Angola (30 percent of all fish landings, 23 000 registered artisanal fishermen, 4 677 small fishing boats), there is little, if any, fishing effort directed at tuna.

Probably less than 20 tonnes per year.

Trap and unclassified gear were reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, these gear types produced an annual average of 3 tonnes of YFT and SKJ (71 percent YFT).

Sources of information: ICCAT database, Hampton et al.(2000).



Although catches by pole-and-line boats are reported, these are not included in the catch details to the right. For the purpose of this report, all pole-and-line fishing is considered to be industrial.



Benin

No small-scale tuna fishing have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

Assumed to be none.

Gillnet and "haul seine" gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, these gear types produced an annual average of 18 tonnes of YFT, SKJ and BET (60 percent BET).

Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO fishery country profile.



ICCAT’s "haul seine" appears to be the "sennes tournante" described by FAO.



Cameroon

No small-scale tuna fishing has been reported to ICCAT.

Assumed to be none.

No tuna catch has been reported to ICCAT.

Assumed to be none.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO fishery country profile.

Most small-scale marine fishing takes place within 3 nautical miles of estuaries, where catching tuna is unlikely. Shrimp and Sardinella spp. fisheries predominate.





Cape Verde

The only small-scale tuna fishing reported to ICCAT in recent years is by handline gear.

During 1998-2001 (no data are available for 2002), this gear produced an annual average of 1 308 tonnes of YFT and SKJ (97 percent YFT).

Although there is a significant amount of pole-and-line fishing (recently about 950 tonnes of tuna per year), this is considered to be industrial scale, as the vessels are up to 70 GRT, and fish as far away as Angola.


Sources of information: ICCAT database, Fonteneau and Marcille (1993), Fonseca (1999).

The artisanal fleet typically uses 4 to 8 m wooden boats with 8 to 25 horsepower outboard engines. There are about 1 500 boats, each with two or three men aboard. They fish close to the coast, and the main fishing gears are handlines for demersal fish and tuna, and purse-seines for small pelagic fish.





Congo

No small-scale fishing has been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

Assumed to be none.

No catches have been recorded by ICCAT in recent years. From the mid-1960s to the early 1990s some tuna catch, using "unclassified gear" was recorded.

Assumed to be none in recent years.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO fishery country profile.

Although there are significant artisanal marine fisheries using large canoes (many fishermen originate from Ghana and Togo). Sardinella spp. and demersal species are targeted.





Democratic Republic of the Congo

The coastline is only about 40 km long (160 km if the mouth of Congo River is included), and the EEZ is very small compared to those of the other African coastal countries. Furthermore, much of the small EEZ is reserved for oil production. The little marine artisanal fishing that occurs, targets near-shore species.

Assumed to be none.

None recorded by ICCAT.

Assumed to be none.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, SADC (1999), FAO fishery country profile.

Denmark

No small-scale tuna fishing has been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

Assumed to be none.

Only catches by "unclassified gear" have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

Except for 1 tonne of BFT in 1998, no tuna catches in this category have been reported recently.

Source of information: ICCAT database.




The ICCAT database also gives an estimate of 23 tonnes of YFT in 2001 for unreported catches by longline vessels.


Equatorial Guinea

No small-scale tuna fishing has been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

Assumed to be none.

Only catches by longline gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

ICCAT has received reports of longline catches of 1 tonne of BET in 1997 and 16 tonnes of BET in 2002.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO fishery country profile.

Small-scale fishers typically fish from canoes within 4 nautical miles of the coast, and target Sardinella spp. and Ethmalosa spp.


The ICCAT database also gives an estimate of unreported catches of 780 tonnes of BET and YFT during 2001.



Faroe Islands

No small-scale tuna fishing has been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

Assumed to be none.

Tuna catches by longline gear have been reported to ICCAT during recent years.

During 1998-2002 (no catches reported for 2001 or 2002), longline gear produced an annual average of 58 tonnes of YFT and BFT (99 percent BFT).

Source of information: ICCAT database.

France

Tuna catches by "surface fisheries unclassified" have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of 17 tonnes of ALB.

Tuna catches by gillnet and unclassified gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, these gear types produced an annual average of 1 966 tonnes of ALB, BET, BFT and SKJ (92 percent ALB, mostly by gillnet).

Sources of information: ICCAT database, Miyake et al.(2004).



Because of EU regulations, drift gillnet fishing has been banned since 2002.

The ICCAT database gives an estimate of unreported catches of 515 tonnes of BET in 2001 by longline vessels registered in "France OT".




Although catches by pole-and-line boats are reported (about 16 000 tonnes of tuna in 2002), this is not included in the catch details to the right. For the purpose of this report, all pole-and-line fishing is considered to be industrial.



Gabon

Tuna catches by "surface fisheries unclassified" and troll gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of 79 tonnes of BET, YFT and SKJ (44 percent YFT, mostly by surface unclassified gear).

Tuna catches by gillnet and unclassified gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2001 (no catch reported for 2002), these gear types produced an annual average of 212 tonnes of YFT, BET and SKJ (61 percent YFT, mostly by unclassified gear).

Source of information: ICCAT database.

It has been estimated that the entire marine artisanal fleet (including those that do not catch tuna) consists of 3 500 fishermen and 1 047 canoes.





Gambia

The ICCAT database does not show any reported tuna catches for Gambia.

During 1998-2001, an annual average of 2 tonnes of YFT was reported to FAO.

Although the ICCAT database does not show any reported tuna catches from Gambia, it gives an estimate for unreported catches of 383 tonnes of BET by longline vessels registered in Gambia in 2002.


Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO fishery country profile.

Gambia is a small country stretching along the banks of the River Gambia, and has only a short coastline. The marine fisheries resources are greatly influenced by the freshwater flow from the river, and hence large tuna catches would not be expected near shore.





Ghana

Fonteneau and Marcille (1993) report a very active artisanal tuna fishery, consisting of "multiple fishing gears: ringnets, gillnets, trollers, beach seines etc.". It is stated that "the artisanal fleets of Ghana are probably among the most ancient to have exploited Atlantic intertropical tuna".

Tuna catches by only "surface fisheries unclassified" have been reported to ICCAT in recent years. ICCAT staff members have stated that this unclassified gear is actually purse-seine gear. Therefore, according to the ICCAT data, there is no catch of tuna by small-scale gear.

Although there is a significant pole-and-line fishery, most vessels are more than 30.5 m long, with engines of 400 horsepower or more. This fleet is therefore considered industrial, for the purpose of this study.


Sources of information: ICCAT database, ICCAT staff, Fonteneau and Marcille (1993), Fonteneau (per. com.), FAO fishery country profile.

Guinea

The ICCAT database does not list any reported tuna catches from Guinea. The FAO database indicates a catch of 330 tonnes of BFT in 1994; no other tuna catches were recorded for 1950-2001.

Probably very little, if any.

The ICCAT database does not list any reported tuna catches from Guinea.


Sources of information: FAO database, FAO fishery country profile.

According to the FAO profile, the tuna resources of Guinea have not been evaluated or economically developed. Although there is an active marine artisanal fishery (2 358 boats), the main target species are Sardinella spp. and Ethmalosa spp.


The ICCAT database gives an estimate for unreported catches of 1 412 tonnes in 1998 and 1 870 tonnes in 1999 by longline vessels registered in Guinea.



Guinea Bissau

Neither the ICCAT nor the FAO databases list any tuna catches from Guinea Bissau.

Probably very little, if any.

The ICCAT database gives an estimate of unreported catches of 1 652 tonnes of BET by longline vessels in 2001.


Source of information: FAO fishery country profile.

According to the FAO profile, there are 107 fishing vessels in the archipelago, 29 of which are motorized. Most of the catch is reported to be "big and small demersals, pelagics and shrimps".





Iceland

No small-scale tuna fishing has been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

Assumed to be none.

Tuna catches only by longline gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of 6 tonnes of BFT. No other species was reported.

Source of information: ICCAT database.

Ireland

Tuna catches by trolling gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of 22 tonnes of ALB and BET (98 percent ALB).

Tuna catches by gillnet and longline gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2001, gillnet gear produced an annual average of 3 243 tonnes of ALB, YFT and BFT (more than 99 percent ALB).

Sources of information: ICCAT database, Miyake et al.(2004).



Because of EU regulations, drift gillnet fishing has been banned since 2002.

Longline gear has not produced any catches since 1999, when it produced 1 tonne of BFT.




The ICCAT database gives an estimate of unreported catches of 39 tonnes of BET by longline vessels in 2001.



Côte d’Ivoire

No small-scale tuna fishing has been reported to ICCAT.

Assumed to be none.

Some tuna catch by "unclassified gear" has been reported.

2 tonnes of YFT was reported for 1997; this is the only record in the ICCAT database of any tuna catches in the Ivory Coast.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO fishery country profile.

Although there is an active marine artisanal fishery (about 30 000 tonnes per year; 3 500 large canoes), tuna are apparently not targeted.





Liberia

The ICCAT database does not show any small-scale tuna catches from Liberia.

Assumed to be none.

The ICCAT database does not show any tuna catches from the Liberia, but the FAO database gives some catches.

Probably none from non- industrial vessels.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO fishery country profile.

There is an active marine artisanal fishery by both indigenous Kru fishermen and Fanti fishermen of Ghanaian descent, but tuna are apparently not targeted.





Mauritania

Neither the ICCAT nor the FAO databases list any tuna catches from Mauritania.

Assumed to be none.


Assumed to be none.

Sources of information: ICCAT database; FAO fishery country profile.

There is an active marine artisanal fishery (10 000 fishermen; 3 000 canoes), but tuna are apparently not targeted.





Morocco

The ICCAT database does not show any small-scale tuna catches from the Atlantic coast of Morocco.

Assumed to be none.

Tuna catches by gillnet, trap and unclassified gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002 the ICCAT database shows an annual average of 2 297 tonnes of BFT, BET, ALB and YFT (70 percent BFT, mostly by trap).

Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO fishery country profile.

There is an active marine artisanal fishery (18 000 vessels), but tuna are apparently not targeted.


Although catches by pole-and-line vessels are reported, these are not included in the catch details to the right. For the purpose of this report, all pole-and-line fishing is considered to be industrial.



Namibia

The ICCAT database does not show any small-scale tuna catches from Namibia.

Assumed to be none.

Tuna catches by only longline gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of 224 tonnes of YFT, BET and ALB (74 percent ALB).

Source of information: ICCAT database.



Although catches by pole-and-line boats are reported (recently an annual average of 2 600 tonnes), this is not included in the catch details to the right. For the purpose of this report, all pole- and-line fishing is considered to be industrial.



Nigeria

Neither the ICCAT nor the FAO databases lists any tuna catches from Nigeria.

Assumed to be none.

According to the FAO profile, Nigeria, because of technical constraints, is not actively participating in the exploitation of the offshore tuna resources.

Assumed to be none.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, Ssentongo et al.(1986), FAO fishery country profile.

According to the FAO profile, the artisanal canoe fleet exploits coastal waters up to 5 nautical miles from shore, targeting small pelagic fish (Sardinella spp. and Ethmalosa spp.). Although some shark longlining occurs farther offshore, the catch of tuna is very small, if any.





Portugal

Tuna catches by handline, trolling and unspecified surface gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of 1 236 tonnes of BET, BFT, ALB, YFT and SKJ (97 percent BET, mostly by unspecified surface gear).

Tuna catches by longline and trap gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, longline gear produced an annual average of 1 963 tonnes of BET, BFT, ALB, YFT and SKJ (85 percent BET).

Catches by Portugal reported in both north Atlantic, south Atlantic, and Azores areas.



Although catches by pole-and-line gear are reported, this is not included in the catch details to the right. For the purpose of this report, all pole-and-line fishing is considered to be industrial.

During 1998-2002, trap gear produced an annual average of 6 060 tonnes of BFT.

Source of information: ICCAT database.

Saint Helena (UK)

Tuna catches by only "rod and reel" have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 2001-2002, this gear produced an annual average of 20 tonnes of BET (no other species reported).

In recent years only longline gear catches have been reported to ICCAT.

During 2001-2002, this gear produced an annual average of 1 tonne of YFT (no other species reported).

Source of information: ICCAT database.

São Tomé et Principe

Tuna catches by "unclassified surface gear" have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of 2 tonnes of YFT (no other species recorded).

In this category, the only tuna catches reported to ICCAT were by "unclassified" gear.

During 1998-2002, the "unclassified" gear produced an annual average of 38 tonnes of BFT (no other species recorded).

Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO fishery country profile.

According to the FAO profile, the artisanal fishing fleet is made up of 2 400 canoes based on 19 beaches on São Tomé and 4 beaches on Principe.

According to the ICCAT database, the reported annual catches were much greater during the 1980s and early 1990s than at present (e.g. 227 tonnes per year during 1983-1992).

According to the FAO profile, the semi-industrial fleet was made up of six seiners (13 to 16 m), 5 longliners (12 m) and 21 "ligneurs" (13 m).

The ICCAT database also gives an estimate of unreported catches of 1 934 tonnes of BET and YFT by longline vessels in 2001.


Senegal

According to Fonteneau and Marcille (1993), the Senegalese artisanal tuna fishery has been catching tuna for several centuries, and is "currently very active and well-covered by fishing statistics".

Although tuna catches using hand, surface-unspecified and troll gears have been reported to ICCAT in previous years, no catches from these gears were reported during 1998-2002, nor in the national statistics for 1996-2002.

No tuna catches by gear in this category were reported to ICCAT during 1998-2002.


Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO fishery country profile, Fonteneau and Marcille (1993), Anonymous 1998, Hallier (per. com.).

There are other reports that the artisanal fleet is experiencing "dynamic growth", and that YFT is part of the catch.


The pole-and-line fleet caught an annual average of 1 823 tonnes of tuna during 1998-2002, but this fleet is considered to be industrial for the purpose of this report.



Sierra Leone

The ICCAT database does not show any small-scale tuna catches from Sierra Leone.

Apparently little, if any, tuna is produced by the small-scale fisheries.

Tuna catches by only longline gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 2000-2002 this gear produced an annual average of 155 tonnes of BET, ALB and BFT (45 percent BFT).

Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO fishery country profile.

There is considerable artisanal fishing activity, with about 7 000 canoes fishing in the 3 to 5 mile Inshore Exclusive Zone, employing some 20 000 to 30 000 fishermen. Most of the catch is Ethmalosa spp., Ilisha spp., Sardinella spp., Pseudotolithus spp., threadfins, barracuda and catfish. The gears used are driftnets, set nets, gillnets, ring nets, beach seines, hook-and-line gear, and cast nets.


The ICCAT database also gives an estimate for unreported catches of 148 tonnes of BET by longline vessels registered in Sierra Leone in 2002.



South Africa, Republic of

Tuna catches by sport-fishing gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of 185 tonnes of YFT and ALB (90 percent ALB).

Tuna catches by only longline gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of 295 tonnes of YFT, ALB and BET (48 percent BET).

Source of information: ICCAT database.

Spain

Tuna catches by handline and troll gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, these gear types produced an annual average of 8 002 tonnes of BET, ALB and BFT (65 percent ALB, all by trolling).

Tuna catches by longline, trap and unclassified gear have been reported to ICCAT during recent years.

During 1998-2002, trap and unclassified gear produced an annual average of 1 626 tonnes of BET, BFT and SKJ (96 percent BET).

Catches by Spain reported in both north and south Atlantic.



Although catches by pole-and-line gear have been reported, these are not included in the catch details to the right. For the purpose of this report, all pole-and-line fishing is considered to be industrial.

During 1998-2002, longline gear produced an annual average of 5 805 tonnes of BET (no other species recorded).

Source of information: ICCAT database.

Togo

The ICCAT database does not show any small-scale tuna catches from Togo.

Maybe none, but some of the catch placed in the medium-scale category may actually belong to this category.

According to the ICCAT database, in recent years only "unclassified gear" caught tuna.

During 1998-2000, "unclassified gear" produced an annual average of 8 tonnes of BET.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO fishery country profile.



According to the FAO profile, drifting gillnets are used to catch a variety of species, including tuna.



United Kingdom

No small-scale tuna fishing has been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

Assumed to be none.

Tuna catches by longline and gillnet gear have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

In recent years longline gear has produced only 10 tonnes of BFT in 2002.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, Miyake et al.(2004).



Because of EU regulations, drift gillnet fishing has been banned since 2002.

During 1998-2000, gillnet gear produced an annual average of 18 tonnes of ALB (no other species recorded).




The ICCAT database also gives an estimate for unreported catches of 36 tonnes of BET by longline vessels registered in "UK OT" in 1998.



Appendix 5 - Non-industrial tuna fishing in the Mediterranean Sea


Small-scale tuna fishing

Medium-scale tuna fishing

Comments

Types of small-scale fishing

Information on landings by small- scale fishing

Types of medium-scale fishing

Information on landings by medium-scale fishing

Algeria

Fishing with handlines and "tended lines" has been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, these gear types produced an annual average of 239 tonnes of BFT; no other species of tuna were recorded.

Longline, gillnet, trap and unclassified gear have been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, these gear types produced an annual average of 914 tonnes of BFT and SKJ (92 percent BFT).

Sources of information: ICCAT database.

Croatia

Handline and sport fishing have been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, these gear types produced an annual average of about 1 tonne of BFT; no other species of tuna were recorded.

Only longline gear has been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of about 7 tonnes of BFT. No other species were recorded.

Sources of information: ICCAT database.

Cyprus

Only sport fishing has been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced between 0 to 12 tonnes of ALB, with an average of about 4 tonnes.

Only longline gear has been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of about 58 tonnes of BFT. No other species were recorded.

Sources of information: ICCAT database.

France

Only sport fishing has been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced between 0 to 5 tonnes of ALB, with an average of about 1 tonne.

Only unclassified gear has been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of 114 tonnes of BFT and SKJ (about 96 percent BFT).

Sources of information: ICCAT database.

Greece

No catches by gear in this category have been reported to ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of about 382 tonnes of BFT and ALB (97 percent BFT).

Longline and unclassified gear have been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, these gears produced an annual average of about 1 011 tonnes of BFT and ALB (about 98 percent ALB).

Sources of information: ICCAT database, ICCAT (2003).

The ICCAT database includes some unreported handline catches.

The unreported catch for handline gear was estimated by ICCAT to be 64 tonnes in 1998 and 42 tonnes in 1999.




A General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean-ICCAT meeting report states that most of the 200 Greek boats targeting exclusively BFT use handlines.





Italy

Hand, harpoon, rod-and-reel and sportfishing gear have been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, these gear types produced an annual average of 377 tonnes (about 99 percent BFT).

Longline, gillnet, trap and unclassified gear have been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, these gear types produced an annual average of 3 656 tonnes of BFT, ALB and SKJ (79 percent ALB).

Sources of information: ICCAT database.

Libya

No small-scale tuna fishing has been recorded by ICCAT.


Longline and trap gear have been recorded by ICCAT in recent years. The catches by Libyan traps have plunged during the last few decades.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of about 825 tonnes of BFT. No other species of tuna were recorded.

Sources of information: Tawil (2002), ICCAT database.

Malta

No small-scale tuna fishing has been recorded by ICCAT.


Longline and unclassified gear have been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, these gears produced an annual average of about 291 tonnes of BFT and ALB (about 99 percent BFT).

Sources of information: ICCAT database, ICCAT (2003).



ICCAT (2003) indicates that 58 vessels used drifting surface longlines.



Morocco

Only handline gear has been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear type produced an annual average of 479 tonnes of BFT; no other species of tuna was recorded.

Gillnet and trap gear have been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, these gear types produced an annual average of 89 tonnes of BFT and SKJ (96 percent BFT).

Sources of information: ICCAT database, FAO/FIRM staff.

Spain

Handline, sport, unclassified surface gear and trolling have been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, these gear types produced annual averages of 113 tonnes of BFT, 69 tonnes of ALB and a small amount of SKJ. The annual average for these for the period was 183 tonnes.

Longline, trap and unclassified gear have been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, these gear types produced an annual average of 613 tonnes of BFT, ALB and SKJ (about 90 percent BFT).

Sources of information: ICCAT database, Jimenez et al.(2001), De La Serna et al.(2003), ICCAT (2003).



A non-ICCAT source indicated that trap fishing produced between 942 and 2 742 tonnes of BFT per year during the 1990s. ICCAT (2003) states that the trap catches of BFT have been "almost insignificant for last 7 years".



Tunisia

Only handline gear has been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear type produced an annual average of 37 tonnes of BFT. No other species of tuna were recorded.

Only trap gear has been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of about 19 tonnes of BFT. No other species of tuna recorded.

Sources of information: ICCAT database, ICCAT (2003).



ICCAT (2003) reports some longlining for tuna in 2002, and that trap production of BFT in 2001 did not exceed 3 tonnes.



Turkey

No small-scale tuna fishing has been recorded by ICCAT, but another source indicates that there is some handline fishing in the northern Aegean Sea.


No catch by the gear classification has been reported to ICCAT during 1998-2002.


Purse-seine and handline fishing produced about 2 300 tonnes of BFT in 2001.





Sources of information: Oray and Karakulak (2003).

Yugoslavia Federal Republic

No small-scale tuna fishing has been recorded by ICCAT.


Only unclassified gear has been recorded by ICCAT in recent years.

During 1998-2002, this gear produced an annual average of about 1 tonne of BFT. No other species were recorded.

Sources of information: ICCAT database.


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