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Appendix 6 - Non-industrial tuna fishing in the Indian Ocean



Small-scale tuna fishing

Medium-scale tuna fishing

Comments

Types of small-scale fishing

Information on landings by small- scale fishing

Types of medium-scale fishing

Information on landings by medium-scale fishing

Australia (Indian Ocean portion)

Troll and handline gear have been reported to the IOTC. There is a significant recreational component.

During 1997-2001, this gear caught an annual average of 10 tonnes of YFT, SKJ and ALB (71 percent YFT).

Gillnet, baitboat and longline gear have been reported to the IOTC.

During 1999-2001, gillnet gear caught an annual average of 1 tonne of YFT.

Sources of information: IOTC data, IOTC staff, IOTC (2002), Robins and Caton (1998).




During 1997-2000, pole-and- line gear caught an annual average of 2 973 tonnes of SKJ and SBF (92 percent SKJ).





During 1997-2001, longline gear caught an annual average of 953 tonnes of YFT, BET, ALB, SKJ and SBF (51 percent YFT).


Comoros

Handlining and trolling have been reported to the IOTC. Some "unclassified" fishing, which is probably in the category of small-scale scale fishing, has been reported.

During 1997-2001, this gear caught an annual average of 7 422 tonnes of YFT, BET and SKJ (72 percent YFT).

None.


Sources of information: IOTC data, IOTC staff.

East Timor

Only trolling has been reported.

During 1999-2001, this fishery caught an annual average of 2 tonnes of YFT (no other species of tuna reported).

Probably none.


Sources of information: IOTC data; IOTC

France-Reunion

Only handlining has been reported.

In 2001 this gear caught 459 tonnes of tuna, including 68 tonnes of ALB, 5 tonnes of BET, 310 tonnes of YFT, and 76 tonnes of SKJ.

Longlining is directed at swordfish, and tuna is mostly bycatch. There are three size categories of longline vessels, less than 16 m, 16 to 20 m, and more than 20 m.

During 2001 this gear caught 801 tonnes of tuna, including 405 tonnes of ALB, 106 tonnes of BET, and 290 tonnes of YFT.

It was reported that the catches of swordfish were poor in 2002, so that some vessels subsequently targeted tuna.





Sources of information: IOTC data, IOTC staff, Poisson et al.(1998).

India

All line fishing (troll and handline) has been reported together. Much of the tuna catch is incidental, as other species are often targeted. "Unclassified" gear is considered to be in this category.

During 1997-2001, this gear caught an annual average of 4 192 tonnes of YFT and SKJ (58 percent SKJ).

Purse seining for small pelagic fish results in some incidental catches of tuna by vessels about 15 m in length.

During 1997-2001, small purseseine gear caught an annual average of 19 tonnes of YFT and SKJ (57 percent SKJ).

The longliners are mostly greater than 300 GRT and are considered for this report to be industrial.



There is some pole-and-line fishing in the Lakshadweep Islands, but data on the catches is currently unavailable to the IOTC.

During 1997-2001 gillnet gear caught an annual average of 2 951 tonnes of SKJ and YFT (55 percent SKJ).

Sources of information: IOTC data, IOTC staff, Somvanshi et al.(1998).

Indonesia (Indian Ocean portion)

Trolling, small purse seining, Danish seining and drift gillnetting is considered to be small-scale fishing in Indonesia.

The catches of tuna by small-scale gear have been estimated (Herrera 2000, and Appendix 9 of this report) at about 50 000 tonnes per year. The vessels that use these small-scale gear types have a wide size range. For the purpose of this report, half of the 50 000 tonnes is assigned to the "small-scale" category and half to the "medium-scale" category.

For the purpose of this report, half of the 50 000 tonnes of tuna from trolling, small purse seining, Danish seining and drift gillnetting is assigned to this category.

About 25 000 tonnes is allocated to the "medium-scale" category.

Sources of information: IOTC data, IOTC staff, Herrera (2000), Appendix 9 of this report.



Longlining in the Indian Ocean involves mainly vessels from three large ports: Muara Baru, Benoa and Cilacap. Although some vessels are as small as 10 m in length, most of vessels should be considered to be industrial. The annual catch of 54 000 tonnes by these vessels is therefore not considered in this report.



Islamic Republic of Iran

Iran has reported 6 790 gillnet vessels of about 1 GRT each. As these vessels are quite small, species other than the tunas are likely to make up much of the catch.

During 1997-2001, an annual average of 31 625 tonnes of YFT and SKJ (59 percent YFT) was caught by all gillnet gear.

Gillnetting is conducted by larger vessels of three size categories: 3 to 20 GRT (1 070 vessels), 21 to 50 GRT (1 165 vessels) and 50 to 100 GRT (859 vessels).

For the purpose of this report, about 85 percent of the entire annual tuna catch (27 000 tonnes) is considered to have been taken by larger gillnet vessels.

The tuna catches are not disaggregated by size of vessel in the IOTC data summary.


For the purpose of this report, about 15 percent of the entire annual tuna catch (4 700 tonnes) is considered to have been taken by small-scale gillnet vessels.



Gillnet vessels of up to 100 tonnes carrying capacity are considered to be "artisanal".





Sources of information: IOTC data, IOTC staff, Kaymaram and Talebzadeh (1998).

Jordan

The gear type has been reported to the IOTC as "other".

During 1998-2001, "other" gear caught an annual average of 48 tonnes of YFT and SKJ (93 percent SKJ).

None.


Sources of information: IOTC data; IOTC staff.

Kenya

Trolling has been reported by 80 vessels of 2.1 to 10 m in length.

During 1997-2001, trolling gear caught an average of 80 tonnes of YFT per year.

None.


Includes some catch by sport-fishing vessels.





Sources of information: IOTC data; IOTC staff.

Maldives

Handlining and trolling have been reported.

During 1997-2001, these gear types caught an annual average of 1 980 tonnes of SKJ and YFT (57 percent YFT).

The pole-and-line fleet consists of vessels with a wide size range (up to 30 m in length), but, as most of them are in the range of 10 to 14 m, they are placed in this category.

During 1997-2001, pole-and- line, longline and unclassified gear caught an annual average of 93 486 tonnes of SKJ, YFT and BET (87 percent SKJ). Pole-and-line vessels took 99 percent of the total catch.

Sources of information: IOTC data, IOTC staff, Flewwelling (2000), IOTC (2002).



It has been reported that in 1999 there were 1 206 mechanized and 52 sailing pole-and-line vessels.



Mauritius

In this category, only trolling is reported in the IOTC database.

During 1997-2001, an annual average of 302 tonnes of YFT, SKJ, BET and ALB (53 percent YFT) were caught by trolling.

It has been reported that the longline vessels are 11 to 30 m in length, but there is a possibility that they are larger than that, and should be in the industrial category.

During 1997-2001, longline gear caught an annual average of 20 tonnes of YFT, BET and ALB (63 percent YFT).

Sources of information: IOTC data; IOTC staff.

According to individuals with long experience in the country’s fisheries, there are several hundred sport-fishing vessels, each catching at least 10 tonnes of tuna per year.

About 200 tonnes could be captured by sport fishing.




Oman

None reported.

None.

Only gillnetting has been reported. Most of the vessels (13 116 in 2000) were in the size range 5 to 23 m in length.

During 1997-2001, longline gear caught an annual average of 9 693 tonnes of YFT and SKJ (96 percent YFT).

Sources of information: IOTC data; IOTC staff, IOTC (2002).



Tuna are a non-target species.



Pakistan

None reported.

None.

Only gillnetting has been reported. Most vessels (1 904 in 2000) are in the size range of 35 to 50 GRT.

During 1997-2001, these large gillnet vessels captured an annual average of 9 101 tonnes of YFT and SKJ (54 percent YFT).

No longlining was reported after 2000.



There are reports of small gillnet vessels, but catch data for these are not included in IOTC database.


Sources of information: IOTC data; IOTC staff, IOTC (2002).

Seychelles

In this category, only trolling is reported.

During 1997-2001, trolling caught an annual average of 10 tonnes of YFT and BET (65 percent YFT).

In this category, only longlining is reported. The fishing in the eastern Indian Ocean is considered to be industrial scale. In addition to the large longliners (25 to 58 m in length), there are six longliners of about 16 m in length.

In 1997 the six small longliners caught 311 tonnes of tuna, of which 79 percent was YFT and BET.

Sources of information: IOTC data; IOTC staff, IOTC (2002), Bargain (1998).

South Africa, Republic of

Only handline has been reported.

During 1997-2001, an annual average of 34 tonnes of YFT, SKJ and ALB (89 percent YFT) was caught by handlining.

There are about 8 to 10 swordfish longliners. These vessels are about 16 to 18 m in length, and operate near the coast.

During 1998-2001, these longliners captured an annual average of 136 tonnes of YFT, BET and ALB (79 percent YFT).

Sources of information: IOTC data; IOTC staff.

Sri Lanka

Trolling, handlining and unclassified gear have been reported. Ring netting probably makes up much of the unclassified category.

During 1997-2001, this gear caught an annual average of 82 tonnes of YFT, SKJ and BET (60 percent SKJ).

Gillnetting, longlining and some pole-and-line fishing have been reported.

During 1997-2001, this longline and pole-and-line gear caught an annual average of 618 tonnes of YFT, BET and SKJ (51 percent YFT), 99 percent by the longline fleet.

With the IOTC summary data it is difficult to segregate the small-scale and medium-scale catches. Although some gillnet vessels are quite small, the gillnet catch has been allocated to the medium-scale category.



Most of the 26 longliners reported in 1999 are between 15.2 and 18.3 m in length.

During 1997-2001 gillnet gear caught 62 541 tonnes of YFT, SKJ and BET (68 percent SKJ).

Sources of information: IOTC data, IOTC staff, Maldeniya and Amarasooriya (1998), IOTC (2002).



Many of the gillnets have longlines attached.



Tanzania

Only unclassified fishing has been reported; this is probably small-boat trolling.

During 1999-2001, this fishing caught an annual average of 616 tonnes of YFT (no other species of tuna reported).

None reported.


Sources of information: IOTC data; IOTC staff.

Thailand (Indian Ocean portion)

Small amounts of SKJ are caught in the Andaman Sea area by mackerel drift gillnets, troll lines and sport fishing.

Probably less than 5 tonnes.

Small amounts of YFT are caught by seine gear, but this is in the Gulf of Thailand, which is not considered to be in Indian Ocean area, but rather in FAO area 71.


Source of information: Dhammasak (1998).

Yemen

Handlines are the main artisanal tuna fishing gear, but some tuna is caught by driftnets, set gillnets and small purseseines. The vessels used are fiberglass, outboard-powered boats of 8 to 10 m in length. Scomberomorus spp., is the main component of the catch, but significant amounts of YFT are also caught.

The IOTC database indicates that during 1997-2001 unclassified gear (probably mostly handlines) caught an annual average of 914 tonnes of YFT and SKJ (90 percent YFT).

For the purpose of this report, half of the estimated 10 000 tonnes of tuna are allocated to the medium- scale category.


Recent reports from FAO staff members traveling to Yemen suggest that the tuna catch by small-scale fishing could be 60 000 tonnes (mostly YFT).


Reports from individuals with experience in Yemen indicate that the tuna catch is at least an order of magnitude greater than that given above. For the purpose of this report, 5 000 tonnes are allocated to the small-scale category.



New fishery legislation does not permit foreign vessels to operate in national waters any longer, and it is likely that the catches of the local fleet will dramatically increase.





Sources of information: IOTC data, Hamba (1998), FAO staff, IOTC staff.

Other Indian Ocean countries

Several Indian Ocean countries do not report tuna catches to the IOTC. Staff members of the IOTC believe that the amount of this unreported catch is about 5 000 tonnes per year.

For the purpose of this report, half of the 5 000 estimated tonnes is assigned to the "small-scale" category and half to the "medium-scale" category.

Several Indian Ocean countries do not report tuna catches to the IOTC. Staff members of the IOTC believe that the amount of this unreported catch is about 5 000 tonnes per year.

For the purpose of this report, half of the 5 000 estimated tonnes is assigned to the "small-scale" category and half to the "medium-scale" category.

Sources of information: IOTC data, IOTC staff.

Appendix 7 - Non-industrial tuna fishing in Southeast and East Asia


Small-scale tuna fishing

Medium-scale tuna fishing

Comments

Types of small-scale fishing

Information on landings by small- scale fishing

Types of medium-scale fishing

Information on landings by medium-scale fishing

Cambodia

There are no fisheries that target tuna or have tuna as a significant bycatch.

Assumed to be none.

Assumed to be none.

Assumed to be none.

Sources of information: Try (2003), Gillett (2004), FAO database, Collette and Nauen (1983).

China

Tuna species distribution maps show that tuna are not often found close to the coast of mainland China. Significant catches of tunas by small vessels would therefore not be expected.

Assumed to be none.

Assumed to be none.

Assumed to be none.

The FAO database does not include any catches of oceanic tunas by China in FAO Area 61.

According to INFOYU, there are no fishing vessels specialized in tuna fishing along the coast.




According to Globefish, no major tuna species are caught in the waters of China.





Sources of information: Williams and Lawson (2001), Collette and Nauen (1983), staff of INFOYU, Globefish (1996).

Indonesia (FAO area 71 portion)

Of the 370 000 tonnes of tuna caught in the FAO Area 71 portion of Indonesia, pole-and-line fishing from vessels of less than 15 GRT, handlining, and trolling from small vessels produces about 60 percent, or about 222 000 tonnes.

67 000 tonnes (30 percent of 222 000 tonnes).

Although adequate information is lacking for allocating the small- and medium-scale catch of 222 000 tonnes to various categories, for the purpose of this report, it is assumed that 70 percent comes from pole-and-line fishing from vessels less than 15 GRT.

155 000 tonnes (about two-thirds SKJ and one-third YFT).

Sources of information: staff of the Indonesian Research Institute for Marine Fisheries, Appendix 9 of this report.

Although adequate information is lacking for properly allocating the small- scale catch of 222 000 tonnes to various categories, for the purpose of this report, it is assumed that 30 percent comes from the small-scale techniques of handlining and trolling.





Japan

Trolling, using small vessels (one crew member, little mechanization) and trapping are the most important gears in this category.

In 2001, the catch by this gear was 18 300 tonnes of Thunnus spp. and SKJ.

"Coastal" longline and pole-and- line vessels are defined as those of less than 20 GRT in size (Japanese measurement).

During recent years the annual catches by these vessels have been as follows: longline, 5 888 tonnes of YFT and 4 846 tonnes of BET; pole-and-line, 477 tonnes of YFT, 6 845 tonnes of SKJ, and 180 tonnes of BET.

Sources of information: staff of National Research Institute of Far Seas Fisheries (Temperate Tuna Research Group), Miyake et al.(2004), Lawson (2002).


Of this, the catch of tuna by trap (mainly BFT) has been less than 1 000 tonnes in recent years.


In summary, during recent years 18 236 tonnes of tuna have been taken per year by the coastal tuna fleets.


Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of

Assumed to be none.

None.

Assumed to be none.

None.

Maps of the distributions of tunas show that they are not often found near the coast. Source of information: Collette and Nauen (1983).

Korea, Republic of

Assumed to be none.

None.

Assumed to be none. A recent report indicates there are no small-scale tuna longliners operating from the Republic of Korea.

None.

Maps of the distributions of tunas show that they are not often found near the coast.





The only catch of BFT in the FAO database is 22 tonnes in 1991.





Sources of information: Collette and Nauen (1983), FAO web site, Miyake (this collection).

Malaysia

Assumed to be none.

None.

Assumed to be none.

None.

Some SKJ has been reported from the portion of the South China Sea to the northwest of Borneo, but apparently none has been taken by non-industrial gear.





Sources of information: Collette and Nauen (1983), staff of the Indonesian Research Institute for Marine Fisheries, Williams and Lawson (2001), FAO database.

Philippines

Philippine law defines municipal fishing as "fishing within municipal waters using fishing vessels of three GRT or less, or fishing not requiring the use of a fishing vessel".

In recent years, production of tuna in the "municipal fisheries" has been about 100 000 tonnes, of which about 60 percent is YFT and BET.

Commercial fishing is usually considered to be fishing from vessels from of more than 3.1 GRT.

Data are not readily available to allow allocation of a portion of this catch to non-industrial fishing.

Sources of information: Appendix 8 of this report, Barut (2003), Staff of the Philippine Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources.

Handlining produces most of the municipal tuna catch, but other important municipal tuna fishing gears are gillnets and small ringnets.


It has been estimated (Appendix 8) that in recent years the "commercial" production of tuna has been about 190 000 tonnes, of which about 55 percent is SKJ.



Russia

Assumed to be none.

None.

Assumed to be none.

None.

Maps of the distributions of tunas show that the principal market species of tuna, except for BFT, are not often found close to the coast.





No catch of BFT has ever been recorded in the FAO database.





Sources of information: Collette and Nauen (1983), FAO database.

Singapore

Assumed to be none.

None.

Assumed to be none.

None.

During 1997-2001, Singapore caught an annual average of 19 tonnes of SKJ in FAO Area 71.





As the principal market species of tuna are uncommon near Singapore, it is not likely that this catch (or significant quantities of principal market species of tuna) was taken by non-industrial fisheries.





Sources of information: Williams and Lawson (2001), the FAO database.

Taiwan Province of China

Information on small-scale tuna fishing is not readily available.

Assumed to be none.

A large fleet of longliners of less than 100 GRT operates near Taiwan. In recent years these vessels have caught an annual average of between 17 000 and 28 000 tonnes of YFT, BET, ALB and SKJ.

It is not known how much of this catch should be placed in the non-industrial category.

Sources of information: staff of Overseas Fisheries Development Council, staff of SPC.

Thailand (FAO area 71 portion)

Assumed to be none.

None.

Assumed to be none.

None.

Only a very small amount of tuna captured, and this is limited to YFT caught by seining in the Gulf of Thailand.





Sources of information: FAO database, Collette and Nauen (1983), Dhammasak (1998).

Vietnam

According to Roberts (2002), Vietnamese fishermen in the central provinces have traditionally caught tuna with weirs, rake nets, drag nets and especially with fishing lines.

There are almost no data with which to make an estimate, but for the purpose of this report it is assumed that the catch of tuna by small-scale gear is 100 tonnes.

What little information is available indicates that tuna are taken mainly by longline and driftnet gear, with some purse-seine and pole-and-line gear.

It is likely that most of the 20 000 tonnes of tuna is taken by longliners and gillnetters less than 17 m in length.

Oceanic tuna fishing has been developed only since the early 1990s.

It should be noted that most of this "tuna" is Auxis spp., Euthynnus spp. and other small tunas. The only principal market species is SKJ, which makes up only 0.59 percent of the "tuna" catch.


Many longline vessels are 12 to 17 m in length, and use surface gillnets during the day for flyingfish and longlines at night for large pelagic fish.


5 912 tonnes of "frozen tuna" were exported in 2000.





The total national catch of tuna has been estimated to have been 20 000 tonnes in 2001, most of which was YFT and BET.





Sources of information: Williams and Lawson (2001), Roberts (2002), SPC web site, Munprasit and Prajakjitt (2001), Tri (2002).

Appendix 8 - Notes on tuna fishing in the Philippines

Tuna catch data

TABLE 1
Bureau of Agriculture Statistics (BAS) catch data (in tonnes) for the principal market species of tuna (adapted from Barut, 2003)


Municipal catch of YFT and BET

Municipal catch of SKJ

Total municipal catch YFT, BET and SKJ

Commercial catch of YFT and BET

Commercial catch of SKJ

Total commercial catch of YFT, BET and SKJ

Total catch of YFT, BET and SKJ (municipal and commercial)

1998

40 185

27 987

68 172

39 030

88 686

127 716

195 888

1999

43 9d97

29 344

73 341

46 356

79 434

125 790

679 4341

2000

45 257

29 635

74 892

45 071

83 376

128 447

203 339

2001

47 395

31 472

78 867

49 055

80 766

129 821

208 688

2002

36 743

26 592

83 385

63 051

83 385

146 436

209 771

The average municipal catch from 1998-2002 was 71 721 tonnes. The average commercial catch from 1998-2002 was 131 642 tonnes.

Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) tuna specialists and private sector sources indicate that the above catches are underestimates of the actual catches. BFAR and industry officials have independently expressed the opinion that the current production of yellowfin, bigeye and skipjack[35] from the municipal fisheries is likely to be about 100 000 tonnes. BFAR officials believe that commercial production of these species is currently likely to be 200 000 tonnes, while industry representatives believe that the figure may be about 180 000 tonnes. For the purpose of this report, the current municipal production of yellowfin, bigeye and skipjack is assumed to be 100 000 tonnes, and the commercial production to be 190 000 tonnes.

According to Pagdilao and Querijero (1993), the major tuna fishing grounds for both the municipal and commercial fisheries are the Moro Gulf, Sulu Sea, Bohol Sea, Batangas Bay, Visayan Sea, Ragay Gu and Tayabas Bay. Unpublished BAS data show the catches by species in both the municipal and commercial fisheries in 15 regions of the country. According to those data, in 2002 Region 4 (near Palawan) and Region 9 (near Zamboanga) produced the greatest municipal and commercial catches, respectively, of yellowfin, bigeye and skipjack. One of the factors that contribute to the south being a productive area is the favourable weather, including the absence of monsoon conditions.

Municipal tuna fishing

The Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998 defines municipal fishing as "fishing within municipal waters using fishing vessels of three GRT or less, or fishing not requiring the use of a fishing vessel".

Handlining produces most of the catch of the principal market species. Barut (2003) estimates that there are around 10 000 municipal tuna handline boats, commonly referred to as "pump boats", many of which have grown out of the municipal size category. Williams (2002) indicates that the handline fleet based in General Santos city, which is the largest such fleet in the Philippines, catches about 10 000 tonnes per year. BFAR and industry officials estimate that about two-thirds of the catches of the principal market species are made by handlining. If it is assumed (as done above) that the municipal catch of principal market species is about 100 000 tonnes per year, then handlining is responsible for some 70 000 tonnes annually.[36] Both industry and BFAR sources agree that about one-third of the handline production of yellowfin and bigeye is exported fresh, with most of the large non-sashimi handline tuna for processing into smoke or carbon monoxide-treated "loin" products for export to the United States and the European Union. The Moro Gulf typically produces larger handline-caught tuna than does the Sulu Sea. BFAR sources indicate that many, if not most, of the FADs in the country have handliners working from them.

Other important municipal tuna fishing gears are gillnets and small ringnets. Both of these gears catch many species, especially small tunas, in addition to the principal market species of tuna. According to government officials, these two gear types account for about a quarter of the municipal landings of the principal market species, or about 25 000 tonnes per year. It should be noted that the ringnet fishing vessels in this category are "baby ringnet" vessels, as the regular ringnet vessels are much larger, with an average size of about 35 GRT, and therefore are considered to be in the commercial category.

Much lesser amounts of the principal market species of tuna are caught by "mini-longlining" and trolling. Mini-longlining is confined largely to the Palawan area, while trolling (often by un-motorized vessels) is common around Mindanao and in the Visayan Sea.

Other than the estimate of 10 000 handliners given above, little information is available on the number of vessels participating in municipal tuna fishing. Some data exist from the licensing system, but because there are locations in which most of the vessels are not registered, it is not possible to estimate sizes of the fleets from licensing data. BFAR officials report, however, that an inventory of vessels has recently commenced.

Commercial tuna fishing

The Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998 defines commercial fishing as "fishing for trade, business, or profit beyond subsistence or sport fishing". It has three categories: (1) small-scale commercial fishing, using vessels from 3.1 GRT to 20 GRT; (2) medium-scale commercial fishing, using vessels from 20.1 GRT to 150 GRT; and (3) large-scale commercial fishing, using vessels of more than 150 GRT. Commercial fishing boats are not allowed to fish within 15 km of the shoreline.

As indicated above, the estimated landings of the principal market species given by the BAS system are thought to be too low, with BFAR and industry indicating that the annual total is actually between 180 000 and 200 000 tonnes.

The commercial category encompasses a huge variety of fishing operations, ranging from ring netting from 3.1 GRT vessels to purse seining by large purse seiners with carrying capacities in excess of 1 000 tonnes. Industry representatives indicate that they classify the tuna-fishing operations mainly by carrying capacity. The various types of operations can be grouped for the purpose of this report into two categories: industrial and semi-industrial.

Industrial:

Semi-industrial:

Industry sources say that the industrial category above is responsible for about 75 percent of the catch of the principal market species, or about 140 000 tonnes of tuna. The fleet is made up of about 150 purse seiners, including "less than ten vessels" with carrying capacities of more than 1 000 tonnes.

In accordance with the above industry information, the semi-industrial category should be responsible for 25 percent of the commercial catch, or about 50 000 tonnes of yellowfin, bigeye and skipjack per year.

Barut (1996) used a different classification. He indicated that for 1993 and 1994 the ratio of purse-seine catches (all vessel sizes) to ring net catches was about 85:15. This is not remarkably different from the above industry information.

Other features of commercial tuna fishing in the Philippines:

Other sources of information

BFAR (2003); Republic of the Philippines (1999); Thomas, F. (1999).

Personal communication:

Appendix 9 - Notes on tuna fishing in Indonesia

General

Fisheries are important to Indonesia, with its 17 000 islands, 81 000 km of coastline, 5.8 million square km of maritime waters and 4.3 million fishers. Tuna fishing is an especially important activity in Indonesia. In terms of value of the catch, tuna ranks second to shrimp, and exports are in excess of US$200 million. Despite this importance, the last comprehensive review of Indonesia tuna fishing appears to be that of Marcille et al. (1984).

Tuna and the various types of tuna fishing are not distributed evenly across Indonesia. In the shallow-sea areas, some tuna species are not abundant (e.g. skipjack in the South China Sea area) or absent (e.g. yellowfin in the Arafua Sea, Java Sea and South China Sea areas).

Tuna catch data

TABLE 1
Official statistics (MMAF 2002) for "tuna"[38] and skipjack (in tonnes) for all of Indonesia


2000 tuna

2000 skipjack

2000 total (tuna+skipjack)

2001 tuna

2001 skipjack

2001 total (tuna+skipjack)

West Sumatra

10 202

16 180

26 382

12 467

16 423

28 890

South Java

6 037

3 088

9 125

6 025

3 158

9 183

Malaka Strait

1 503

6 185

7 688

1 500

7 286

8 786

East Sumatra

6 602

2 570

9 172

2 263

1 345

3 608

North Java

7 565

5 149

12 714

7 707

3 636

11 343

Bali-Nusatenggara

32 065

15 230

47 295

31 466

20 751

52 217

South and West Kalimantan

0

0

0

0

0

0

East Kalimantan

3

1 061

1 064

22

1 678

1 700

South Sulawesi

19 625

33 854

53 479

15 107

36 903

52 010

North Sulawesi

37 814

68 825

106 639

41 478

65 699

107 177

Maluku-Papua

41 825

84 133

125 958

35 075

57 198

92 273

Total Indonesia

163 241

236 275

399 516

153 110

214 077

367 187

To examine tuna fishing more closely, the above official statistics can be divided into two subsets: (1) the Indian Ocean area (that portion of Indonesia lying within FAO area 57[39]-largely the islands bordering the Indian Ocean) and (2) the archipelagic and Pacific Ocean area (that portion of Indonesia lying within FAO area 71). For convenience, these areas are referred to in this report as the "Indian Ocean area" and the "Archipelagic and Pacific Ocean area".

Although "North Java" does not lie within FAO area 57, it is included in area 57 in Table 3, as virtually all the catch comes from Jakarta-based longliners that fish primarily in the Indian Ocean.

TABLE 2
Official statistics (MMAF 2002) for "tuna" and skipjack (in tonnes) in the Indian Ocean (FAO Area 57)


2000 tuna

2000 skipjack

2000 total (tuna+skipjack)

2001 tuna

2001 skipjack

2001 total (tuna+skipjack)

West Sumatra

10 202

16 180

26 382

12 467

16 423

28 890

South Java

6 037

3 088

9 125

6 025

3 158

9 183

East Sumatra

6 602

2 570

9 172

2 263

1 345

3 608

North Java

7 565

5 149

12 714

7 707

3 636

11 343

Bali-Nusatenggara

32 065

15 230

47 295

31 466

20 751

52 217

Total Indian Ocean

54 906

37 068

91 974

52 221

41 677

105 241

TABLE 3
Official statistics (MMAF 2002) for "tuna" and skipjack (in tonnes) in the Archipelagic and Pacific Ocean (FAO Area 71)


2000 tuna

2000 skipjack

2000 total (tuna+skipjack)

2001 tuna

2001 skipjack

2001 total (tuna+skipjack)

Malaka Strait

1 503

6 185

7 688

1 500

7 286

8 786

East Kalimantan

3

1 061

1 064

22

1 678

1 700

South Sulawesi

19 625

33 854

53 479

15 107

36 903

52 010

North Sulawesi

37 814

68 825

106 639

41 478

65 699

107 177

Maluku-Papua

41 825

84 133

125 958

35 075

57 198

92 273

Total Arch/Pacific

108 335

199 207

307 542

100 889

172 400

261 946

Considerations on the official tuna statistics

An important issue is the accuracy of the above statistics. The official tuna statistics are from the national fisheries statistical system established with FAO assistance in the mid-1970s. General problems with fisheries statistics in Indonesia are discussed by Tan et al. (1996) and Venema (1997). Gillett (1996) indicates that there are many problems with Indonesia's tuna statistics. Although there have been several attempts to improve national fishery statistics in Indonesia in the last two decades, the basic system remains largely unchanged since its inception. Improvements come slowly to one of the world's largest fisheries statistical systems.

Herrera (2002) studied the tuna statistics situation for Indonesia's Indian Ocean area. Using all available information, he made a new estimate of 177 384 tonnes of "tuna and tuna-like species" for the Indian Ocean area for 2000. A more recent review of the Indonesia's Indian Ocean tuna statistics (Proctor et al., 2003) did not attempt to update Herrera's estimate.

Lawson (2002) gives the skipjack, yellowfin and bigeye catches in Indonesia's part of area 71 (referred to as Indonesia's part of the Western and Central Pacific Ocean catches) as 361 384 tonnes. It is not clear how this relates to the official 307 542 tonnes given above for the Archipelagic and Pacific Ocean area for 2000.

Because the contention that there may be considerable problems with Indonesia's tuna statistics, attempts were made to obtain additional information on tuna production from individuals familiar with Indonesia's tuna fisheries. Discussions were undertaken during December 2003 with knowledgeable people from government agencies (nine individuals), the tuna fishing and processing industry (seven), and other organizations (four). The information obtained offered considerable insight into the tuna fishing situation (especially when a solid consensus emerged). Nevertheless, the conclusions drawn from such anecdotal sources should be considered as a contribution to the "educated guesswork" given in the following notes. Proctor et al. (2003) state that targeted monitoring over 12 to 18 months would be necessary to produce detailed information on the artisanal tuna fisheries in Indonesia's Indian Ocean area.

In the course of discussions with government agencies, the private sector and others, it was the unanimous opinion that the official tuna statistics were underestimates of the actual landings. In general, government researchers believed that actual landings are 30 to 40 percent greater than those given by the statistics, with the underestimate for eastern Indonesia being more serious. Representatives of private sector companies, using their own tuna production, estimates of the production of their competitors and knowledge of the various fisheries, all independently expressed the opinion that the discrepancy is much greater. Most of them believe that the government figures should be doubled. There is no obvious reason why they should exaggerate the difference.

Although the estimate of Herrera (2002) for Indonesia's Indian Ocean area given above is 92 percent greater than that given by the official statistics, it is important to clarify what is being compared. The Herrera estimate (177 384 tonnes for the Indian Ocean area for 2000) is for "tuna and tuna-like species", and includes billfish, small tunas and seerfish. Clarification with IOTC staff members indicates the following landings for 2000 for the principal market species of tuna:[40]


Albacore

Bigeye

Yellowfin

Southern bluefin

Skipjack

Total

Gillnet

-

-

908

-

7 368

8 276

Longline

2 659

20 926

29 611

1 068

-

54 263

Other

-

-

-

364

36 177

36 540

Small purse-seine

-

-

1 404

-

3 276

4 680

Total

2 659

20 926

32 287

1 068

46 820

103 759

The official tuna statistics given above for the Indian Ocean area (91 974 tonnes) are for skipjack and "tuna", the latter including yellowfin, bigeye, albacore and southern bluefin tuna, plus marlins, sailfish and swordfish.[41] If the billfish comprise 2 percent of the catch, then the official statistics for 2000 suggest that a total of about 90 000 tonnes of skipjack, yellowfin, bigeye, albacore and southern bluefin tuna was landed. For the year 2000, the Herrera (2002) estimate for the Indian Ocean area is therefore about 15 percent greater than that suggested by the official statistics. According to Herrera (per. com.), this difference is entirely the result of a greater estimate of the longline catch; the IOTC estimates for the small-scale tuna fisheries do not differ from the official statistic, as IOTC does not have comprehensive alternative sources of information and lacks resources for an independent assessment.

Catches of tuna in the Archipelagic and Pacific Ocean area of Indonesia are generally acknowledged to be greater than in the Indian Ocean area. Official statistics, researchers and industry representatives seem to agree that catches in the Archipelagic and Pacific Ocean area represent about 75 to 80 percent of the total Indonesian tuna catch.

Some conclusions can be made about total catches of skipjack, yellowfin, bigeye, albacore and bluefin in Indonesia:

Even the lowest estimate above represents about ten percent of the entire world production of these tuna species. By comparison, the Japanese domestic tuna fishery, often used as a benchmark for large production has in recent years fluctuated between 150 000 and 300 000 tonnes (Joseph 2003). The 1999 catch in all 15 Pacific Island countries was about 660 000 tonnes. Indonesia produces more tuna from its waters than any other country in the world.

It should be noted that the situation is complicated by:

Small-scale tuna fishing in Indonesia

There is no standard definition of "small-scale" fishing in Indonesia. Some information relevant to categorizing scales of fishing in the country are:

For practical reasons, during the short period of the present review, it was necessary to define small-scale tuna fishing as per the default schemes used by the private sector and Herrera (2002) above.

In the past, it was possible to disaggregate information in the national fisheries statistical system to permit estimation of skipjack and "tuna" catches by gear type (presented for 1991 by Venema (1997)). Although this would facilitate partitioning the tuna catch data into small- and large-scale categories, according to staff members of the Directorate General of Capture Fisheries, this is not possible at present, as information in this form is now not received from the provinces.

Descriptive information on small-scale tuna fishing is readily available from various sources, including Proctor et al. (2003), government agencies, fishing companies and tuna canners.

Some information is available on the relative amounts of the principal market species of tuna taken by the different scales:

The above limited information enables at least some speculation about the quantity of catches by small/large scale fishing operations in the two areas.


Industrial tuna fishing

Small-scale tuna fishing

Indian Ocean area

Longlining, mainly from the three industrial ports of Muara Baru (North Jakarta), Benoa (South Bali) and Cilacap (south coast of Central Java). The best estimate appears to be that of Herrera (2002)-about 54 000 tonnes of the principal market species[43] in 2000.

Trolling, small purse seining (especially in the north of Sumatra) and drift gillnetting. The best estimate appears to be that of Herrera (2002)-about 50 000 tonnes of the principal market species in 2000.

Archipelagic and Pacific Ocean area

Purse seining, and pole-and-line fishing from vessels greater than 1 5 GRT-about 40 percent of the 370 000 tonnes of tuna from this area (given above), or 148 000 tonnes.

Pole-and-line fishing from vessels less than 15 GRT, handlining-about 60 percent of the 370 000 tonnes of tuna from this area, or 222 000 tonnes.

As indicated above, considering the lack of reliable data, this should be considered "educated guesswork".

Other information

The number of tuna canneries in Indonesia has decreased markedly in recent years. Simorangkir (2002) states there were 27 tuna canning units in Indonesia in mid-2002. A representative of the Indonesia Tuna Canners Association indicated that in December 2003 there were 16 tuna canneries, eight of which are operating full time, while the other eight produce only sporadically.[44] The capacity is about 30 000 tonnes of tuna, but the present utilization is about 100 000 tonnes. The source of the raw material depends on the location of the cannery, but overall about 50 percent of this raw material comes from small-scale fishing operations (defined as being from vessels less than 50 GRT), 30 percent is from mid-size domestic vessels (purse-seine, longline and pole-and-line) and 20 percent is imported.[45] Canneries exist in east Java (five), Bitung (three), Surabaya (two), Sorong (one), and Biak (one). There are no longer any canneries in Bali.

Indonesia's tuna exports have historically consisted of about one-third fresh fish, one-third frozen fish, and one-third canned fish. A recent industry report indicates that in 2002 the amounts of tuna exports were 26 718 tonnes of fresh fish, 27 733 tonnes of frozen fish, and 38 346 tonnes of canned fish. This information, together with the above assumptions, suggests that most of the tuna landed in Indonesia is consumed domestically.

Purse seining in Indonesia requires some additional explanation. Although there are many purse-seine vessels in the country (over 7 000 in the mid-1990s), most are used for fishing for species other than the principal market species of tuna (e.g. small pelagic species). Two types of purse seiners target tuna, the small seiners that fish in the Indian Ocean area and the much larger seiners that operate in the Archipelagic and Pacific Ocean area.

The small and mainly un-mechanized seining operations take place mostly in the north portion of Sumatra, using vessels around 5 to 10 GRT. Herrera (2002) indicates that there about 300 such vessels operating in the Indonesia's Indian Ocean area. Badrudin and Bahar (1997) review the catches of the portion of this fleet operating from Aceh.

Regarding the much larger seiners operating in the north of the country, Simorangkir (2002) indicated that there were 39 licensed purse-seine vessels in that area, mostly of about 300 GRT in size, and three 900- to 1000-GRT seiners based in Biak. Fisheries researchers believe that there are about 50 vessels, each of around 200 GRT, plus some group-seining operations and one or two larger purse seiners based in Biak. Correspondence from a Bitung cannery manager states that 34 catcher boats and 88 purse-seine carrier vessels operate from the Bitung (North Sulawesi) checkpoint. The seining grounds were reported to be around North Sulawesi a few years ago, but have been extended to the east around Papua recently. Some reports indicate that the boats operated as Indonesian vessels when foreign fishing was not allowed in Indonesia, but are now registered as Philippine vessels, which is now permitted under an Indonesia-Philippine agreement. Lawson (2002) gives the 2000 purse-seine catch data in the Archipelagic Pacific Ocean area of Indonesia as 30 387 tonnes.

Other sources of information

Personal communication:


[35] These three species are referred to in this report as "principal market species" in the worldwide sense, recognizing that the smaller tuna species have a ready market in the Philippines. In many cases, bigeye is reported as yellowfin in the Philippines.
[36] This equates to an average of 7 tonnes of tuna per vessel per year.
[37] "Unay" is a Visayan term for all types of surrounding net fishing. Although originally used for small-scale fishing, even some of the large industrial vessels are sometimes called unay.
[38] The category "tuna" in the official statistics is comprised of mainly yellowfin, but also unspecified amounts of bigeye, albacore, southern bluefin tuna, black marlin, white marlin, striped marlin, and swordfish.
[39] IOTC staff points out that there were different FAO and IOTC boundaries for the Area 57 until 2003. FAO changed recently the boundary of Area 57 to match with that of the IOTC and will update the catches accordingly.
[40] Skipjack, yellowfin, bigeye, albacore and northern and/or southern bluefin tuna are referred to in this report as "principal market species" in the worldwide sense, recognizing that the smaller tuna species have a ready market in Indonesia.
[41] IOTC staff members indicate that the "tuna" category may also include some longtail tuna, and, to a lesser extent, frigate and bullet tunas and kawakawa. At least some Indonesian researchers believe that in the official statistics these species are categorized as "Tongkol", of which 233 051 tonnes were recorded in 2001.
[42] Authorized vessels making unauthorized landings outside Indonesia.
[43] Principal market species - see previous footnote.
[44] The large decline in number of canneries could be due to the fact that some canneries may have done a limited amount of tuna canning during periods of low catches of sardines (P. Martosubroto, per.com.)
[45] The manager of a cannery in Bitung stated that 90 percent of his raw material comes from purse seining, with the remainder coming from mostly small pole-and-line fishing and, to a lesser extent, from small-scale surround netting.

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