Manual on Hatchery Production of Seabass and Gilthead Seabream
Volume 2

by

Alessandro Moretti
Maricoltura di Rosignano Solvay Srl
Via Pietro Gigli, Loc. Lillatro
57013 Rosignano Solvay
Livorno, Italy

Mario Pedini Fernandez-Criado
FAO/World Bank Cooperative Programme
Rome, Italy

René Vetillart
Rue du Pontil 9
34560 Montbazin
France


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome, 2005

 

Table of Contents



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ISBN 92-5-105304-9

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Moretti, A.; Pedini Fernandez-Criado, M.; Vetillart, R.
Manual on hatchery production of seabass and gilthead seabream. Volume 2.
Rome, FAO. 2005. 152 p.

ABSTRACT

Seabass and gilthead seabream are the two marine fish species which have characterized the development of marine aquaculture in the Mediterranean basin over the last three decades. The substantial increase in production levels of these two species, initially of very high value, has been possible thanks to the progressive improvement of the technologies involved in the production of fry in hatcheries. As a result of this technological progress, more than one hundred hatcheries have been built in the Mediterranean basin, working on these and other similar species. At present the farmed production of these two species derived from hatchery produced fry is far greater than the supply coming from capture fisheries.

The development of these techniques, based originally on Japanese hatchery techniques, has followed its own evolution and has resulted in what could be called a Mediterranean hatchery technology that is still evolving to provide higher quality animals and to reduce the costs of production. This is a dynamic sector but it has reached a level of maturity which merits the production of a manual for hatchery personnel that could be of interest in other parts of the world. The preparation of the manual has taken several years, and due to recent developments has led to substantial revisions of sections. The manual is not intended to be a final word in hatchery design and operation but rather a publication to document how the industry works. The authors have preferred to include proven procedures and designs rather than to orient this publication to research hatcheries that are not yet the standard of the sector.

The manual has been divided in two volumes. The first one was finalized in 2000, and covered historical background, biology and life history of the two species, especially hatchery production procedures. This second volume is divided in four parts. In the first, it tries to cover the aspects related to hatchery design and construction, from site selection to hatchery layout, and description of the various sections of a commercial hatchery. The second part covers engineering aspects related to the calculation and design of seawater intakes, pumping stations, hydraulic circuits, and pumping systems. The third part deals with equipment in the hatcheries such as tanks, filters, water sterilizers, water aeration and oxygenation, temperature control, and auxiliary equipment. The last part covers financial aspects. This section, rather than explaining the way to calculate cash flows, tries to highlight aspects that managers and investors should consider when entering this business. Volume two also includes a series of technical annexes, and a glossary of scientific and technical terms used in the two volumes.

© FAO 2005


CONTENTS

PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

PART 1
HATCHERY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

1.1 CALCULATING THE SIZE OF A HATCHERY
1.2 SITE SELECTION CRITERIA
1.3 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Sea conditions
Meteorological factors
Site related factors

1.4 INTEGRATION OF SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, LEGAL AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS
1.5 EXISTING FACILITIES
1.6 HATCHERY LAYOUT
1.7 BROODSTOCK UNIT

Calculating the size of the stocking facilities
Outdoor facilities
Indoor facilities
Spawning tanks
Water circuit
Lights
Aeration system
Overwintering facilities
Conditioning facilities

1.8 LIVE FOOD UNIT
1.9 PURE STRAIN AND UP-SCALE CULTURE ROOM

Support systems
Equipment

1.10 INTERMEDIATE ALGAE AND ROTIFER BAG CULTURE ROOM

Bags and stands
Support systems
Equipment
Space requirement calculations

1.11 ROTIFER CULTURE AND ENRICHMENT

Production facilities
Support systems
Equipment
Space requirement calculation

1.12 BRINE SHRIMP PRODUCTION AND ENRICHMENT

Production facilities
Support systems
Equipment
Space requirement calculation

1.13 LARVAL REARING UNIT

Production facilities
Support systems
Space requirements

1.14 WEANING UNIT

Production facilities
Support systems
Space requirement calculations

1.15 SUPPORT UNITS

Pumping station
Seawater wells
Pumping station to hatchery connection and wastewater treatment
Boiler room
Electricity generator room
Workshop
Feed store
Hatchery laboratory
Cleaning areas
Offices

1.16 GENERAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG UNITS AND SYSTEMS

PART 2
ENGINEERING

2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 SEAWATER SUPPLY, DISTRIBUTION AND DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
2.3 SEAWATER INTAKE

Sandy coastline with a low gradient
Seawater intake on a rocky coast
Seawater intake placed inside a natural or artificial enclosure

2.4 DESIGNING WATER INTAKES

Geometry and structure of seawater intakes on a sandy coast
Calculation and design of structures against sea storms
Geometry and structure of seawater intakes on a rocky coast
Hydraulic section of seawater intakes

2.5 CONSIDERATIONS ON THE CHOICE OF WATER INTAKE
2.6 MAIN PUMPING STATION

"Dry" pumping station
"Wet" pumping station

2.7 DESIGN OF THE PUMPING STATIONS

Design of the main pumping station
Design of the secondary pumping station

2.8 CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CHOICE OF THE PUMPING STATION

Type of pump set

2.9 SEAWATER WELLS

Flow estimation

2.10 PIPELINES AND CANALS

Feeding the main pumping station
Connecting the main and secondary pumping stations (when necessary)
Distributing water in the hatchery
Draining water from the hatchery

2.11 DESIGN OF PIPELINES, OUTLETS AND CANALS

Design of a pipeline working under pressure
Overflow outlets
Canals and gutters

2.12 DESIGN OF HATCHERY HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS: EXAMPLES OF CALCULATIONS

Water inlet system

Description

Circuit A
Circuit B
Circuit C

Calculation

Circuit A
Circuit B
Circuit C

Water outlet system

Description
Calculation
Main gutter as a triangular ditch in the ground (Bazin formula)
Main gutter as a rectangular channel in concrete (Bazin formula)
Main gutter as a round concrete pipe (Manning-Strickler formula)

2.13 PUMPS

Types of electrical pumps
Turbine pumps
Information requirements for the design of a pumping system

2.14 DESIGNING THE PUMPING SYSTEM

Calculation of the pumping system
Power absorbed

2.15 CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CHOICE OF A PUMPING SYSTEM

Choice of pump category
Choice of pump type
Choice of number of pump sets

PART 3
EQUIPMENT

3.1 TANKS
3.2 FILTERS

Mechanical filters
Types of mechanical filters
Biological filters
How to calculate a biological filter
Chemical filters

3.3 SETTLEMENT TANKS AND OTHER SETTLEMENT DEVICES

Settlement tanks
Cyclonic and laminar sedimentation chambers

3.4 WATER STERILIZERS

UV lamps
Which type of UV lamps to choose
Selection of UV sterilizers

3.5 OXYGENATORS AND AERATORS

Increasing dissolved oxygen content of water
Improving oxygen transfer into water
Air and oxygen diffusers
Injection of pure oxygen using a submersible pump
Injection of oxygen into a pipeline
Pressurized mixers
Estimating oxygen requirements in tanks

3.6 OXYGEN MONITORING AND REGULATING SYSTEM

Control systems
Measuring dissolved oxygen
Oxygen supply management

3.7 WATER TEMPERATURE CONDITIONING
3.8 AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT FOR FRY MANAGEMENT

PART 4
FINANCIAL ASPECTS

4.1 INVESTING IN A HATCHERY

Project design
Structure and construction typologies
Timing and production
Economies of scale and modular design
Depreciation
Points to consider for financing of a hatchery
Investment and maintenance

4.2 EVALUATION OF FINANCIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HATCHERY OPERATION
4.3 BASE COST ELEMENTS

Fixed cost
Variable costs

4.4 FINANCIAL COST AND CASH FLOW REQUIREMENTS
4.5 HATCHERIES TURNOVER COMPARED WITH GROWOUT FARMS
4.6 HOW AND WHAT TO PRODUCE
4.7 RISKS
4.8 INSURANCE

ANNEXES

ANNEX 1 - Conversion tables
ANNEX 2 - Geometric formulas
ANNEX 3 - Oxygen solubility
ANNEX 4 - Dissociation tables for ammonia in seawater
ANNEX 5 - Artificial seawater formula
ANNEX 6 - Tables of enriched seawater media
ANNEX 7 - Specific growth rates of algae
ANNEX 8 - Technical data on light sources
ANNEX 9 - Use of haemocytometer to determine phytoplankton density
ANNEX 10 - UV energy requirements to prevent bacterial colonies formation
ANNEX 11 - Biological activity of antibiotics
ANNEX 12 - Oxygen consumption
ANNEX 13 - Concentration of selected fish tranquillizers
ANNEX 14 - Average proximate composition of food organisms
ANNEX 15 - Nitrogen and CO2 solubility
ANNEX 16 - Nitrobacter and Nitrosomonas parameters

GLOSSARY

BACK COVER