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ANNEXES


These annexes are selected tables taken from the book Aquaculture Desk Reference by R. LeRoy Creswell published in 1993 by AVI Books, New York. We are grateful for permission to reprint them.

ANNEX 1 - Conversion tables

TABLE 1 - 1: TEMPERATURE EQUIVALENTS - CENTIGRADE TO FARENHEIT

Temperature in °C. is expressed in the left column and top row with the corresponding temperature in °F. in the body of the table.

TABLE 1 - 2: TEMPERATURE EQUIVALENTS - FARENHEIT TO CENTIGRADE

Temperature in ° F. is expressed in the left column and top row with the corresponding temperature in °C. in the body of the table.

For intermediate temperatures or those exceeding the range of the tables, the following formulas may be used:

°F= 1.8 x °C + 32

TABLE 1 - 3: CONVERSIONS FOR UNITS OF WEIGHT

TABLE 1 - 4: CONVERSIONS FOR UNITS OF LENGTH

TABLE 1 - 5: CONVERSIONS FOR UNITS OF VOLUME

TABLE 1 - 6: CONVERSIONS FOR UNITS OF VELOCITY

TABLE 1 - 7: CONVERSIONS FOR UNITS OF ENERGY

BTU = British Thermal Unit, a unit of heat equal to 252 calories, or the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 62 °F to 63 °F

JOULE = a unit of electrical energy or work equivalent to the work done to raise one coulomb of electricity one volt, or in maintaining for one second a current of one ampere against a resistance of one ohm

FOOT POUND = a unit of work equal to the amount of energy required to raise a weight of one pound a distance of one foot

TABLE 1 - 8: CONVERSIONS FOR UNITS OF POWER

HORSEPOWER = a unit of power equal to a rate of 33,000 foot - pounds per minute (the force required to raise 33,000 pounds at the rate of one foot per minute)

WATT = a unit of electrical power equal to one ampere under one volt of pressure, or one joule per second

TABLE 1 - 9: CONVERSION FACTORS OF RADIANT ENERGY, POWER, AND INTENSITY UNITS (from Hollaender, 1956)

ERG = a unit of work or energy in the metric system equal to the amount of work done by one dyne acting through a distance of one centimeter

DYNE = a unit of force which in one second can alter the velocity by one centimeter per second of a mass of one gram

CALORIE = the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Centigrade

TABLE 1 - 10: CONVERSION FACTORS FOR ILLUMINATION

LAMBERT = the centimeter - gram - second unit of brightness, equal to the brightness of a perfectly diffusing surface that radiates or reflects light at the rate of one lumen per square centimeter

LUX = illumination equal to one lumen per square meter or the illumination of a surface uniformly one meter distant from a point source of one foot candle

FOOT - CANDLE = illumination equal to the amount of direct light thrown by one international candle on a surface one foot away

INTERNATIONAL CANDLE = a measure of the intensity of light, equal to the light given off by the flame of a sperm candle 7/8 inch in diameter burining at the rate of 7.776 grams per hour

LUMEN = a measure for the flow of light, equal to the amount of flow through a unit solid angle from a uniform point source of one international candle

(Source: E. Bickford and S. Dunn, Lighting for Plant Growth; 1972)

TABLE 1 - 11: CONVERSIONS FOR PRESSURE EQUIVALENTS

INCHES MERCURY = a unit of pressure as measured by a manometer equal to the pressure balanced by the weight of a one - inch column of mercury in the instrument

ATMOSPHERE = the weight of the atmosphere per square inch of surface; the pressure of 14.69 pounds per square inch exerted in all directions at sea level by the atmosphere

KILOPASCAL = 1,000 pascals = a unit of force equal to one Newton per square meter (N/m2); typically used as pascal second (Pa · s), or 10 poise designating absolute viscosity

BAR = a metric unit of measure often used, equal to 100 kilopascal (kPa) or 14.5 lb/in2

TABLE 1 - 12: MULTIPLIERS FOR CONVERSION OF UNITS

TABLE 1 - 13: TREATMENT CONVERSION CHART

(Amounts listed are for active ingredients or a trade name preparation, depending on the recommendations)

(Source: N. Herwig, Handbook of Drugs and Chemicals used in the Treatment of Fish Diseases; 1979))

ANNEX 2 - Geometric formulas

TABLE 2 - 1: GEOMETRIC FORMULAS

WHERE:

A = AREA
C = CIRCUMFERENCE
H = HEIGHT
R = RADIUS (1/2 DIAMETER)
L = LENGTH

A1 = SURFACE AREA OF SOLIDS,
P = PERIMETER
D = DIAMETER
a = 3.142
V = VOLUME

RECTANGLE

A = WxL


TRIANGLE


PARALLELOGRAM

A = H x L


RECTANGULAR SOLID

A1 = 2[(W x L) + (L x H) + (H x W)]
V = W x L x H


TRAPEZOID


CIRCLE

A=p x R2

C=2p x D


ELLIPSE

A =p R1 x R2


CYLINDER

A1 = 2p(R x H) + 2pR2

V=pR2 x H


CONE

A1 =p(R x S) +pR2


ELLIPTICAL TANKS

V = p(R1 x R2 x H)


SPHERE

A1=4p x R2


ANNEX 3 - Oxygen solubility

TABLE 3 - 1: AIR SOLUBILITY OF OXYGEN (mg/l) IN SEA WATER (0 - 40 g/kg,‰)

Based on Benson and Krause. 1984.

(Source: J. Huguenin and J. Colt, Design and Operating Guide for Aquaculture Seawater Systems; 1989)

ANNEX 4 - Dissociation tables for ammonia in seawater

TABLE 4 - 1: MOLE FRACTION OF UN - IONIZED AMMONIA: 0 - 5 g/kg SALINITY (Emerson et al, 1975)

Based on freshwater equilibrium constants (Emerson et al., 1975).

TABLE 4 - 2: MOLE FRACTION OF UN - IONIZED AMMONIA: 5 - 40 g/kg SALINITY (Emerson et al., 1975)

Saltwater data from Khoo et al.(1977), salinity and the equation for the computation of ionic strength (Whitfield, 1974). Converted to the NBS pH scale by addition of 0.149 to freshwater negative logarithm of the equilibrium constants (Bates, 1975).

DETERMINATION OF NH3-N CONCENTRATION FROM TOTAL AMMONIA NITROGEN (TAN)

NH3 - N = (a) (TAN)

WHERE:,

a = Mole Fraction of Un - ionized Ammonia
TAN = Total Ammonia Nitrogen

EXAMPLE:

A tank of seawater (35ppt) at a temperature of 25°C has a pH of 8.2 and a Total Ammonia Nitrogen level of 0.4 mg/l. Calculate the concentration of un - ionized ammonia in the tank.

NH3-N = (a) TAN where a = 0.475 (taken from the table above at 25°C, pH = 8.2)

NH3 - N = (0.0475) (0.4) = 0.0190 mg/l = 19 mg/l or ppb

(Source: J. Huegenin and J. Colt, Design and Operating Guide for Seawater Aquaculturc Systems; 1989)

ANNEX 5 - Artificial seawater formula

TABLE 5 - 1: SALT CONCENTRATIONS FOR THE MODIFIED SEGEDI - KELLEY MEDIUM FORMULA (S = 35.3 ‰) (Segedi and Kelley, 1964)

(Source: S. Spotte, Seawater Aquaria: The Captive Environment; 1979)

TABLE 5 - 2: OTT'S (1965) ARTIFICIAL SEAWATER

To the above, add 1 ml each of the micronutrients listed under the formula for BOLD'S BASAL MEDIA (Table 3 - 7). This artificial seawater may be used in preparing Erdschreiber or von Stosch's enrichment media.

(Source: H. C. Bold and M. J. Wynne, Introduction to the Algae; 1978)

TABLE 5 - 3: INSTANT OCEANä ARTIFICIAL SEAWATER MIXTURE (1)

(1) Aquarium Systems, Inc. Twinbrook, Mentor, Ohio 44060

(Source: J.P. McVey, CRC Handbook of Mariculture: Volume I - Crustacean Aquaculture; copyright ©1983 - reprinted with permission of CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL)

TABLE 5 - 4: SALT CONCENTRATIONS FOR THE GP MEDIUM FORMULA (S = 33.1 ‰, ppt)

SOLUTION A: Dissolve salts separately; dilute to approximately 75% by volume; cover and aerate.

SOLUTION B: Dissolve in distilled water; add to Solution A on second day

SOLUTION C: Dissolve each salt in distilled water with 2 molar equiv. of Na2EDTA; boil and dilute to volume; add to solutions A and B on third day.

SOLUTION D: Requires no special preparation; dissolve in distilled water

(Source: S. Spotte, Seawater Aquaria: The Captive Environment; copyright ©1979 - reprinted by permission of John Wiley &Sons, Inc.)

TABLE 5 - 5: GATES AND WILSON'S NH ARTIFICIAL SEAWATER MEDIUM

(Source: T.V.R. Pillay, Aquaculture Principles and Practices; 1990)

TABLE 5 - 6: BOLDS BASAL MEDIUM (BBM) (Bischoff and Bold, 1963)

BBM is a medium useful for culturing Chlorophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Rhodophyceae.

Six macronutrient and four trace metal stock solutions are prepared.

To 940 ml distilled water, add 1.0 ml of each of the stock trace - element solutions prepared as follows:

1. 50 g EDTA and 31 g KOH dissolved in 1 liter distilled H2O (or 50 g Na2 · EDTA)

2. 4.98 g FeSO4 · 7H2O dissolved in 1 liter of acidified water (acidified H2O:1.0 ml H2SO4 dissolved in 1 liter distilled H2O).

3. 11.42 g H3BO3 dissolved in 1 liter distilled H2O.

4. Trace Element Stock Solution (below)

TABLE 5 - 7: BBM TRACE METAL STOCK SOLUTION

This may be enriched by substituting 30 ml of stock NaNO3 per liter to the definitive solution (3 x Nitrogen BBM). Alternately, many algae thrive when urea is substituted as the nitrogen source; it may be provided at the level of 3 x or 6 x the level of nitrogen in BBM.

Vitamins, most frequently B1, B6, and B12, may enhance the growth of algae in BBM. These may be added to a liter of BBM as 5 ml of Eagle's mixture and B2 (cyanocobalamine) at concentrations of 0.1 ml of a 1.0 mg/ml solution (equivalent to 100 mg/liter).

(1) "TC - Vitamins Minimal Eagle, 100 x" (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.).

(Source: H. C. Bold and M. J. Wynne, Introduction to the Algae; 1978)

ANNEX 6 - Tables of enriched seawater media

TABLE 6 - 1: PROVASOLI'S ENRICHED SEAWATER (ES) (Provasoli, 1963,1968; McLachlan, 1973)

Seawater is sterilized by filtration or autoclaving, enrichments assembled into a single solution, and added aseptically to the medium.

Mix 10 ml of each stock solution A - E and 250 ml of each stock solution F and G and bring total volume to 1250 ml with distilled or deionized water. Add 20 ml of the above stock solution mixture to 1000 ml of filtered seawater to prepare full - strength medium.

(Source: H.C. Bold and M. J. Wynne, Introduction to the Algae; 1978)

TABLE 6 - 2: "f" ENRICHED SEAWATER MEDIA (Guillard and Ryther, 1962) COMPOSITION PER LITER OF SEAWATER FOR "f/2"

This medium is widely used to culture a variety of marine phytoplankton. Pre - mixed modification of this formulation are available commercially.

TABLE 6 - 2 (cont.): PREPARATION OF STOCK SOLUTIONS

MAJOR NUTRIENT STOCKS are 103 more concentrated than in the final medium. Use 1 ml/liter of seawater to obtain medium "f/2", "h/2", or "f/2 - beta".

TRACE METAL WORKING STOCK SOLUTIONS, EDTA CHELATED

Use 1 ml/1 of TRACE METAL WORKING STOCK to make final "f/2" or "h/2" media.

1. "Ferric Sequestrene" as iron and chelator source.

Dissolve 5 g ferric sequestrene in 900 ml of distilled water, add 1 ml of each TRACE METAL PRIMARY STOCK, and bring to 1 liter. pH is @ 4.5.

2. Trace metal stock solution, using ferric chloride and di - sodium EDTA. Dissolve 3.15 g FeCl2 · 6H2O and 4.36 g Na2 EDTA in 900 ml of distilled water; add 1 ml of each TRACE METAL PRIMARY STOCK and bring to one liter. pH is @ 2.0. The solution remains clear if left at pH 2.0. If titrated to @ pH 4.5 (taking ca. 7 ml of N2NaOH), a precipitate will form, resembling that in the solution made with ferric sequestrene.

VITAMIN WORKING STOCK SOLUTION

Use 0.5 ml/l of VITAMIN WORKING STOCK SOLUTION for final "f/2" or "h/2" media.

Add 1.0 ml of BIOTIN PRIMARY STOCK and 0.1 ml of B12 PRIMARY STOCK to 100 ml distilled H2O and add 20 mg of thiamine HCl (no primary stock of thiamine is needed).

(Source: R. Guillard, In: W.L. Smith and M.H. Chanley, Culture of Marine Invertebrate Animals; copyright ©1975 - with permission Plenum Publishers)

TABLE 6 - 3: MODIFIED F MEDIUM (1)(Guillard & Ryther, 1962)

(1) 2 ml each of solutions A, B, and C plus 1 ml each of solutions D, E, and F per liter of seawater

(Source: Kongkeo, In: W. Fulks and K. L. Main, Rotifer and Microalgal Culture Systems; 1991 - reprinted with permission of Argent Laboratories)

TABLE 6 - 4: FORMULA OF WALNE MEDIUM FOR ALGAE CULTURE (Walne, 1974)

TABLE 6 - 5: ENRICHED SEAWATER MEDIA (Guillard, 1975)

"h/2" media adds 26.5 mg (0.5 mM) NH4Cl to the "f/2" Major Nutrient Stock for culturing those species which cannot grow well on nitrate. If NH4Cl is added to seawater and autoclaved, 25 - 30 % of the ammonium is lost. NH4Cl Stock, because of its low pH, can be autoclaved, and should be added aseptically to medium autoclaved separately.

"f/2 - beta" differs from "f/2" in that citrate is used as the chelator. Dissolve 16.8 g citric acid (C6H8O7 · H2O) in 900 ml distilled water. Add 3.0 g ferric citrate (FeC6H5O7 · 5H2O) and 1 ml of each "f/2" TRACE METAL PRIMARY STOCK. Bring to one liter and autoclave (pH @ 2.3)

ES media = Provasoli Enriched Seawater (Provasoli, 1968)

SWM media (McLachlan 1964; Chen, Edelstein and McLachlan, 1969) has several variations, depending on the species under cultivation. The original reference should be consulted.

(Source: J.P. Mcvey, CRC Handbook of Mariculture: Volumel - Crustacean Aquaculture, copyright © 1983 - with permission of CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL)

ANNEX 7 - Specific growth rates of algae

TABLE 7 - 1: SPECIFIC GROWTH RATES(!) OF ALGAE CULTURED AT LOW AND HIGH TEMPERATURES

Marine Strain: Salinity = 33 ‰, Light:Dark = 24:0, f/2 Medium
Freshwater Strain: Salinity = O ppt, Light:Dark = 24:0, Complesal medium


(!)
k (divisions/day) =

(Guillard 1973)

* Freshwater strains,(1) NFUP-9,(2) NFUP-13,(3) NFUP-2,(4) NFUP-10

(Source: S.B. Hur, In: W. Fulks and K.L. Main, Rotifer and Microalgae Culture Systems; copyright© 1991 - Argent Laboratories)

ANNEX 8 - Technical data on light sources

TABLE 8 - 1: TECHNICAL DATA ON LIGHT BULBS (Weast,1987; Lundegaard, 1985; Osborne, 1983)

(1) CRI (Color Rendering Index) Signifies the spectral distribution of light sources. The CRI of sunlight, as a standard, is 100. The higher the CRI of a bulb, the more all colors appear natural to the human eye.

ANNEX 9 - Use of haemocytometer to determine phytoplankton density

The hemocytometer was originally developed as a medical tool for counting blood cells, but it is widely used in aquaculture to determine phytoplankton cell counts. It consists of two parts; a) a base which is a thick slide of thermal and shock resisting g lass with an H - shaped trough cut into it. Two precisely measured shoulders rise 0.1 millimeter above each side of the trough, b) the second component is a thick cover glass (0.4 millimeters) which rests on top of the shoulders forming the top of the counting chamber.

Upon the base glass is fused a thin metallic film which is precisely etched into a pattern of nine squares, each one millimeter on the side. These are divided into 16 smaller squares, and the center square is further subdivided into 4 other squares each measuring 0.05 millimeters on a side. As hemacytometers may vary in dimensions, consult the manufacturers instructions to determine the depth of the counting chamber and the precise area of the counting grids before calculating phytoplankton density.

PREPARING A SAMPLE FOR COUNTING

1) Thoroughly clean the base slide and cover slip with distilled water and and lens paper.

2) Collect a sample of the algae culture and make serial dilutions if required. Addition of Lugol's stain may be added to kill and immobilize the cells.

3) Introduce a single drop of solution to the V - groove on the side of the hemocytometer, allowing the solution to spread through the counting chamber by capillary action. Avoid overfilling the counting chamber and allowing the cover slip to float, as this will result in high cell counts.

4) Place the hemocytometer on the stage of a compound microscope and at the lowest power of magnification focus onto the center grid.

5) Beginning at the upper righthand corner count all cells within the grid. It is suggested to count only cells on the upper line of the grid; cells intersecting the lower lines of the grid should be counted on the next lower grid. This method avoids duplicating counts.

CALCULATING CELL COUNTS

CELLS/mm3 = CELLS/mm2 x 10 x DILUTION

WHERE:

CELLS/mm2 = AVERAGE CELLS COUNTED/AREA COUNTED (mm2)

ANNEX 10 - UV energy requirements to prevent bacterial colonies formation

TABLE 10 - 1: ULTRAVIOLET ENERGY OF 2537 A WAVE - LENGTH TO INHIBIT COLONY FORMATION IN 90 AND 100 PERCENT OF TEST ORGANISMS (mW/s/cm2) (Phillips and Hanel, 1960)

Consult manufacturers of UV sterilizing lights for energy output at specified flow rates.

(Source: F.W. Wheaton, Aquacultural Engineering; copyright © 1985 - with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

TABLE 10 - 2: ULTRAVIOLET ENERGY FOR 100 PERCENT KILL (mW s/cm2) (Kelly, 1974)

Consult manufacturers of UV sterilizing lights for energy output at specified flow rates.

(Source: F. W. Wheaton, Aquacultural Engineering; copyright © 1985 - with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

TABLE 10 - 3: SIZES AND MLD OF UV RADIATION FOR SOME MICROORGANISMS FREE - LIVING OR PARASITIC IN AQUARIUM OR HATCHERY WATER, (from Hoffman, 1974)

(1) From data in Nigrelli (1936).

(2) From data in Nigrelli and Ruggieri (1966).

(Source: S. Spotte, Fish and Invertebrate Culture; copyright © 1979 - with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

ANNEX 11 - Biological activity of antibiotics

TABLE 11 - 1: BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ANTIBIOTICS COMMONLY USED IN AQUACULTURE

(1)Effectiveness of antibiotic against gram - positive (G+) and gram-negative (G-) bacteria; (3) no activity; (2) little activity, effective against a few representative species; (1) activity, effective against most representative species.

(2)Range in mg/ml of antibiotic which inhibits microbial growth.

(3)Known as broad - spectrum antibiotic because active against gram - negative, gram - positive and other microorganisms.

(Source: W.L. Smith and M.H. Chanley, Culture of Marine Invertebrate Animals; copyright © 1975 - with permission of Plenum Publishing)

TABLE 11 - 2: STABILITY AND ACTIVITY OF ANTIBIOTICS COMMONLY USED IN AQUACULTURE

(1) pH range for maximal antimicrobial activity.

(2) Bacterial strains develop resistance to the antibiotic.

(3) Microorganisms which have become resistant to an antibiotic numbered in column one also acquire resistance to antibiotics whose numbers are listed in this column.

Antibiotics with long half - lives include streptomycin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and neomycin.

Effective antibiotics with short half-lives include chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, bacitracin and carbomycin are most active at pH 6.0-6.6, and are much less effective in seawater. Colistin remains effective in seawater.

Antibiotics with very short half-lives include oleandomycin, wide - spectrum tetracycline, erythromycin and penicillin. Although effective against sensitive organisms, they are less effective for long - term control in cultures.

ANNEX 12 - Oxygen consumption

TABLE 12 - 1: SOME OXYGEN CONSUMPTION VALUES FOR FARMED FISH.

(1) From ADCP, 1984.

(2) Fed Purina marine ration #2

(Source: M.C.M. Beveridge, Cage Aquaculture; 1987)

TABLE 12 - 2: TYPICAL OXYGEN TRANSFER RATES OF VARIOUS DEVICES USED IN FISH CULTURE SYSTEMS (modified from Colt and Tchobanoglous, 1981).

(a) 20°C, tapwater, D.O. = 0 mg/1

(b) 20°C, D.O. = 6 mg/l

Note: kg/kW · h x 1.6440 =lbO2/hp · h

(Source: J. Colt and W. Tchobanoglous, In: Proceedings of the Bio-Engineering Symposium for Fish Culture; copyright © 1981 - with permission of American Fisheries Society)

ANNEX 13 - Concentration of selected fish tranquillizers

TABLE 13 - 1: CONCENTRATIONS OF SOME DRUGS USED TO TRANQUILIZE FISH FOR TRANSPORT

(Source: Courtesy of Dr. William McLamey, The Freshwater Aquaculture Book; copyright © 1984 - with permission of Hartley & Marks, Inc.)

ANNEX 14 - Average proximate composition of food organisms

TABLE 14 - 1: AVERAGE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF SELECTED INVERTEBRATE FOOD ORGANISMS

All Values Are Expressed As % By Weight On An As - fed Basis: Water-H2O; Crude Protein-CP, Lipid Or Ether Extract-EE; Crude Fiber-CF; Nitrogen Free Extractives-NFE; Ash; Calcium-Ca; Phosphorus-P(1)

(1) The data presented represents the mean values from various sources, Including: Allen (1984); Choubert and Luquet (1983); Creswell and Kompiang (1981); Deshimaru and Shigeno (1972); Deshimaru et.al., (1985); Elmslie (1982); Gallagher and Brown (1975); Gohl (1981); Hilton (1983); Imada et.al., (1979); Ling (1967); Mathias et.al, (1982); Meyers (1986,1987); Newton et.al., (1977), NRC (1983); Seidel et.al., (1980); Simpson, Klein - MacPhee and Beck (1982); Stafford and Tacon (1984,1985); Tacon (1986a); Tacon, Stafford and Edwards (1983); Watanabe, Kitajima and Fujita (1983); Yoshida and Hoshii (1978), Yurkowski and Tabachek (1978), and Leger et.al, (1986).

(2) Data obtained from Watanabe, Kitajima and Fujita (1983).

(3) Data obtained from Leger et.al., (1986); no information provided on moisture, crude fiber or NFE content - the carbohydrate content being represented by a single value.

(4) Data compiled from Watanabe, Kitajima and Fujita (1983) and Yurkowski and Tabachek (1978).

(5) Data obtained from Meyers (1986); crude protein (N x 6.25) values do not correspond to the corrected true protein value of 53.5% and 22.8% for shrimp heads and shrimp hulls respectively (ie. values corrected for chitin content)

(6) Data obtained from Newton et.al., (1977); no value is presented in this table for NFE, as the existing values reported by these authors total 106.4%.

(Source: A.G.J. Tacon, Standard Methods for the Nutrition of Farmed Fish and Shrimp; 1990 - with permission of Argent Laboratories, Inc.)

TABLE 14 - 2: AVERAGE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID (EAA) COMPOSITION OF SELECTED INVERTEBRATE FOODS

All values are expressed as % by weight on a as - fed basis: Arginine-ARG; Cystine-CYT; Methionine-MET; Threonine-THR; Isoleucine-ISO; Leucine-LEU; Lysine-LYS; Valine-VAL; Tyrosine-TYR; Tryptophan-TRY; Phenylalanine-PHE; Histidine-HIS

(1) The data presented represence the mean values from various sources, including: Allen (1984); Cresswell and Komplang(1981); Deshimaru and Shigeno (1972); Deshimaru et al, (1985); Gallagher and Brown (1975); Hilton (1983), Mathias et al. (1982); Meyers (1986); Newton et al., (1977); NRC (1983); Seidel et al., (1980); Stafford (1984); Tacon, Stafford and Edwards (1983); and Watanabe, Kitajima and Fujita (1983).

(2) Mean of the eight amino acid analyses presented by Watanabe, Kitajima and Fujita (1983)

(3) Origin of meal not specified (Deshimaru and Shigeno, 1972).

ANNEX 15 - Nitrogen and CO2 solubility

TABLE 15 - 1: SOLUBILITY OF NITROGEN (mg/liter) IN WATER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES AND SALINITIES FROM MOIST AIR WITH PRESSURE OF 760 MM HG. (Colt, 1984)

(Source: C. E. Boyd, Water Quality in Ponds for Aquaculture; 1990)

TABLE 15 - 2: SOLUBILITY OF CARBON DIOXIDE (mg/liter) IN WATER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES AND SALINITIES FROM MOIST AIR WITH PRESSURE OF 760 MM Hg (Colt, 1984)

(Source: C. E. Boyd, Water Quality in Ponds for Aquaculture; 1990)

ANNEX 16 - Nitrobacter and Nitrosomonas parameters

TABLE 16 - 1: TEMPERATURE OPTIMA FOR NITROSOMONAS (NS) AND NITROBACTER (NB).

(Source: Wheaton, Hochheimer and Kaiser, In: D.E. Brune and J.R. Tomasso (Eds.), Aquaculture and Water Quality; 1991)

TABLE 16 - 2: THE pH RANGES GIVING THE BEST NITRIFICATION RATES FOR NITROSOMONAS (NS) AND NITROBACTER (NB).

(Source: Wheaton, Hochheimer and Kaiser, In: D.E. Brune and J.R. Tomasso (Eds.), Aquaculture and Water Quality; 1991)

TABLE 16 - 3: GROWTH REQUIREMENTS AND TOXICITY OF VARIOUS COMPOUNDS TO NITROBACTER (NB) AND NITROSOMONAS (NS).

SOURCES:

(1) Skinner and Walker (1961)
(2) Lees (1952)
(3) Aleem (1959)
(4) Laudelout el al. (1967) (not referenced in source)
(5) Finstein and Delwiche (1965)

(Source: Wheaton, Hochheimer and Kaiser, In: D.E. Brune and J.R. Tomasso (Eds), Aquaculture and Wafer Quality; 1991)

TABLE 16 - 4: EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS AND PARASITICIDES ON NITRIFICATION IN FRESHWATER AQUARIUMS AT THERAPEUTIC LEVELS. (from Collins et al. 1975; 1976 and Levine and Meade 1976)

SOURCES:

(1) Skinner and Walker (1961)
(2) Lees (1952)
(3) Aleem (1959)
(4) Laudelout el al. (1967) (not referenced in source)
(5) Finstein and Delwiche (1965)

(Source: Wheaton, Hochheimer and Kaiser, In: D.E Brune and J.R. Tomasso (Eds), Aquaculture and Water Quality, 1991)

TABLE 16 - 4: EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS AND PARASITICIDES ON NITRIFICATION IN FRESHWATER AQUARIUMS AT THERAPEUTIC LEVELS, (from Collins et al. 1975; 1976 and Levine and Meade 1976)


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