- Dissemination of information and training in quarantine, maturation and hatchery
protocols for alien species are required.
- Biosecurity measures must be implemented for each phase of seed production to
maintain high health status.
- Quarantine, maturation and hatchery facilities should be used for only one species
to reduce the chances of cross contamination with pathogens.
- Appropriate use of water treatment systems for hatcheries is required in order to
remove water-borne sources of contamination (inlet and outlet).
- Biosecure quarantine facilities in which to hold imported or pond-reared
broodstock (or PL) during testing for pathogens should become standard.
- The first generation progeny of the introduced animals should be used if they are
proven disease free, but not the imported animals themselves, thus imports should
be made of broodstock and not nauplii or PL.
- Consideration should be given to the selection of broodstock animals with a wide
genetic variation to prevent problems of inbreeding.
- Genetic selection procedures should be based on sound principals aimed at the
development of domesticated, fast-growing, disease free (SPF) or disease resistant
(SPR) animals adapted for the local conditions.
- Training in rapid diagnostic methods for field use is required.
- Only when live feeds which are proven free from pathogens, or treated suitably
to kill them, should they be used.
- Eggs and nauplii from individual spawns should be maintained separate until their
health status can be ascertained.
- Both eggs and nauplius should be washed and cleaned using appropriate
disinfectants to minimize “vertical” transmission of pathogens from broodstock
- Nauplii selection based on their attraction to light should be used to maintain
- High quality feeds (both live and inert) of appropriate quantities should be fed to
the larvae to enhance quality and disease resistance.
- Methods of producing larger, high quality PL with which to stock the ponds
should be promoted.
- Suitable and reliable methods of PL quality assessment and health screening
before transfer to the farm should be promoted.
- The practice of combining tanks with low survival should be discouraged.
- Using a batch system for stocking and harvesting hatchery units with dry
out and disinfection time programmed between larval rearing runs should be
- When hatchery tanks are drained due to problems, the water and tanks should be
treated to kill the larvae and disinfect the tank and water prior to discharge.
- All water discharged from the hatchery should be disinfected before discharge to