- Farmers should
implement methods for selection of healthy PL for stocking their
- Methods of water
treatment should be analysed for their efficacy in reducing
disease risks, reservoirs
should be used.
- The use of 160–300
micron screens for all water entering ponds should be
as a means of excluding viral carrier organisms from the pond.
- Methods for
controlling land and air-based transmission of disease should be
- Biosecurity measures
should be implemented including restricting transfer of
and personnel between ponds.
- The risk of disease
transfer should be carefully considered before combining
from two or more ponds.
- The stocking of
indigenous and alien shrimp species in the same pond, or even
should be avoided unless SPF animals of both species are being used.
- Crop rotation,
fallowing and dry-out strategies should be considered to reduce
with transmission of pathogens between cycles.
- Reduced water exchange
strategies including stimulation of pond productivity
protein diets should be encouraged to reduce environmental impacts.
- The utility of
“green water” and polyculture of shrimp and fish strategies should
investigated for their abilities to reduce disease occurrence.
- The use of fresh
feeds should be discouraged on the farm.
- In the event of
emergency harvests, farmers should cooperate by informing their
(possibly sharing costs) and disinfecting any discharges before they
- Research the
development of farm-based, real-time diagnostic tests to permit
enhanced decision-making at
- Train pathologists
and farmers in use, interpretation, standardization and cross-checking of diagnostic tests.
- Regular dry-out of
ponds and farms should be encouraged.
- Where seasonality
occurs, risk avoidance strategies during high risk periods
- Processing plant
managers and operators should be informed of the dangers of
of untreated wastes into the environment, and encouraged to adopt safe
protocols for their disposal.