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Theme 06: Agricultural services

Supplementary items


0602 SOURCE OF CREDIT (for the holding)

0603 TYPE OF COLLATERAL FOR CREDIT (for the holding)

-   The holder's land

-   Other assets

-   Other type of collateral

0604 PERIOD OF LOAN OR CREDIT (for the holding)

11.189. Credit for agricultural purposes refers to any type of credit received for purposes related to the operations of the agricultural holding. This includes credit for purchasing crop and livestock inputs, constructing farm buildings, and purchasing farm machinery. Credit not related to agricultural operations, such as for construction of the holder's house, for other family businesses, or for consumption expenditure, should be excluded

11.190. Receipt of credit refers to whether credit was made available during the reference year, not whether there was outstanding credit at the time of the census. A holder may have made use of credit on more than one occasion during the year, and therefore more that one source or type of collateral may be reported. Credit received by the holder as well as members of his/her household should be included

11.191. The term “credit” is used widely to cover borrowing money directly, as well as buying goods and services on credit. Borrowing money may be done through a lending institution, other organizations, or persons for a specific purpose such as buying a tractor. Buying goods and services on credit refers to an arrangement for buying goods or services where payment is delayed beyond delivery, such as where fertilizer is purchased on the basis that payment will be made after the crop has been harvested

11.192. In Item 0602, source of credit refers to who provided the credit. The specific source classes will depend on the institutional arrangements for credit in the country. Typical groups are:

-   Commercial bank

-   Agricultural development bank

-   Cooperative credit society

-   Money lender

-   Input supplier

-   Self-help group

-   Family or friends

-   Income support

-   Other source

11.193. In Item 0603, collateral is defined as assets pledged as security for a loan of money, which means that if the borrower defaults on the terms of the loan, the collateral may be sold and the proceeds used to pay off the loan. For the purpose of the agricultural census, collateral is used in a wider sense to also cover guarantee provided for the purchase of goods and services. This is usually related to the production of agricultural goods, but may also be based on assets

11.194. The collateral for larger holdings is often the holder's land. This is prevalent where there is a well-developed land tenure system with legal ownership of land. Otherwise, other assets may be used as collateral. For a loan to buy farm machinery, for example, the purchased machinery may be used as collateral. Other type of collateral covers the purchase of goods and services on credit based on agreements to pay at a later date, or credit received without any collateral on a personal guarantee basis

11.195. Period of loan or credit refers to the period over which the loan or credit is to be paid off, as agreed at the time the loan was received. Where credit was received more than once during the reference year, the period should be reported for the loan or credit of highest value. Normally, the period of loan or credit is reported in ranges to reflect the likely reasons for using credit, such as for short-term (for the current crop) or long-term (for major capital outlays). Typical groupings are:

-   Less than 12 months

-   12–35 months

-   36 months or more


-   Extension services

-   Radio

-   Television

-   Newspapers

-   Agricultural newspapers

-   Input agencies

-   Internet

-   Other farmers

-   Other

11.196. Sources of agricultural information refer to where the holder received information to help manage the agricultural holding. This includes information on weather, selection of crop varieties, new agricultural practices, farm machinery, credit facilities, plant diseases and pests, marketing, and commodities or crop varieties being promoted by the Government. The reference period is the census reference year

11.197. Most farmers use various sources of information. Usually, countries prefer to collect data on all the sources. Extension services refer to advice received through government or non-government extension services, and is covered in more detail in Item 0606


11.198. Agricultural extension refers to the provision of agricultural advice and information to crop and livestock producers. Extension services may be provided by government institutions, non-government organizations, farmer organizations, educational institutions, informal grass-roots organizations, and others. Extension services may cover advice to farmers in areas such as farm management, selection of crop varieties, use of inputs such as fertilizers, credit, farm mechanization, animal health, plant protection, sustainable development, and marketing. Extension services may also be used by Governments to distribute inputs, disseminate market information, and promote the production of particular commodities or crop varieties

11.199. In most countries, government is the principal provider of extension services through its network of agricultural field staff. The organization of government extension services varies from country to country. Sometimes, extension services are centralized in a single ministry with all-round extension officers providing advice in all disciplines. In other countries, there are specialized extension services in crops, livestock and perhaps other fields

11.200. There are many different methods of implementing extension services. Often, extension workers visit farmers to provide on-the-spot advice. Demonstrations of new farming practices or technologies are sometimes arranged for small groups of farmers, or more formal training programmes organized for larger groups of farmers. Sometimes, study tours are arranged for farmers to observe agricultural practices in other places. Usually, agricultural extension is free of cost to the farmer; sometimes, it is not

11.201. Item 0606 refers to the use of agricultural extension services by the holding during the census reference year. It refers to personal contact with extension personnel or direct participation in extension activities such as a farm demonstration. It does not include accessing extension material though printed brochures, radio, television or the Internet. Also, extension services should be limited to formal contacts with extension workers specifically employed for that task; advice received from other informal sources should not be included. A farmer may have received extension services from more than one source

11.202. The categories for sources of agricultural extension will depend on the way extension services are organized in the country. Countries may want to identify the discipline (such as crops or livestock) and the type of organization providing the service (such as government institution or farmer organization). Typical source categories are:

-   Government organization

-   Farmer association

-   Other


11.203. This item is included to help assess how easy it is for farmers to access markets. Travelling time is usually expressed in ranges, such as:

-   Less than 30 minutes

-   30–60 minutes

-   60–120 minutes

-   More than 2 hours

11.204. Sometimes, travelling times vary according to, for example, the wet and dry seasons. Some countries may wish to collect these data for different seasons

11.205. Periodic or permanent agricultural produce market refers to a market where farmers can bring their produce for sale. The markets operated every day or on certain days of the week

Theme 07: Demographic and social characteristics of household members

Core items


11.206. Household size is the number of members of the holder's household. This can be obtained either by listing all household members or asking a direct question on the number of household members. A household is one or more persons living together who make common provision for food or other essentials for living (see paragraph 3.26)

11.207. It is recommended that household data only be collected for agricultural holdings in sector “single-holding household” in Item 0002. It would be difficult to interpret household data for other types of holdings and could lead to double counting of household members. Household data are not normally provided for other types of holdings in the household sector in Item 0002, Some countries collect household data for “multiple-holding households” in Item 0002 by referring to the group of persons within the household operating the holding

11.208. Household size can be measured in two ways: (i) persons present on the day of enumeration; or (ii) persons who are usually resident in the household. The usual residence approach - called the de jure concept - is recommended for the agricultural census, and is the way official population estimates are normally made. Usually, it is not difficult to identify a person's place of usual residence. However, sometimes members of a family are studying or working away from the family home and return home regularly. The treatment of such cases should be clearly stipulated

11.209. With a de jure concept, the data on household size relates to persons who, at the time of the census, are usually resident in the household.

Supplementary items


11.210. An agricultural census covers all units engaged in agricultural production activities, regardless of size or importance. For some households, agricultural production on the holding is the household's only or predominant activity, but for other households, it may only provide a secondary source of income. A household may be engaged in other economic production activities (see Item 0016) or its members may work in paid jobs. A household with a small holding of, for example, only 0.4 ha of land may or may not be food secure, depending on the extent to which it relies on the agricultural holding for its livelihood

11.211. Item 0701 is recommended for inclusion as a supplementary item to identify what might be termed “genuine farmers”. This can provide an important classification item for the census tabulation. It can also be useful for sampling frame purposes. Item 0701 relates only to holdings in sector “single-holding household” in Item 0002

11.212. A household containing an agricultural holding may have four sources of income: (i) agricultural production income; (ii) income derived from economic production activities other than agricultural production; (iii) income from paid employment; and (iv) pensions, investment income and remittances. An agricultural household is a household for which agricultural production income is the largest of these four income sources. Agricultural production income includes income from growing crops and raising livestock; it excludes income from a paid agricultural job. Income includes income in cash and in kind. For more information on the concept of agricultural household, see Handbook on Statistics on Rural Development and Agricultural Household Income (UN et al, 2005, Chapter IX)

11.213. Note that there are various types of non-agricultural households. For some, agricultural production is a sideline activity to the household's main economic production activity or employment. For others, the household is forced to rely on other sources of income because income from agricultural production is low. The latter may be of particular concern to agricultural policy-makers, and countries may wish to draw out this distinction in the analysis

11.214. It is not necessary to collect detailed income data to determine whether the holding is part of an agricultural household. Income data are difficult to collect, even in an in-depth sample survey, and is not normally feasible in an agricultural census. Instead, respondents should be asked to provide an overall assessment of their agricultural production activities in relation to the three other sources of income. The important thing is not to get quantitative measures of income from the different sources, but to distinguish between agricultural and non-agricultural households. Normally, the reference period for the collection of agricultural household data is the census reference year


11.215. In many countries, there are major differences in agricultural practices between different national or ethnic groups, which are important to measure in an agricultural census. For the agricultural census analysis, a single national/ethnic group indicator for the holding is needed, and this is usually done by referring to the household head or the agricultural holder. This may not always be appropriate

11.216. The national/ethnic groups used by a country could be based on nationality, religion, language or customs, depending on their importance in the community and their dissimilar agricultural characteristics. There should also be consistency with the population census and other statistics

0711 SEX (for each household member)

-   Male

-   Female

0712 AGE (for each household member)

11.217. Age refers to the age in completed years at the time of the census. Data on age may be collected by asking directly for the age or by obtaining the person's date of birth. Age is sometimes difficult to collect. In some countries, people have different ways of calculating age, such as age next birthday. There is also a tendency for people to round ages to the nearest five or ten years. Date of birth can also be difficult to collect. Often, it is known only according to an alternative calendar such as a lunar calendar. Sometimes, people can only identify their date of birth in relation to major events, or may only know the season not the date. There are various data collection tools available to help overcome these problems


11.218. Relationship data are collected by first identifying the household head (or any other reference person) and then recording the relationship of each other household member to that person. In the agricultural census, relationship data are only collected to determine household and family composition. Therefore, it doesn't matter who the reference person is or, if it is the household head, whether that title reflects the person's role. Countries may use any reference person considered most appropriate to national circumstances. It is not intended that household head data - for example, by gender - will be analysed in the agricultural census. Instead, census data will be analysed in relation to different household composition types, such as a married couple with children or an extended household

11.219. The relationship categories should be based on international standards used in the population census programme (UN, 1998, paragraph 2.73), ensuring consistency with other national statistics. The recommended categories are given below. Some countries may wish to identify more complex relationship structures, such as child/parent relationships for different family units within a household

-   Head

-   Spouse

-   Child

-   Spouse of child

-   Grandchild or great grandchild

-   Parent or parent of spouse

-   Other relative

-   Other unrelated person

11.220. Households should be divided into household composition types based on the family nucleus. The following groupings used in the population census (UN, 1998, paragraph 2.82) are usually suitable:

-   One-person household

-   Nuclear household

-   Extended household

-   Composite household

0714 MARITAL STATUS (for each household member)

11.221. Marital status is the status of the household member in relation to the marriage laws or customs of the country. The marital status categories should be based on international standards used in the population census programme (UN, 1998, paragraph 2.96), ensuring consistency with other national statistics. The following groupings are recommended:

-   Never married

-   Married

-   Widowed and not remarried

-   Divorced and not remarried

-   Married but separated

11.222. Countries may wish to take local conditions into account in determining the marital status categories. In some countries, the category “consensual union” may be needed to reflect unions outside marriage laws or customs. Other countries may need to take into account concubinage, polygamous or polyandrous practices

11.223. Marital status is sometimes collected for all persons, regardless of age, but often it is restricted to those above the minimum legal marriage age. Whichever approach is taken, countries should show marital status data in the census tables for persons aged 15 years and over, to provide international comparisons

0715 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT (for each household member)

11.224. Educational attainment data are useful in an agricultural census to examine the effects of education on characteristics such as cropping systems, agricultural practices and household food security. Educational attainment refers to the highest grade of formal education completed or attended by a person. In the agricultural census, educational attainment data should be collected for both the agricultural holder and the agricultural holder's spouse, if present, as the educational levels of both can be important factors in agricultural and household activities

11.225. Data on educational attainment needs to be recorded in suitable categories. Attention should be paid to consistency with other national statistical collections, especially the population census, and to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) (UNESCO, 1997). For international comparison purposes, educational attainment should be classified into at least three levels of education: primary, secondary, and post-secondary. Each level may be further sub-divided to meet national needs.

Theme 08: Farm labour

Basic concepts in labour statistics

11.226. Theme 08 covers items related to the two types of labour inputs on agricultural holdings: (i) labour provided by household or family members, and (ii) paid outside workers

11.227. Data on farm labour in the agricultural census should be based on the recommendations on labour statistics provided by ILO (ILO, 2000). Under ILO guidelines, the concept of activity status, broadly speaking, is used to measure whether a person of working age is part of the supply of labour for the production of economic goods and services. A person who is part of the supply of labour is said to be economically active, whereas a person who is not part of the supply of labour is said to be not economically active

11.228. For the purposes of defining activity status, economic goods and services are defined according to SNA principles and covers the production of goods and services for sale or for home consumption (UN et al, 1993). For agricultural work, it covers all crop and livestock production and related activities, including supplying water, post-harvest activities, and preparation of food for employees on the holding. It does not include domestic and personal services provided for the household's own consumption

11.229. There are two main ways to measure a person's activity status. One is the concept of “currently active”, which measures activity status in relation to a short reference period such as a week. The other is the concept of “usually active”, which measures a person's main activity status over a long reference period such as a year. One of the advantages of the “currently active” concept is that data collection is easier because it only requires activity information for a short reference period. “Current activity” is usually preferred for making international comparisons. However, “usual activity” is generally used in the agricultural census because it is more suited to measuring the seasonal aspects of agricultural work and because the emphasis in the census is on the source of labour inputs rather than measuring employment as such. The “usually active” concept is recommended for use in the agricultural census

11.230. A person is determined to be usually economically active or not usually economically active according to the person's main or usual activity during a long specified period such as a year. Criteria need to be set for this purpose, based on the number of months, weeks or days of activity during the long reference period. For example, a person would be classified as usually economically active if their total period of employment and unemployment was 50 percent or more of the length of the long reference period (that is 26 weeks or more for a reference year). A person would be classified as not usually economically active if their total period of employment and unemployment was less than half the reference period. In order to capture agricultural labour input completely, the agricultural season could be used for the long reference period, instead of the reference year. However for assessing employment statistics in general, it is the reference year that is mostly used. Within the category usually economically active, persons may be usually employed if the period of employment during the reference period exceeded that of unemployment, otherwise they would be usually unemployed. Employed persons work in one or more jobs, and employment data - such as status in employment, occupation, and time worked - are obtained about each job. For the census of agriculture, employment data should focus on those jobs that are related to agriculture, separately identifying main jobs and secondary jobs

11.231. The minimum age limit for economically active persons should be set in accordance with national conditions, but should not be higher than 15 years. A lower minimum age limit may be appropriate in developing countries where children often participate in agricultural work. To facilitate international comparisons, tabulations should distinguish between persons aged under 15 years and those aged 15 years and above. Where countries set the minimum age limit below ten years, tabulations should also distinguish children aged under ten years. It is not normal to apply a maximum age limit as elderly persons can still make a contribution to agricultural work

11.232. As for all items in the agricultural census, countries need to carefully design questionnaires for the collection of farm labour data, suitable to national circumstances. Activity status data can only be collected by asking each person a series of specific questions about his/her work activities or, if he/she is not working, about his/her availability for, and steps taken to find, work. Accurately measuring usual activities over a twelve-month reference period is difficult and special data collection measures are needed to ensure that reporting is complete and accurate. Efforts must also go into ensuring that data are not biased as a result of enumerators misunderstanding the concept of activity status, especially for women and other family members contributing labour to work on the holding

11.233. An additional point to bear in mind is that a person who is usually employed over the reference period (year) may not necessarily be always employed in agricultural work. It may be useful, therefore, to identify agricultural labour separately from non-agricultural labour and/or to ask specific questions about any job during the agricultural season that is related to agriculture (including jobs that are not the main job). More detail on international standards for labour statistics is contained in various ILO publications (ILO, 1990; ILO, 2000). Countries should refer to this material to clarify the treatment of special cases

Supplementary items

0801 ACTIVITY STATUS (for each household member of working age)

-   Economically active

-   Not economically active

11.234. Activity status refers to whether a person is usually economically active or usually not economically active (see paragraph 11.230; ILO, 2000, pp. 24–28)

11.235. An employed person is one whose main activity during the reference year was to be in paid employment or self-employment. Paid employment includes those at work, as well as those with a job but temporarily not at work because of illness or holiday, but retaining a formal attachment to that job. Formal job attachment needs to be determined according to national circumstances, taking into account the continued receipt of wages and the guarantee of a return to the job. Self-employment includes those operating a business or otherwise working for profit or family gain, including contributing family workers (see paragraph 11.244)

11.236. The family is often an important source of labour on agricultural holdings and should be given special attention in measuring the activity status of household members. Special care is needed with homemakers. Activities related to care of the home or children do not constitute employment in a statistical sense, but many homemakers also do some work on the holding, especially in peak periods such as during crop planting or harvesting. Many homemakers also have other specific tasks on the holding, such as looking after the kitchen garden or caring for livestock. In measuring activity status, some countries set a minimum requirement for the amount of time worked; in doing this, countries should ensure that the contribution of unpaid family workers, especially women, are fully reflected

11.237. An unemployed person is one whose main activity during the reference year satisfies the following three criteria:

-   without work, that is he/she is not employed;

-   currently available for work, that is he/she would be willing to do work if work was available; and

-   seeking work, that is he/she is taking specific steps to find work

11.238. Criteria for determining “available for work” and “seeking work” must be established based on national circumstances, taking into consideration how the labour market is organized and how people find jobs. Persons not seeking work because of temporary illness, previous arrangements to start a new job in the future, or on temporary or indefinite lay-off without pay, are included as unemployed

11.239. The unemployment concept is difficult to apply in countries where the labour market is not well organized or where self-employment or informal labour arrangements are predominant. This commonly applies in rural areas of developing countries. Often, the “seeking work” criterion is relaxed because many people do not seek work because they believe that no jobs are available

11.240. A person is not economically active if his/her main activity status during the reference year was neither employed nor unemployed. Typical examples are: persons below the minimum age for measuring economic activity; homemakers; students; persons too old or too sick to work; and persons living from the proceeds of property, investments, interest, rent, royalties or pensions

0811 STATUS IN EMPLOYMENT OF MAIN JOB (for each economically active household member)

-   Employee

-   Own-account worker

-   Contributing family worker

-   Member of producers' cooperative

-   Not classifiable

11.241. Status in employment refers to status of an economically active person with respect to the type of employment contract the person has with his/her job (ILO, 2000, pp. 20–23). Note that activity status relates to whether the person was mainly employed, unemployed or not economically active during the reference year, while status in employment refers to the characteristics of a particular job - in this case the person's the main job - or (for the unemployed) the status in work of the person's last job

11.242. An employee is a person in a paid employment job (see paragraph 11.235). Paid employment jobs are those which provide remuneration not directly dependent on the revenue of the unit for which the person works. Typically, an employee receives wages and salaries for the time worked. However, remuneration may also be in the form of in-kind payments such as food, or on a commission or piece-rate basis,

11.243. An own-account worker is one who is working on his/her own account, or with one or more partners, in a self-employment job (see paragraph 11.235), where that person has overall responsibility for the management of the producing unit. In a self-employment job, the remuneration is directly dependent on the profits derived from the goods and services produced. Agricultural holders are own-account workers if their main job is work on the holding

11.244. Contributing family workers are those who are working in a self-employment job in an establishment operated by a person living in the same household, and whose level of responsibility or commitment in terms of working time or other factors is not sufficient to be considered an own-account worker. Thus, the agricultural holder is the own-account worker and any other household member whose main job is working on the holding is a contributing family worker. Where it is customary for people to work without pay in a business operated by a related person not living in the same household, the requirement of living in the same household is often relaxed

11.245. A member of a producers' cooperative is one working in a self-employment job as a member of a cooperative, where each member takes part in managing the cooperative on an equal footing with other members

11.246. Not classifiable covers those such as the unemployed who cannot be classified to any of the previous categories

0812 OCCUPATION OF MAIN JOB (for each economically active household member)

11.247. Occupation is defined as the main tasks and duties carried out by an employed person in a particular job (ILO, 1990, pp. 2–5). Occupation relates to a particular job; a person may have more than one job, each with its own occupation. For the agricultural census, occupation data are usually collected in respect of the main job. The occupation of an unemployed person relates to the work done in a previous job. Occupation is not relevant if the person is not economically active

11.248. Occupation should not be confused with industry: occupation is the type of work done by the person, while industry is the activity of the establishment in which the person works. Thus, a person working as a machine operator for a logging firm would have occupation “machine operator” and industry “forestry”. Also, occupation should not be confused with status in employment, which describes whether a person is an employee, own-account worker, etc. (see paragraphs 11.241–11.246)

11.249. Occupation should be coded according to a standard national occupation classification, which should be compatible with the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) (ILO, 1990). Most occupation classifications provide different levels of coding and the agricultural census should be coded at the lowest possible level consistent with the information provided in the questionnaire and the level at which data are to be presented in the census tabulations. Usually, occupation is coded to at least the second or third levels, corresponding to the ISCO sub-major or minor groups

11.250. ISCO provides the following ten major groups:

  1. Legislators, senior officials and managers
  2. Professionals
  3. Technicians and associate professionals
  4. Clerks
  5. Service workers and shop and market sales workers
  6. Skilled agricultural and fishery workers
  7. Craft and related trade workers
  8. Plant and machinery operators and assemblers
  9. Elementary occupations
  10. Armed forces

11.251. Agriculture related occupations are mainly in major groups 1, 2, 3, 6, 8 and 9, but most persons in rural areas report occupations belonging to groups 6 and 9. ISCO emphasizes the skill level required to do a particular task and a distinction is made between skilled agricultural workers (Group 6) and farm-hands/labourers, which are classified under elementary occupations (Group 9)

-   Skilled agricultural workers are those whose “tasks require the knowledge and experience necessary to produce farm products” (ILO 1990, p. 6 and pp. 157–171)

-   Persons with elementary occupations are those whose “occupations require the limited knowledge and experience necessary to perform mostly simple and routine tasks, involving the use of hand-held tools and in some cases considerable physical effort and with few exceptions only limited personal initiative or judgement. Tasks include: digging and shovelling; loading and unloading; raking, pitching and stocking hay; watering and weeding; picking fruit and other crops; feeding, watering and cleaning animals; etc.” (ILO 1990, p. 7 and p. 258)

11.252. It can be difficult to distinguish these two occupation groups. Countries need to develop criteria suited to national conditions to determine what types of agricultural workers are deemed to have the skills necessary to be classified in Group 6. Also to be considered are the questions needed to provide the information necessary to code on the required basis. Just asking a single question about occupation is often not satisfactory because of confusion between occupation and industry or status in employment, and it usually does not give the information needed to make a clear distinction between skilled and unskilled workers. Some countries ask two occupation related questions - the first about the kind of work done, and the second about the main tasks and duties - which provides a better basis for coding a person's occupation. Some countries define the holder as a skilled worker and all other persons working on the holding as unskilled; this is not completely satisfactory.

0813 TIME WORKED IN MAIN JOB (for each economically active household member)

0814 TIME WORKED ON THE HOLDING (for each economically active household member)

11.253. Past agricultural census programmes have used the concept of permanent/occasional worker to measure the volume of labour inputs to the holding. A permanent worker was someone whose services are used regularly and continuously during the reference year. Often, this was interpreted as working six months or more during the year. This was difficult to apply, given the seasonality of agricultural work. A person may work regularly and continuously on a holding when work is available, but that may only be for a few months of the year. Alternatively, a person may work continuously but only for a few hours a week

11.254. It is recommended that a different approach be used for the 2010 round of agricultural censuses, based on the concept of time worked (ILO, 2000, pp. 39–40). Time worked is the time spent working in a particular job during the twelve-month reference period. Time worked includes regular working hours as well as overtime, time spent waiting or standing by, and other short breaks. It excludes meal breaks and absences because of holidays or sickness. Two time worked items are recommended: time worked in main job, and time worked on the holding

11.255. Time worked has two elements. Full-year/part-year work measures the number of months or weeks of work carried out during the year. Full-time/part-time work measures the number of hours worked per day or week, as assessed against some sort of norm such as a 40-hour week

11.256. Countries should give careful consideration to the application of the time worked concept, taking into account national circumstances and the way in which the time worked data are to be presented in the census tabulations. One option is to present data according to specified weeks per year and hours per day groupings. Another option is to summarize time worked according to the following categories:

-   Full-time job

-   Part-time job

11.257. Comparability with previous agricultural censuses could be achieved by defining permanent/occasional workers in terms of the above classes; for example, a permanent worker could be one working for seven or more months of the year in a full-or part-time job

11.258. Much effort needs to go into designing suitable questionnaires and data collection procedures for time worked data. At a minimum, it will be necessary to ask each person about the months per year and hours per week worked for each job. However, these questions alone will not usually be sufficient to get reliable data, especially given the complex organization of farm labour in many countries. One option is to ask detailed questions about the nature and duration of all activities carried out by each person during the year. Diaries could be used for this purpose. Such in-depth questions would improve data quality but would add to the length of the questionnaire. However, this is the rationale for the current modular approach, with in-depth data such as this being collected in a sample-based supplementary module rather than by complete enumeration in the core module


-   Male employees

-   Female employees

11.259. Items 0801–0814 are about the economic activity of the holding's household members and the labour they supply to the holding. The current item, Item 0821, is about the use of paid workers on the holding. The underlying concepts for these data are based on the ILO recommendations on labour statistics (see paragraphs 11.226–11.232)

11.260. An employee on the holding is a person who had a job on the holding at some time during the reference year, whose status in employment for that job was “employee” (see paragraph 11.242); that is, he/she worked on the holding at some time during the year in a paid employment job. This includes permanent employees, as well as seasonal, part-time and casual workers. Employees are usually paid in cash, or in the form of food or other farm produce, but there may be other remuneration arrangements. Exchange of labour should be treated as a form of paid employment. Persons employed by the household but not working on the holding are excluded. Family members are excluded from Item 0821 because their labour inputs are covered under Items 0801–0814. The term “employee on the holding” is equivalent to the term “agricultural worker other than members of the holder's household” used in previous agricultural census programmes

11.261. A distinction is made between hiring an employee to work on the holding for a defined remuneration, and engaging a contractor to provide certain agricultural services for an agreed fee. Item 0821 covers only employees. Contract work is covered in Item 0823. For more information on the difference between employees and contractors, see paragraph 11.267

11.262. The number of employees on the holding is a count of the number of persons who were an employee on the holding at some time during the reference year. Thus, a person who worked on the holding several times during the reference year is counted only once

11.263. For the 2010 round of agricultural censuses, the concept of time worked is used to replace the permanent/occasional concept used in previous agricultural census programmes. See paragraphs 11.253–11.258 for more information. Time worked data for employees should be consistent with the same data for household members. In this regard, the time worked classification in paragraph 11.256 should be suitable. Comparability with previous agricultural censuses can be achieved by defining permanent/occasional workers in terms of the given time worked classes

11.264. As for all time worked data, care is needed in designing suitable questionnaires and data collection procedures (see paragraph 11.258).

0822 FORM OF PAYMENT FOR EMPLOYEES (for the holding)

11.265. Item 0822 is important in countries where there are various forms of remuneration for employment of labour. It refers to the form or forms of payment used on the holding during the reference year. The form of payment for each employee is usually not reported. The payment methods can vary from country to country and each country needs to determine categories suitable to national conditions. Typical form of payment groups are:

-   With money

-   With farm produce

-   Exchange of labour

-   Other forms of in-kind payment


11.266. This item is about whether agricultural service contractors were used for work on the holding during the census reference year.

11.267. Using an agricultural service contractor must be distinguished from hiring an employee to work on the holding, which is covered in Item 0821. An employee is a person employed under an explicit or implicit agreement that provides the person with a certain agreed remuneration. Often, there are legal requirements attached to hiring an employee such as the provision of social benefits to the employee (such as sick leave), payment of taxes (such as payroll tax), and responsibility for work safety (such as insurance for workplace accidents). A contractor, on the other hand, is an own-account worker (see paragraph 11.243), who normally receives no social benefits as part of the work carried out. Often, there are legal requirements for a contractor, such as having the required business licence or payment of value added taxes. Sometimes, it can be difficult to differentiate between an employee and a contractor.

11.268. The type of contractor groupings used depends on national conditions. Typically, specialized work on the holding is contracted out, such as crop protection, tree pruning, crop harvesting, sheep shearing, or farm administration.

Theme 09: Household food security

Basic household food security concepts

11.269. Household food security refers to the situation where all members of a household at all times are consuming enough safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development, and for an active and healthy life. A household is food insecure if it is not able to afford to buy enough food or is limited in the food that it can buy and therefore may not eat safe or nutritionally adequate food. Food security refers to conditions related to a household not having enough food or money to buy food; it does not refer to other causes of hunger such as dieting or inability to cook/buy food

11.270. Household food security is a complex, multi-dimensional problem. Concepts such as food security, food insecurity, hunger and vulnerability are difficult to measure. Household food security may incorporate elements such as food shortages, fear of food shortages, perceptions about the quality or quantity of food eaten, and how people deal with food shortages. The nutritional quality of diets and safety of food are other elements. Access to health, sanitation, and other services also affect a household's food security situation (FAO, 2000)

11.271. Various approaches have been used to measure household food security. Some countries have developed a household food security scale, which provides an overall assessment of where each household is on the spectrum between being food insecure and food secure, based on a series of food security related questions. Other countries undertake in-depth surveys exploring all the different elements of household food security

11.272. It is not possible to fully cover household food security in an agricultural census, and it is difficult to make specific recommendations on which household food security items each country should include in its agricultural census. Some guidelines are provided in the paragraphs below

11.273. Any survey involving a complex topic such as this will need extensive questionnaire development and testing. The concept of “food shortage” could be approached in different ways, such as asking about “getting enough food every day”, “facing food shortages”, or “not having enough money to buy food”. Food shortages may be reflected in various ways such as skipping meals, eating less expensive food, or cutting the size of meals

11.274. It is recommended that food security not be included in the core agricultural census module. For the household food security supplementary module, two broad food security indicators are proposed: (i) food shortages faced in a twelve month reference period; and (ii) fear of a food shortage in the coming twelve months. Additional items on the types of food normally eaten, anthropometric data, and the effects of natural disasters are also proposed

Supplementary items


0901(b) MONTHS IN WHICH FOOD SHORTAGE OCCURRED (for the household)

0901(c) REASONS FOR FOOD SHORTAGE (for the household)


0901(e) STEPS TAKEN TO ALLEVIATE FOOD SHORTAGE (for the household)

11.275. Item 0901 relates to food shortages faced by the household during a previous twelve-month reference period. This takes account of seasonality in food supplies. The census reference year is usually suitable. If seasonality is not important, a shorter reference period, such as one month, may be used

11.276. Could not afford to eat what they normally eat refers to the situation where the household finds that it is unable to maintain its normal eating patterns at any time during the reference period and is forced to make changes such as skipping meals, eating less for each meal, or eating cheaper and perhaps less nutritious food. This item relates to what the household normally eats, even if the household's normal diet is inadequate in terms of the amount of food eaten or how balanced the diet is

11.277. Data on months in which food shortage occurred are useful to assess the seasonality of food shortages, such as before the main harvest or where natural calamities are common. A household may experience a food shortage in one or more months of the year and respondents should show each month in which the shortage occurred. For some countries, this information could be collected in terms of the frequency of food shortages, rather than months in which food was short. Here, terminology such as: “1 or 2 months of the year” and “some months of the year”, or “sometimes” and “often” may be used

11.278. Reasons for food shortage will depend on local conditions. Food shortages may be caused by exceptional events such as loss of crops, or they may be attributed to more long-term factors such as lack of land. Respondents may have more than one reason for a food shortage. Countries should develop suitable response categories for reporting these data. Some typical response categories are:

-   Loss of crops

-   Lack of jobs

-   Inability to work because of illness or injury

-   Disabled, old age

-   Lack of land

-   Lack of capital

-   Family too big

11.279. Eating patterns affected by food shortage refers to the household's immediate response to the food shortage. Typical response categories are:

-   Skipping meals

-   Eating less expensive food

-   Cutting the size of meals

11.280. Steps taken to alleviate food shortage refers to what the household did to try and overcome the food shortage. This will depend on national conditions but could include the following response categories:

-   Use savings to buy food

-   Take out a loan

-   Sell land or livestock

-   Get another job

-   Start or expand a family business

-   Get help from relatives or other people

-   Get help from the Government

-   Get help from charities


11.281. Item 0902 relates to fears of a food shortage during a coming twelve-month reference period, such as the next agricultural year

11.282. Fears a food shortage refers to the household's fear of getting into a food shortage situation at any time during the reference period because of the threat of natural disaster, loss of crops, loss of a job, or other factors. The fear of food shortage relates to the household's own assessment of their food security situation for the coming year


11.283. This item provides information on the frequency of eating key food products. It can help to understand how diets change in the face of a food shortage or vulnerability to food shortage. The food products specified will vary from country to country and should focus on the food groups that best discriminate food insecurity. Thus, if households tend to respond to a food shortage by eating more maize and vegetables and less rice and meat, these food groups should be emphasized in Item 0903. It is not necessary to cover all food groups

11.284. Data on food frequency should be collected for a relatively short reference period, such as a week or a month. The frequency can be reported in terms of categories such as: every day; often; sometimes; not at all

0904 EFFECTS OF NATURAL DISASTERS (for the household)


11.285. Items 0904 and 0905 are suitable for countries where natural disasters are prevalent and, when they occur, can have a major impact on the food security situation of the people affected. Normally, the census reference year is taken as the time reference

11.286. Item 0904 refers to whether the household's food security situation was affected by specified natural disasters. For the purposes of the agricultural census, natural disasters include the major climatic and physical events, as well as major pest attacks. The types of natural disasters identified will depend on national circumstances. The following response categories may be suitable:

-   Floods or tidal waves

-   Drought

-   Typhoons or hurricanes

-   Pests

-   Other

11.287. A household may have suffered because of more than one disaster and should be reported accordingly

11.288. Item 0905 covers the extent of the loss as a result of the disasters reported in Item 0904. The extent of the loss of agricultural output should be measured according to suitable criteria, such as:

-   None

-   Slight

-   Moderate

-   Severe

11.289. Normally, Item 0905 relates to the overall effect of the natural disasters, not the effects of specific disasters or the effects on specific crops or livestock. For crops, loss is usually assessed in terms of the effect on crop production in comparison with a normal year, such as: slight - less than 20 percent lower; moderate - 20–40% lower; severe - more than 40% lower. Similar criteria can be used for livestock

0911 HEIGHT AND WEIGHT (for children aged under 5 years)

11.290. The outcome of food insecurity is that people do not eat enough food and, for children, this is reflected in their growth. Data on the heights and weights of children aged under five years can be valuable in assessing the effect of household food security problems. By relating the height and weight of a child to his/her age, one can measure the following indicators:

-   Underweight; that is, the child's weight is too low for his/her age. Children may also be classified as moderately or severely underweight

-   Stunting; that is, the child's height is too low for his/her age. Children may also be classified as moderately or severely stunted

-   Wasting; that is, the child's weight is too low for his/her height

11.291. To collect these data, enumerators need to be provided with measuring instruments; namely, a measuring tape to record heights and scales to record weights

Theme 10: Aquaculture

Core items


11.292. For the purpose of the agricultural census, presence of aquaculture refers to aquacultural production activities carried out in association with agricultural production. This means that the aquacultural activities are integrated with agricultural production, such as in rice-cum-fish culture, or that aquaculture and agriculture share the same inputs, such as machinery and labour. For more information on the treatment of aquaculture in the context of the national accounting framework, see Appendix 1. Aquaculture carried out independently of agricultural production is not included; for example, a household may have independently managed and operated agricultural and aquacultural activities

11.293. Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and plants. In this context, farming refers to some intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding and protection from predators. Aquaculture normally involves rearing of organisms from fry, spat or juveniles. Aquaculture may be carried out in ponds, paddy fields, lagoons, estuaries, irrigation canals or the sea, using structures such as cages and tanks. It may be in freshwater or saltwater

11.294. A distinction must be made between aquaculture and other forms of aquatic exploitation such as capture fisheries. Capture fisheries involve catching aquatic animals or gathering aquatic plants “in the wild”. An important characteristic of capture fisheries is that the aquatic organisms being exploited are common property, as opposed to being owned by the holding as is the case for aquaculture

11.295. The boundary between aquaculture and capture fisheries may be blurred. Where fish are caught in the wild and fattened up for sale, the fattening process should be considered as aquaculture. Limited enhancement actions taken to increase fish production, such as modifications to the aquatic habitat, should not be considered as aquaculture

11.296. Data on aquaculture usually relate to activities carried out over a twelve-month period, usually the census reference year

Supplementary items


-   Land-based

-   Inland open water

-   Coastal and marine waters

11.297. Area of aquaculture refers to the area of land under water used for aquaculture. This means the surface area of the pond, paddy field, lagoon, estuary, irrigation canal, or the sea used for aquaculture. The area figure should include supporting structures such as pond banks and floating structures of cages. The area of land-based aquaculture-related facilities such as hatcheries, storage buildings, fish processing facilities, laboratories and offices, should not be included. The area should include land owned by the holding as well as bodies of water rented from others for use for aquacultural purposes. Such bodies of water could include parts of rivers, lakes, reservoirs, dams, canals, lagoons/estuaries, bays/coves, or the open sea. The aquacultural area should refer to the area of the aquacultural facility on the body of water - for example, the total area of the pen or cage network in the water. Some holdings may have very small area of aquaculture

11.298. Land-based aquaculture is aquaculture practised in rice fields, ponds, tanks, raceways and other land areas on the holding. Countries may need to develop procedures to distinguish between land-based and open water aquaculture for some water bodies such as ponds. The split into arable and non-arable land is intended to determine what part of the land-based aquaculture is practised on land that is also used for crop production. Examples of non-arable land are saline-alkaline lands and wetlands. Refer to paragraph 11.38 for the definition of arable land

11.299. Inland open water includes dams, reservoirs, lakes and rivers. Coastal and marine waters include lagoons, estuaries, shallow and open seas, bays and coves, including inter-tidal mudflats

11.300. The reference period for data on area of aquaculture is the census reference year


-   Rice-cum-fish culture

-   Ponds

-   Pens, cages and hapas

-   Tanks and raceways

-   Floating rafts, lines, ropes, bags and stakes

11.301. Rice-cum-fish culture is the use of land for the culture of both rice and aquatic organisms. One form of rice-cum-fish culture is the introduction of brood-stock or seed into flooded paddy fields, often modified for aquacultural purposes. Another form of rice-cum-fish culture is where rice and fish are raised on the same land in different seasons. Fishing associated with fish from the wild that enter paddy fields during flooding is not included

11.302. Pond culture is the breeding or rearing of aquatic plants or animals in natural or artificial enclosures. Pond culture is usually carried out in stagnant waters with periodic water exchange or water flushing through inlets and outlets. Sometimes, large ponds are used in association with cages or hapas. Often there is some integration between crops, livestock and pond culture, as in fish-cum-vegetable culture or fish-cum-animal husbandry

11.303. Pens, cages and hapas are net enclosures used for rearing aquatic animals or plants in lakes, rivers, reservoirs or the open sea. Pens are fixed by frameworks made of metal, plastic, bamboo or wood. Cages are held in place by floating structures. Hapas are simple net enclosures suspended by stakes in the four corners in open water bodies

11.304. Tanks and raceways are fixed structures used for raising aquatic animals or plants. They are normally built above ground and can be made of bricks, concrete or plastic. Tanks are small round or rectangular structures, whereas raceways are long, narrow structures

11.305. Floating rafts, lines, ropes, bags and stakes refer to the aquacultural practice based on these facilities, commonly used for the cultivation of shellfish and seaweed

11.306. The reference period for data on area of aquaculture is the census reference year

1003 TYPE OF WATER (for the holding)

-   Freshwater

-   Brackish water

-   Saltwater

11.307. This item refers to whether aquaculture on the holding was carried out during the reference year using water of the above types. There may be more than one type of water used on a holding. The type of water is usually closely related to the type of site in Item 1001

11.308. Freshwater refers to reservoirs, rivers, lakes and canals, with consistently negligible salinity. Brackish water refers to waters with appreciable salinity but not to a constant high level. It is characterized by fluctuations in salinity due to regular influxes of freshwater and seawater, such as in estuaries, coves, bays and fjords. Enclosed water bodies in which salinity is greater than freshwater but less than seawater are also regarded as brackish. Saltwater (or marine water) refers to coastal and offshore waters where salinity is high and is not subject to significant daily or seasonal variation


-   Rain-fed

-   Groundwater

-   Rivers/canals

-   Lakes/reservoirs

-   Dams

-   Estuaries/lagoons

-   Coves/bays/sea

11.309. This item refers to whether water for aquacultural production on the holding during the census reference year was obtained from the above sources. There may be more than one source of water used for aquaculture on a holding. The source of water is usually closely related to the type of site in Item 1001. Countries may wish to adapt these categories to suit local conditions


-   Freshwater fish

-   Diadromous fish

-   Marine fish

-   Crustaceans

-   Molluscs

-   Other aquatic animals

-   Aquatic plants

11.310. This item refers to which of the above types of aquatic organisms were cultivated on the holding during the census reference year. More than one type of organism may be cultivated on a holding. The classification refers to the type of aquatic animal or plant cultivated, not the type of aquacultural product generated. Thus, pearl production is shown under “Molluscs”

11.311. The main types of freshwater fish are carps and tilapias. Diadromous fish are fish that can live in both fresh and seawater, such as trout, salmon, eels and sturgeon. Marine fish include flounder, cod and tuna. Crustaceans are aquatic animals with hard shells, such as crabs, lobsters and shrimps. Molluscs are animals belonging to the phylum Mollusca, including abalones, oysters, mussels, scallops, clams and squids. Other aquatic animals include frogs, crocodiles, alligators, turtles, sea-squirts and sea urchins. Aquatic plants include seaweed and lotus

Theme 11: Forestry

Core items


11.312. Presence of forest and other wooded land refers to whether such forest and other wooded areas are present on the land making up the agricultural holding. Refer to paragraphs 11.35–11.36 for the definition of forest and other wooded land. The reference period is the day of enumeration

11.313. Often, holdings with forest and other wooded land are identified from holdings with land use “forest and other wooded land” in Item 0007. This is based on the concept of main use of the land. Some holdings have land not classified to land use “forest and other wooded land” that contains groups of forest trees or other wooded plants satisfying the criteria for “forest and other wooded land” in terms of tree height and crown cover. For example, “land under permanent meadows and pastures” may also contain forest trees and other wooded plants more than five metres in height with crown cover of more than 10%. To identify all holdings with forest and other wooded land, data on secondary land use are needed

Supplementary items


-   Forest

-   Other wooded land

11.314. The total area of forest and other wooded land as a primary land use is given in the land use classification in Item 0007. Item 1101 sub-divides this total into its two components.


-   Forest

-   Other wooded land

11.315. Area of forest and other wooded land as a secondary land use on agricultural land is the area of agricultural land with forestry and other wooded land as a secondary land use. Agricultural land covers arable land, land under permanent crops and permanent meadows and pastures (see paragraph 11.38). The reference period is the day of enumeration


-   Production

-   Soil and water protection

-   Multiple use

-   Other

11.316. This item relates to all forest and other wooded land on the holding, including forest and other wooded land as a secondary land use on agricultural land (see Item 1102). Main purpose is assessed in relation to an extended period, usually the census reference year

11.317. Production refers to the production and extraction of forest goods, including both wood and non-wood forest products such as oils, leaves and bark. Other includes forest/other wooded land with no specific function


11.318. Agro-forestry is a sustainable farm management system in which trees and other wooded plants are purposely grown on the same land as agricultural crops or livestock, either concurrently or in rotation. Agro-forestry is characterized by the existence of both ecological and economic interactions between the different components. Agro-forestry includes agrosilvicultural (trees and crops), silvopastoral (trees and livestock), and agrosilvipastoral (trees, crops and livestock) systems

11.319. Agro-forestry refers to specific forestry practices that complement agricultural activities, such as by improving soil fertility, reducing soil erosion, improving watershed management, or providing shade and food for livestock. Just growing trees on agricultural land is not considered agro-forestry. Countries need to develop their own procedures to collect these data. Some may wish to collect data on specific agro-forestry activities. The reference period for agro-forestry data is the census reference year

12. Management of the holding

Supplementary items


1202 IDENTIFICATION OF SUB-HOLDERS (for the holding)

11.320. A sub-holding is a group of agricultural activities on the holding managed by a particular person in the holder's household. A sub-holder is a person responsible for managing a sub-holding. Refer to paragraphs 3.42–3.52 for the definitions of sub-holder and sub-holding and a discussion of data collection issues for these items

1211 SEX OF SUB-HOLDER (for each sub-holding)

1212 AGE OF SUB-HOLDER (for each sub-holding)

11.321. A census supplementary module on management of the holding usually includes data on demographic and social characteristics of household members (Theme 07) and economic activity of household members (Theme 08). Once the sub-holder is identified, he/she can be linked to the Theme 07 items to provide information on his/her characteristics, especially sex (Item 0711) and age (Item 0712)

11.322. Data on other characteristics of the sub-holder are usually also available from the Theme 07 and Theme 08 items, and may be useful for agricultural census analysis. This includes: relationship to household head (Item 0713); marital status (Item 0714); educational attainment (Item 0715); activity status (Item 0801); status in employment of main job (Item 0811); occupation of main job (Item 0812); time worked in main job (Item 0813); and time worked on the holding (Item 0814)

1213 AREA OF CROPS MANAGED FOR EACH CROP GROUP (for each sub-holding)


11.323. Area of crops managed refers to the area of the particular crop group under the control of the sub-holder. This relates to that part of the crop area in Item 0301 (temporary crops) and Item 0311 (permanent crops) that is under the control of the sub-holder. This refers to the area harvested during the reference year for temporary crops, or the current area for permanent crops

11.324. Crops should be categorized into several groups suitable to national conditions, based on the crop classification given in Appendix 3. One possible grouping is:

-   Grain crops

-   Vegetable crops

-   Other temporary crops

-   Permanent crops

11.325. Number of livestock managed refers to the number of livestock managed by the sub-holder. This relates to those livestock in Item 0013 that are under the control of the sub-holder. This usually refers to the livestock numbers on the day of enumeration.

11.326. For reporting of Item 1214, livestock should be suitably grouped, based on the livestock classification in Appendix 5. One possible grouping is:

-   Large ruminants and equines

-   Other animals

-   Poultry

-   Other

11.327. The method of collecting crop and livestock data for sub-holdings and sub-holders will depend on local conditions and the existing data collection methodology for crops and livestock. One method for crops is to identify all the plots of land making up the sub-holding, and collect data on the area of crops harvested for each plot. This approach may be suitable where countries already collect crop data at the plot level; otherwise, it may add complexity to the data collection operation

11.328. Usually, it is better to collect the sub-holding/sub-holder data separately from the main crop and livestock data, by asking specific questions about the type of crop and livestock activities carried out under the control of the sub-holder. The crop and livestock data can be reported in broad groups as shown in paragraphs 11.324 and 11.326

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