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The SNA/ISIC framework

The System of National Accounts (SNA) provides a standard national accounting framework for reporting of national income and product statistics. International standards for concepts, definitions and classifications are presented by the United Nations (UN et al, 1993). A supplement to the SNA covering the food and agricultural sector has been issued by FAO (FAO, 1996b)

The SNA defines two main types of economic production units: enterprises and establishments

-   An enterprise is an economic unit of production, under single management, that independently directs and manages all the functions needed to carry out production activities. An enterprise may engage in more than one type of activity and may have its operations in more than one location. Enterprises may be corporations, government institutions or other units, including households

-   An establishment is an enterprise or part of an enterprise situated in a single location and primarily engaged in a single type of production activity. Any secondary activity should be on a small scale. An enterprise that is engaged in growing crops as well as processing the crops on a significant scale is considered as two establishments, corresponding to the two types of activities

To help describe different types of activities in the economy, establishments are assigned to industries. International guidelines for defining industries are presented in the International Standard Industrial Classification of Economic Activities (ISIC), issued by the United Nations. The current version of ISIC is Revision 3.1 (UN, 2004b)

ISIC provides a hierarchical classification of activities. Thus, in ISIC (Rev. 3.1), the first level (Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry) is divided into two divisions: (i) Agriculture, Hunting and Related Service Activities; and (ii) Forestry, Logging and Related Service Activities. These divisions are then further sub-divided into groups and classes corresponding to more specific activities, such growing of crops and farming of animals

Scope of the agricultural census

The agricultural census aims to cover establishments engaged in agricultural production activities. Normally, this is restricted to units engaged in the production of agricultural goods; namely, crops and livestock products. This corresponds to the following ISIC (Rev. 3.1) groups:

-   Group 011: Growing of crops; market gardening; horticulture

-   Group 012: Farming of animals

-   Group 013: Growing of crops combined with farming of animals (mixed farming)

Under SNA principles, another type of unit is also engaged in agricultural production activities; namely, units producing agricultural services. These are defined under ISIC (Rev. 3.1) as:

-   Group 014: Agricultural and animal husbandry service activities, except veterinary activities

This group includes support activities for crop and livestock production, such as crop spraying, pruning, sheep shearing and agistment services. These service activities are becoming increasingly important, but are generally not included within the scope of the agricultural census

The agricultural holding as an establishment

Under SNA, an establishment in the agricultural industry (ISIC Groups 011, 012 and 013) is one whose principal activity is in one of the designated ISIC groups. Such an establishment may also have a secondary activity not related to agriculture. Similarly, an establishment in a non-agricultural industry may have a secondary activity in agriculture. Thus, establishments in the three ISIC groups do not provide full coverage of all agricultural production activities

An agricultural holding is an economic unit of agricultural production under single management. If the principal economic production activity of the agricultural holding is agricultural production, the agricultural holding is an establishment in the agricultural industry. However, the two units are not the same if the agricultural production activity of the agricultural holding is a secondary activity of a non-agricultural establishment. Here, the agricultural holding may be considered as an establishment-like unit in the agricultural industry. For the purposes of the agricultural census, the agricultural holding is treated as being equivalent to an establishment unit under the SNA framework

Most agricultural production activities are undertaken by households. For the household sector, the enterprise is the agricultural production management unit in the household, and the agricultural holding (establishment) is the unit of agricultural production within the management unit. Thus, usually:

-   There is only one management unit in the household and therefore the household itself is the enterprise

-   There is only one agricultural production establishment in the household and therefore, the agricultural holding is equivalent to the agricultural production activities of the household

However, there are some special cases

-   If two family units in a household manage agricultural production activities independently, each family unit corresponds to an enterprise (because they are separate agricultural management units). Each family unit (enterprise) contains one agricultural holding (establishment) unit. This is consistent with the treatment of multiple agricultural production activities in the agricultural census

-   If a household undertakes agricultural production activities both on its own and in partnership with other households, there are two separate management units associated with the household, which therefore corresponds to two enterprises. Each enterprise unit contains one agricultural holding (establishment) unit. This is consistent with the treatment of partnerships in the agricultural census

In SNA terms, an agricultural holding in the household sector, as an establishment unit, consists of the agricultural production activities of the household enterprise unit, plus any small-scale secondary activities. Any significant economic activities in the household enterprise unit outside the three ISIC groups covered by agricultural censuses are considered to be activities of other establishments. Thus, a household that engages in significant forestry activity as well as its primary agricultural activity consists of two establishment units: an agricultural establishment and a forestry establishment. Thus, data on forestry or fisheries collected in agricultural censuses do not, technically speaking, relate to the agricultural holding as such, but to the enterprise unit of which the holding is a part. This helps to clarify the interpretation of non-agricultural data collected in the agricultural census; in other words, the agricultural census is collecting two types of data: (i) agriculture-related data about the holding (establishment); and (ii) other data about the household (enterprise) unit

One problem in linking the agricultural holding unit with the establishment unit is the single location concept in the definition of establishment. The land operated by an agricultural holding under single management often consists of more than one parcel. By definition, each parcel is usually in a different location (a parcel is a piece of land, of one tenure type, entirely surrounded by land not operated by the holding). Thus, in principle, each parcel of land could be seen as corresponding to an establishment. In SNA, there is some flexibility in the interpretation of single location; for agricultural holdings, it may be interpreted more broadly as covering activities within a specific administrative unit such as a district or province. The agricultural holding definition refers to parcels sharing the same inputs such as labour; this limits the extent of geographical dispersion of land in a single holding and is consistent with the SNA establishment concept


Aquacultural data collected in the agricultural census relate to aquacultural activities carried out in association with the agricultural production activities of the agricultural holding, using the same inputs. In SNA terms, the agricultural and aquacultural activities are in different ISIC divisions, and conceptually, the two activities should be considered as different establishment units, even though they are closely related. However, if the aquacultural activity is small-scale compared with the holding's principal agricultural production activity, it may be considered as a secondary activity of the agricultural holding as part of the agricultural industry

An aquacultural census covers aquacultural production activities, defined by ISIC (Rev. 3.1) as:

-   Class 0502: Aquaculture

The statistical unit for an aquacultural census is the aquacultural holding, defined as an economic unit of aquacultural production under single management. In SNA terms, an aquacultural holding is an establishment in the aquacultural industry; that is, in ISIC (Rev. 3.1) Class 0502. This is analogous to the concept of an agricultural holding in the agricultural industry

Conceptually, the agricultural census and the aquacultural census are separate censuses of different industries. However, they can often be combined into a single field enumeration system as part of a census of agriculture and aquaculture

Other economic production activities (Item 0016)

Item 0016 in the list of recommended core items refers to activities, other than agricultural production on the holding, carried out by the enterprise of which the holding is a part. According to SNA principles, each type of economic activity in a given location is carried out by a separate establishment. Thus, if the household is also engaged in collecting forest products and operating a shop, then both these activities represent establishments. A household could also be engaged in agricultural production activities outside the holding; for example, if there are two holdings in a household or if the household is involved in a partnership agreement

All activities are classified according to ISIC (Rev. 3.1) as follows:

-   Other agricultural production activities: ISIC Groups 011–013

-   Agricultural services: ISIC Group 014

-   Hunting, trapping, game propagation and related service activities: ISIC Group 015. This group, together with Agricultural services (ISIC Group 014) covers the rest of ISIC Division 01, not included within the scope of the agricultural census

-   Forestry, logging and related service activities: ISIC Division 02

-   Fishing, aquaculture and related service activities: ISIC Division 05

-   Manufacturing: ISIC Divisions 15–37

-   Wholesale and retail trade: ISIC Divisions 50–52

-   Hotels and restaurants: ISIC Division 55

-   Other: all other ISIC classes not covered in the above



1 ISIC, Revision 3.1

ISIC Group 011: Growing of crops; market gardening; horticulture

This group comprises the activity of growing temporary and permanent crops in the open or under cover. It consists of three ISIC classes:

-   ISIC Class 0111: Growing of cereals and other crops n.e.c

-   ISIC Class 0112: Growing of vegetables, horticultural specialities and nursery products

-   ISIC Class 0113: Growing of fruit, nuts, beverage and spice crops

The following are included:

-   growing of all types of crops including cereal grains, roots and tubers, legumes, industrial crops, vegetables, horticulture, fodder crops, seed crops, and fruit and nut trees;

-   growing or production of horticultural specialties including seeds for flowers, unrooted cuttings or slips, bulbs, tubers, tuberous roots, corms, crowns or rhizomes;

-   drying of tobacco leaves associated with the growing of tobacco;

-   growing of rubber trees and harvesting of latex;

-   growing of plants used chiefly in pharmacy or for insecticidal, fungicidal or similar purposes;

-   growing of flowers or flower buds;

-   growing of living plants for planting or ornamental purposes, including turf for transplanting;

-   production of wine from self-produced grapes;

-   gathering of berries or nuts;

-   growing of mushrooms or gathering of forest mushrooms or truffles;

-   gathering of sap and production of maple syrup and sugar

The following are excluded:

-   gathering of forest products and other wild growing materials such as cork, resins and balsam;

-   operation of forest tree nurseries or growing of Christmas trees;

-   production of olive oil or wine (except from self-produced grapes);

-   processing of tea, coffee and cocoa

ISIC Group 012: Farming of animals

This group comprises the activity of farming of animals. It consists of two ISIC classes:

-   ISIC Class 0121: Farming of cattle, sheep, goats, horses, asses, mules and hinnies, dairy farming

-   ISIC Class 0122: Other animal farming, production of animal products n.e.c

The following are included:

-   Raising of all types of livestock and poultry;

-   stud farming;

-   production of raw milk and bovine semen;

-   production of live animal products such as eggs, honey and silkworm cocoons;

-   operation of poultry hatcheries;

-   raising in captivity of semi-domesticated or wild live animals including birds, reptiles, insects, rabbits and other fur animals;

-   production of fur skins, reptile or bird skins from a ranching operation;

-   operation of dog and cat farms, worm farms, land mollusc farms, frog farms, etc.;

-   raising of silk worms, production of silk worm cocoons;

-   bee-keeping and production of honey and beeswax

The following are excluded:

-   farm animal boarding, care and breeding;

-   production of pulled wool;

-   processing of milk outside the farm;

-   operation of racing stables and riding academies;

-   production of hides and skins originating from hunting and trapping;

-   production of hides and skins from slaughterhouses;

-   production of feathers or down;

-   training of animals;

-   operation of fish farms and fish hatcheries (included in ISIC Class 0502)

ISIC Group 013: Growing of crops combined with farming of animals (mixed farming)

This group covers the activity of crop growing in combination with farming of livestock at mixed activity units

ISIC Class 0502: Aquaculture (if aquacultural census also conducted)

This class comprises the activity of fish farming or aquaculture from marine or freshwater environments. It includes:

-   fish farming in seawater or freshwater including farming of ornamental fish;

-   production of oyster spat, mussel, lobsterlings, shrimp post-larvae, fish fry and fingerlings;

-   cultivation of oysters;

-   operation of fish hatcheries;

-   service activities incidental to the operation of fish hatcheries and fish farms

The following are excluded:

-   frog farming (included in ISIC Group 012);

-   operation of sport fishing reserves



A new crop classification, the Indicative Crop Classification (ICC) has been developed for the 2010 round of agricultural censuses, and is given at the end of this appendix

The crop classification used in the 2000 agricultural census programme reflected various elements related to crops, including the growing cycle (temporary/permanent), crop species, crop variety (for example, hybrid/ordinary maize), season (for example, winter/spring wheat), land type (for example, wetland/dryland rice), crop use (for example, pumpkin for food/fodder), type of product (for example, fresh/dried beans), how the crop is processed (for example, industrial crops), and cultivation methods (for example, crops grown under protective cover)

ICC has been developed based on the Central Product Classification (CPC) (UN, 2004a). CPC classifies goods and services into categories based on the nature of the product and industry of origin. Crop products are classified mainly according to the type of crop. CPC itself is based on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS), a classification of the World Customs Organization. CPC is also broadly compatible with ISIC, in that the industry of origin is related to ISIC. ICC is also consistent with the classification of commodities used in FAO's on-line database, FAOSTAT

From a statistical point of view, the crop classification should be closely related to the product classification, and to some extent to the economic activity classification (ISIC). The crop classification refers to which crops are grown, whereas the product classification refers to the product(s) generated from that crop. Thus, “mustard” is an oilseed crop, whereas “mustard seed” is the oilseed product. There is not always a one-to-one correspondence between a crop and a product. The same crop may yield two products - for example, cotton may yield cotton fibre and cotton seed

The current version of CPC, Version 1.0, is currently being revised. ICC is based on the draft of the revised CPC, to which FAO has provided input. ICC classifies crops into categories based on three main elements:

-   Product type. The product type is provided in the structure of CPC, especially at the group and class level. Thus, under ICC, crops are first divided into groups such as cereals, vegetables, etc., and each group is further sub-divided by crop type, such as leafy/stem vegetables, fruit-bearing vegetables, etc

-   Crop genus or species. At the lowest level of the classification, each crop can be described by its botanical name; thus, ”Lentils” (Class 75) is identified as the species “Lens culinaris”. However, it should be noted that ICC is not a botanical classification, as the groupings are based more on the agricultural use of the crop than the botanical similarities between crops. Thus, “Oilseed crops” (Group 4) is a grouping of crops of many different botanical types that produce the same type of product: oil

-   Whether the crop is temporary or permanent. CPC does not always permit a temporary/permanent split, because this is not important in a product classification. However, this distinction is fundamental to a crop classification. Because of this, some CPC classes are divided into temporary and permanent sub-classes. In ICC, a separate code is provided to indicate whether the crop is temporary or permanent

A major change in ICC from the previous crop classification is that, as a general principle, a particular crop is classified only once in the classification, regardless of how the crop is used. Thus, pumpkin is assigned to Sub-class 226 under Group 2 (vegetables). Previously, pumpkins were shown in different parts of the classification as “Pumpkin for food” or “Pumpkin for fodder”. Also, pepper is assigned to Order 6211, regardless of whether it is used for fresh or dried produce

If a country wishes to separately identify the different uses of a crop - such as food or fodder, fresh or dried, fruit or oil, and industrial or non-industrial - it has two options:

-   Further sub-divide the crop in the crop classification, as required. Thus, Sub-class 226 could be subdivided into: 2261 (Pumpkin for food) and 2262 (Pumpkin for fodder). If data on fodder crops are required from the agricultural census, the relevant fodder crop codes can be grouped

-   Include an item in the agricultural census on end-use of the crop

The following examples illustrate how to handle multiple-use crops in developing a crop classification based on ICC:

-   All grain and vegetable crops should be assigned to Groups 1 or 2, regardless of whether they are used for human consumption or as animal feed. Note that Class 91 (Grasses and other fodder crops) refers to crops that are solely fodder crops

-   The same principle applies to sugar crops. Maize should be designated as a cereal crop (Class 12), even if it is used as a sugar crop. Note that Group 8 (Sugar crops) refers to sugar beet, sugar cane and other specific sugar crops

-   Crops such as coconut that are grown either as a fruit crop or as an oil crop should be classified according to its primary use in the country. In ICC, it has been shown as an oil crop (Sub-class 441)

-   Problems arise where the same physical crop is used for harvesting two products. The use of cotton to produce cottonseed and cotton fibre is one example. Such a crop should be shown only once in the harvested area data (harvested area relates to the area of the principal crop harvested - see paragraph 11.105), but could have a secondary use in production data. The crop should be classified according to its primary use in the country. In ICC, cotton has been defined as a fibre crop (Order 9211), as an illustration

ICC provides only a broad-level structure for the classification of crops. For Groups 1–8, ICC is consistent with CPC at the group level, and generally consistent at the class level. At the sub-class level, the two classifications are similar

To help countries use ICC, an alphabetical list of crops with botanical names and crop codes is shown in Appendix 4. More information on the definitions of crops is contained in Definition and Classification of Commodities (FAO, 1996c)

Note that the different levels of ICC - namely, groups, classes, sub-classes and orders - do not relate in any way to the same terms used in the botanical taxonomic hierarchy

As in the past, the crop classification needs to be adapted by countries to take account of national conditions. Not all crops are applicable to all countries. Countries will also wish to separately identify crops not shown in ICC or to show crops in more detail than given in ICC. In particular, countries may wish to provide more detail for important national crops; for example, a rice-producing country may wish to show rice classified by variety, season or land type.

Indicative Crop Classification Version 1.0 (ICC)

GroupClassSub-classOrderTitleCrop type1
1   Cereals1
 11  Wheat1
 12  Maize1
 13  Rice1
 14  Sorghum1
 15  Barley1
 16  Rye1
 17  Oats1
 18  Millets1
 19  Other cereals, n.e.c1
  191  Mixed cereals1
  192  Other1
2   Vegetables and melons1
 21  Leafy or stem vegetables1
  211  Artichokes1
  212  Asparagus1
  213  Cabbages1
  214  Cauliflowers & broccoli1
  215  Lettuce1
  216  Spinach1
  217  Chicory1
  219  Other leafy or stem vegetables, n.e.c.1
 22  Fruit-bearing vegetables1
  221  Cucumbers1
  222  Eggplants (aubergines)1
  223  Tomatoes1
  224  Watermelons1
  225  Cantaloupes and other melons1
  226  Pumpkin, squash and gourds1
  229  Other fruit-bearing vegetables, n.e.c.1
 23  Root, bulb, or tuberous vegetables1
  231  Carrots1
  232  Turnips1
  233  Garlic1
  234  Onions (incl. shallots)1
  235  Leeks & other alliaceous vegetables 
  239  Other root, bulb, or tuberous vegetables, n.e.c.1
 24  Mushrooms and truffles1
 29  Vegetables, n.e.c1
3   Fruit and nuts2
 31  Tropical and subtropical fruits2
  311  Avocados2
  312  Bananas & plantains2
  313  Dates2
  314  Figs2
  315  Mangoes2
  316  Papayas2
  317  Pineapples2
  319  Other tropical and subtropical fruits, n.e.c.2
 32  Citrus fruits2
  321  Grapefruit & pomelo2
  322  Lemons and Limes2
  323  Oranges2
  324  Tangerines, mandarins, clementines2
  329  Other citrus fruit, n.e.c.2
 33  Grapes2
 34  Berries2
  341  Currants2
  342  Gooseberries2
  343  Kiwi fruit2
  344  Raspberries2
  345  Strawberries2
  346  Blueberries 
  349  Other berries2
 35  Pome fruits and stone fruits2
  351  Apples2
  352  Apricots2
  353  Cherries & sour cherries2
  354  Peaches & nectarines2
  355  Pears & quinces2
  356  Plums and sloes2
  359  Other pome fruits and stone fruits, n.e.c.2
 36  Nuts2
  361  Almonds2
  362  Cashew nuts2
  363  Chestnuts2
  364  Hazelnuts2
  365  Pistachios2
  366  Walnuts2
  369  Other nuts n.e.c.2
 39  Other fruits, n.e.c2
4   Oilseed crops
 41  Soya beans1
 42  Groundnuts1
 43  Other temporary oilseed crops1
  431  Castor bean1
  432  Linseed1
  433  Mustard1
  434  Niger seed1
  435  Rapeseed1
  436  Safflower1
  437  Sesame1
  438  Sunflower1
  439  Other temporary oilseed crops, n.e.c.1
 44  Permanent oilseed crops2
  441  Coconuts2
  442  Olives2
  443  Oil palms2
  449  Other oleaginous fruits, n.e.c.2
5   Root/tuber crops with high starch or inulin content1
 51  Potatoes1
 52  Sweet potatoes1
 53  Cassava1
 54  Yams1
 59  Other roots & tubers, n.e.c1
6   Beverage and spice crops
 61  Beverage crops2
  611  Coffee2
  612  Tea2
  613  Maté2
  614  Cocoa2
  619  Other beverage crops, n.e.c.2
 62  Spice crops 
  621  Temporary spice crops1
   6211  Chilies & peppers (capsicum spp.)1
   6212  Anise, badian, and fennel1
   6219  Other temporary spice crops, n.e.c1
  622  Permanent spice crops2
   6221  Pepper (piper spp.)2
   6222  Nutmeg, mace, cardamoms2
   6223  Cinnamon (canella)2
   6224  Cloves2
   6225  Ginger2
   6226  Vanilla2
   6229  Other permanent spice crops, n.e.c2
7   Leguminous crops1
 71  Beans1
 72  Broad beans1
 73  Chick peas1
 74  Cow peas1
 75  Lentils1
 76  Lupins1
 77  Peas1
 78  Pigeon peas1
 79  Leguminous crops, n.e.c1
8   Sugar crops1
 81  Sugar beet1
 82  Sugar cane1
 83  Sweet sorghum1
 89  Other sugar crops n.e.c1
9   Other crops 
 91  Grasses and other fodder crops 
  911  Temporary grass crops1
  912  Permanent grass crops2
 92  Fibre crops 
  921  Temporary fibre crops1
   9211 Cotton1
   9212 Jute, kenaf, and other similar crops1
   9213 Flax, hemp, and other similar products1
   9219 Other temporary fibre crops1
  922  Permanent fibre crops2
 93  Medicinal, aromatic, pesticidal, or similar crops 
  931  Temporary medicinal, etc. crops1
  932  Permanent medicinal, etc. crops2
 94  Rubber2
 95  Flower crops 
  951  Temporary flower crops1
  952  Permanent flower crops2
 96  Tobacco1
 99  Other crops 
  991  Other crops - temporary1
  992  Other crops - permanent2

1. 1 = temporary; 2 = permanent



Crop nameBotanical nameICC codePrevious code1
Abaca (Manila hemp)Musa textilis92132.2.4.1
Alfalfa for fodderMedicago sativa9111.7.1.1
Alfalfa for seedMedicago sativa9111.8.2
AlmondPrunus dulcis3612.1.7.1
Anise seedsPimpinella anisum62121.4.3.4
AppleMalus sylvestris3512.1.2.1
ApricotPrunus armeniaca3522.1.3.1
Areca (betel nut)Areca catechu9922.2.7.6
ArrachaArracacia xanthorrhiza591.2.9
ArrowrootMaranta arundinacea591.2.5
ArtichokeCynara scolymus2111.
AsparagusAsparagus officinalis2121.
AvocadoPersea americana3112.
Bajra (Pearl millet)Pennisetum americanum181.
Bambara groundnutVigna subterranea791.3.9
BananaMusa paradisiaca3122.
BarleyHordeum vulgare151.1.4
Beans, dry, edible, for grainsPhaseolus vulgaris711.3.1
Beans, harvested greenPhaseolus and Vigna spp.711.5.4.1
Beet, fodder (mangel)Beta vulgaris811.
Beet, redBeta vulgaris811.5.3.5
Beet, sugarBeta vulgaris811.4.1.2
Beet, sugar for fodderBeta vulgaris811.
Beet, sugar for seedsBeta vulgaris811.8.1
BergamotCitrus bergamia3292.1.1.6
Betel nutAreca catechu9922.2.7.6
Black pepperPiper nigrum62212.2.3.1
Black wattleAcacia mearnsii9922.2.5.2
Blackberries of various speciesRubus spp.3492.1.5.7
BlueberryVaccinium spp.3462.1.5.1
Brazil nutBertholletia excelsa3692.1.7.6
BreadfruitArtocarpus altilis3192.
Broad bean, dryVicia faba721.3.2
Broad bean, harvested greenVicia faba721.5.4.3
BroccoliBrassica oleracea var. botrytis2141.5.5.1
Broom milletSorghum bicolor181.4.5.4
Broom sorghumSorghum bicolor141.4.5.4
Brussels sproutsBrassica oleracea var. gemmifera2191.
BuckwheatFagopyrum esculentum1921.1.9
Cabbage (red, white, Savoy)Brassica oleracea var. capitata2131.
Cabbage, ChineseBrassica chinensis2131.
Cabbage, for fodderBrassica spp.2131.
Cacao (cocoa)Theobroma cacao6142.2.1.2
CantaloupeCucumis melo2251.
Caraway seedsCarum carvi62191.4.3.4
CardamomElettaria cardamomum62222.2.3.7
CardoonCynara cardunculus2191.
CarobCeratonia siliqua392.
Carrot, edibleDaucus carota ssp. sativa2311.5.3.1
Carrot, for fodderDaucus carota ssp. sativa2311.
Cashew nutsAnacardium occidentale3622.1.7.2
Cassava (manioc)Manihot esculenta531.2.3
Castor beanRicinus communis4311.
CauliflowerBrassica oleracea var. botrytis2141.5.5.1
CeleriacApium graveolens var. rapaceum2391.5.3.8
CeleryApium graveolens2191.
ChayoteSechium edule2291.
Cherry (all varieties)Prunus spp.3532.1.3.2
ChestnutCastanea sativa3632.1.7.4
Chickpea (gram pea)Cicer arietinum731.3.4
ChicoryCichorium intybus2171.4.5.2
Chicory for greensCichorium intybus2171.
Chili, dry (all varieties)Capsicum spp. (annuum)62111.4.3.1
Chili, fresh (all varieties)Capsicum spp. (annuum)62111.
CinnamonCinnamomum verum62232.2.3.2
CitronCitrus medica3292.1.1.6
CitronellaCymbopogon citrates/ Cymbopogon nardus9922.2.7.1
ClementineCitrus reticulata3242.1.1.2
CloveEugenia aromatica (Syzygium aromaticum)62242.2.3.3
Clover for fodder (all varieties)Trifolium spp.9111.7.1.2
Clover for seed (all varieties)Trifolium spp.9111.8.3
Cocoa (cacao)Theobroma cacao6142.2.1.2
CoconutCocos nucifera4412.2.2.1
CocoyamColocasia esculenta591.2.8
CoffeeCoffea spp.6112.2.1.1
Cola nut (all varieties)Cola acuminata6192.2.1.6
Colza (rapeseed)Brassica napus4351.
Corn (maize), for cerealsZea mays121.1.3
Corn (maize), for silageZea mays121.7.3.1
Corn (sweet), for vegetableZea mays121.5.5.2
Corn for saladValerianella locusta2191.
Cotton (all varieties)Gossypium spp.92111.4.4.1
Cottonseed (all varieties)Gossypium spp.92111.
Cowpea, for grainVigna unguiculata741.3.6
Cowpea, harvested greenVigna unguiculata741.5.4.3
CranberryVaccinium spp.3492.1.5.2
CressLepidium sativum2191.
CucumberCucumis sativus2211.
Currants (all varieties)Ribes spp.3412.1.5.3
Custard appleAnnona reticulate3192.
DasheenColocasia esculenta591.2.8
DatesPhoenix dactylifera3132.
Drumstick treeMoringa oleifera62292.2.3.8
Durra (sorghum)Sorghum bicolour141.1.5.2
Durum wheatTriticum durum111.;
Earth peaVigna subterranea791.3.9
Edo (eddoe)Xanthosoma spp.; Colocasia spp.591.2.8
EggplantSolanum melongena2221.
EndiveCichorium endivia2191.
FennelFoeniculum vulgare2191.
FenugreekTrigonella foenum-graecum791.3.9
FigFicus carica3142.
Filbert (Hazelnut)Corylus avellana3642.1.7.5
FiqueFurcraea macrophylla92192.2.4.6
Flax for fibreLinum usitatissimum92131.4.4.2
Flax for oil seed (linseed)Linum usitatissimum92131.
Formio (New Zealand flax)Phormium tenax92142.2.4.4
Garlic, dryAllium sativum2331.2.7
Garlic, greenAllium sativum2331.5.3.2
GeraniumPelargonium spp.; Geranium spp.9311.4.3.2
GingerZingiber officinale62252.2.3.4
Gooseberry (all varieties)Ribes spp.3422.1.5.4
GourdLagenaria spp; Cucurbita spp.2261.
Gram pea (chickpea)Cicer arietinum731.3.4
GrapeVitis vinifera332.1.4
GrapefruitCitrus paradisi3212.1.1.4
Grapes for raisinsVitis vinifera332.1.4.3
Grapes for table useVitis vinifera332.1.4.2
Grapes for wineVitis vinifera332.1.4.1
Grass espartoLygeum spartum9911.4.5.4
Grass, orchardDactylis glomerata9111.7.2.1
Grass, SudanSorghum bicolor var. sudanense9111.7.2.1
Groundnut (peanut)Arachis hypogaea421.
GuavaPsidium guajava3192.
Guinea corn (sorghum)Sorghum bicolor141.1.5.2
Hazelnut (filbert)Corylus avellana3642.1.7.5
Hemp fibreCannabis sativa ssp. indica92131.4.4.3
Hemp, Manila (abaca)Musa textilis9222.2.4.1
Hemp, sunCrotalaria juncea92131.4.4.5
HempseedCannabis sativa (marijuana)4391.
HenequenAgave fourcroydes9222.2.4.2
HennaLawsonia inermis9111.4.5.4
HopHumulus lupulus6192.2.1.4
Horse beanVicia faba721.3.2
HorseradishArmoracia rusticana2391.5.3.8
Hybrid maizeZea mays121.1.3.1
IndigoIndigofera tinctoria9911.4.5.4
JasmineJasminum spp.9522.2.6.2
Jerusalem artichokeHelianthus tuberosus2111.
Jowar (sorghum)Sorghum bicolor141.1.5.2
JuteCorchorus spp. (over 30 sp.)92121.4.4.4
KaleBrassica oleracea var. acephala2191.
KapokCeiba pentandra9222.2.4.3
KenafHibiscus cannabinus92121.4.4.5
KohlrabiBrassica oleracea var. gongylodes2391.5.3.6
LavenderLavandula spp. (over 15 sp.)9311.4.3.2
LeekAllium ampeloprasum; Allium porrum2351.
LemonCitrus limon3222.1.1.3
Lemon grassCymbopogon citratus9222.2.7.7
LentilLens culinaris751.3.5
Lespedeza (all varieties)Lespedeza spp.9111.7.1.3
LettuceLactuca sativa var. capitata2151.
Lime, sourCitrus aurantifolia3222.1.1.5
Lime, sweetCitrus limetta3222.1.1.6
Linseed (flax for oil seed)Linum usitatissimum4321.
LiquoriceGlycyrrhiza glabra9311.4.3.3
LitchiLitchi chinensis3192.
LoquatEriobotrya japonica3592.1.2.5
Lupine (all varieties)Lupinus spp.761.3.9
Macadamia (Queensland nut)Macadamia spp. ternifolia3692.1.7.6
MaceMyristica fragrans62222.2.3.5
MagueyAgave atrovirens9222.2.4.6
Maize (corn)Zea mays121.1.3
Maize (corn) for silageZea mays121.7.3.1
Maize (hybrid)Zea mays121.1.3.1
Maize, ordinaryZea mays121.1.3.2
MandarinCitrus reticulata3242.1.1.2
Mangel (fodder beet)Beta vulgaris811.
MangoMangifera indica3152.
Manioc (cassava)Manihot esculenta531.2.3
Maslin (mixed cereals)Mixture of Triticum spp.; Secale cereale1911.1.8
MedlarMespilus germanica3592.1.2.4
Melon (except watermelon)Cucumis melo2251.
Millet broomSorghum bicolor181.4.5.4
Millet, bajraPennisetum americanum181.
Millet, bulrushPennisetum americanum181.
Millet, fingerEleusine coracana181.
Millet, foxtailSetaria italica181.
Millet, JapaneseEchinochloa esculenta181.
Millet, pearl (bajra, bulrush)Pennisetum americanum181.
Millet, prosoPanicum miliaceum181.
Mint (all varieties)Mentha spp.62191.4.3.2
Mulberry for fruit (all varieties)Morus spp.392.
Mulberry for silkwormsMorus alba392.2.7.2
MushroomsAgaricus spp.; Pleurotus spp.; Volvariella241.6.2.2
MustardBrassica nigra; Sinapis alba4331.
NectarinePrunus persica var. nectarina3542.1.3.5
New Zealand flax (formio)Phormium tenax9222.2.4.4
Niger seedGuizotia abyssinica4341.
NutmegMyristica fragrans62222.2.3.5
Oats, for fodderAvena spp. (about 30 sp.)
Oats, for grainAvena spp. (about 30 sp.)171.1.6
Oil palmElaeis guineensis4432.2.2.2
OkraAbelmoschus esculentus2291.
OliveOlea europaea4422.2.2.3
Onion seedAllium cepa2341.8.5
Onion, dryAllium cepa2341.2.6
Onion, greenAllium cepa2341.5.3.3
OpiumPapaver somniferum9311.4.3.3
OrangeCitrus sinensis3232.1.1.1
Orange, bitterCitrus aurantium3232.1.1.6
Ornamental plantsVarious9511.6.1.2
Palm palmyraBorassus flabellifer9922.2.7.4
Palm, kernel oilElaeis guineensis4432.2.2.2
Palm, oilElaeis guineensis4432.2.2.2
Palm, sagoMetroxylon sagu9922.2.7.3
Papaya (pawpaw)Carica papaya3162.
ParsnipPastinaca sativa2391.5.3.8
Pea, edible dry, for grainPisum sativum771.3.3
Pea, harvested greenPisum sativum771.5.4.2
PeachPrunus persica3542.1.3.3
Peanut (groundnut)Arachis hypogaea421.
PearPyrus communis3552.1.2.2
Pecan nutCarya illinoensis3692.1.7.6
Crop nameBotanical nameICC codePrevious code1
Pepper, blackPiper nigrum62212.2.3.1
Pepper, dryCapsicum spp. (over 30 sp.)62111.4.3.1
PersimmonDiospyros kaki; Diospyros virginiana3192.
Pigeon peaCajanus cajan781.3.7
PineappleAnanas comosus3172.
Pistachio nutPistacia vera3652.1.7.6
PlantainMusa sapientum3122.
PlumPrunus domestica3562.1.3.4
PomegranatePunica granatum392.
PomeloCitrus grandis3212.1.1.4
Poppy seedPapaver somniferum4391.
PotatoSolamum tuberosum511.2.1
Potato, sweetIpomoea batatas521.2.2
PrunePrunus domestica3562.1.3.4
Pumpkin, edibleCucurbita spp. (over 25 sp.)2261.5.2.0.
Pumpkin, for fodderCucurbita spp. (over 25 sp.)2261.
PyrethumChrysanthemum cinerariaefolium9911.4.5.3
QuebrachoAspidosperma spp. (more than 3 sp.)9922.2.5.3
Queensland nutSee Macadamia3692.1.7.6
QuinceCydonia oblonga3552.1.2.3
QuinineCinchona spp. (more than 6 sp.)9322.2.7.5
QuinoaChenopodium quinoa1921.1.9
RadishRaphanus sativus (inc. Cochlearia armoracia)2391.5.3.4
RamieBoehmeria nivea9222.2.4.5
Rapeseed (colza)Brassica napus4351.
Raspberry (all varieties)Rubus spp. (over 360 sp.)3442.1.5.5
Red beetBeta vulgaris2391.5.3.5
RedtopAgrostis spp.9111.7.2.1
RheaBoehmeria nivea9222.2.4.5
RhubarbRheum spp.2191.
RiceOryza sativa; Oryza glaberrima131.1.2
RoseRose spp.9522.2.6.1
RubberHevea brasiliensis942.2.5.1
Rutabaga (swede)Brassica napus var. napobrassica2391.5.3.6
RyeSecale cereale161.1.7
Ryegrass seedLolium spp. (about 20 sp.)9911.8.4
SafflowerCarthamus tinctorius4361.
SainfoinOnobrychis viciifolia9111.7.1.3
SalsifyTragopogon porrifolius2391.5.3.8
SapodillaAchras sapota392.
Satsuma (mandarin/tangerine)Citrus reticulata3242.1.1.2
Scorzonera - black salsifyScorzonera hispanica2391.5.3.8
SesameSesamum indicum4371.
Shea butter (nut)Vitellaria paradoxa4492.2.2.4
SisalAgave sisalana9222.2.4.2
SorghumSorghum bicolor141.1.5.2
Sorghum, broomSorghum bicolor141.4.5.4
Sorghum, durraSorghum bicolor141.1.5.2
Sorghum, Guinea cornSorghum bicolor141.1.5.2
Sorghum, jowarSorghum bicolor141.1.5.2
Sorghum, sweetSorghum bicolor1831.4.1.3
SoybeanGlycine max411.
Soybean hayGlycine max411.7.1.3
Spelt wheatTriticum spelta1921.1.9
SpinachSpinacia oleracea2161.
SquashCucurbita spp. (over 25 sp.)2261.
StrawberryFragaria spp. (over 30 sp.)3452.1.5.6
Sugar beetBeta vulgaris811.4.1.2
Sugar beet for fodderBeta vulgaris811.
Sugar beet for seedBeta vulgaris811.8.1
Sugarcane for fodderSaccharum officinarum821.
Sugarcane for sugar or alcoholSaccharum officinarum821.4.1.1
Sugarcane for thatchingSaccharum officinarum821.4.5.4
Sunflower for fodderHelianthus annuus4381.
Sunflower for oil seedHelianthus annuus4381.
SunhempCrotalaria juncea92131.4.4.5
SwedeBrassica napus var. napobrassica2391.5.3.6
Swede for fodderBrassica napus var. napobrassica2391.
Sweet cornZea mays121.5.5.2
Sweet limeCitrus limetta3222.1.1.6
Sweet pepperCapsicum annuum62111.
Sweet potatoLopmoea batatas521.2.2
Sweet sorghumSorghum bicolor1831.4.1.3
TangerineCitrus reticulata3242.1.1.2
TanniaXanthosoma sagittifolium591.2.8
Tapioca (cassava)Manihot esculenta531.2.3
TaroColocasia esculenta591.2.8
TeaCamellia sinensis6122.2.1.3
TefEragrostis abyssinica1921.1.9
TimothyPhleum pratense9111.7.2.1
TobaccoNicotiana tabacum961.4.5.1
TomatoLycopersicon esculentum2231.
TrefoilLotus spp. (about 100 sp.)9911.8.6
Triticale for fodderHybrid of Triticum aestivum and Secale cereale171.7.3.2
Tung treeAleurites spp.; Fordii4492.2.2.4
Turnip, edibleBrassica rapa2321.5.3.7
Turnip, for fodderBrassica rapa2321.
Urena (Congo jute)Urena lobata92141.4.4.5
VanillaVanilla planifolia62262.2.3.6
Vetch for grainVicia sativa791.3.8
WalnutJuglans spp. (over 20 sp.), ep. regia3662.1.7.3
WatermelonCitrullus lanatus2241.
WheatTriticum aestivum111.1.1
YamDioscorea spp. (over 120 sp.)541.2.4
Yerba mateIlex paraguariensis6132.2.1.5

1. Crop codes used in 2000 agricultural census programme.



1 Large ruminants
2 Small ruminants
3 Pigs or swine
4 Equines
 42Mules and hinnies
 44Other equines (e.g., zebras)
5 Camels and camelids
 52Llamas and alpacas
6 Poultry
 65Guinea fowls
 67Other poultry
7 Other animals
 71Deer, elk, reindeer
 72Fur-bearing animals such as foxes and minks
 73Dogs and cats
 74Rabbits and hares
 75Other (e.g., ostriches, emus, elephants)
8 Insects
 83Other worms or insects



GroupClassSub-classTitleTypes of machinery and equipment included
1  Manually-operated equipment-Seed/fertilizer drill
-Hand pump or other hand irrigation devices
2  Animal-powered equipment-Wooden plough
-Steel plough
-Disk harrow
-Seed/fertilizer drill
-Animal cart
-Animal-operated irrigation devices
3  Machine-powered equipment 
 31 Machines for general farm use-Internal combustion engine
-External combustion engine
-Electric generator
-Electric motor
-Computer used for farm management
-Other electronic equipment used for farm management
 32 Tractors, bulldozers and other vehicles-Track-laying tractor
-Four-wheel tractor
-Single-axle tractor
-Other vehicle
 33 Crop machinery and equipment 
  331Land preparation and planting machinery and equipment-Power tiller
-Rotary tiller
-Rotary harrow
-Disk harrow
-Grain drill
-Broadcast seeder
-Seed/fertilizer drill
-Land plane
  332Crop maintenance machinery and equipment-Manure spreader
-Fertiliser broadcaster
-Water pump
-Sprayers and other localized irrigation devices
-Other irrigation equipment
  333Crop harvesting machinery and equipment-Mower for grass crops
-Forage harvester
-Forage blower
-Combine harvesters
-Corn picker
-Digger, potato harvester
-Sugar beet harvester
  334Post-harvest machinery and equipment-Thresher
-Grain cleaner
-Sorters and graders
 34 Livestock machinery and equipment-Milking machine
-Milk cooler
-Cream separator
 35 Aquacultural machinery and equipment 

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