Rural-urban marketing linkages

An infrastructure identification and survey guide


John Tracey-White

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations or of the World Health Organization concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-105405-3

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing Management Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to copyright@fao.org

Rome, @ FAO 2005

Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software. FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.




List of abbreviations


Chapter 1 Introduction


Purpose of the guide

Summary of the main steps

Chapter 2 understanding market linkages

What are market linkages?

Types of marketing intermediaries

Marketing channels

Transport linkages and accessibility

Marketing and spatial distribution

Location and agricultural land use

Regional and rural development policies

Chapter 3 Approach to studying marketing systems

Basic issues

Study methodology

Supply, demand and donsumption

Analysis of survey results

mapping marketing systems

Chapter 4 Overall evaluation of marketing systems

Approaches to evaluation

Participatory approach to selecting rural markets

Approach to designing a regional planning framework

Urban areas - meeting food demand

Market programmes and action plans

Market design, construction and operation

Monitoring market development impact


Chapter 5 Participatory agricultural marketing surveys

Using a participatory method

Survey process

Steps in participatory marketing surveys

Analysing group surveys

Lessons learned from previous surveys

Participatory marketing survey formats

Chapter 6 Follow-up interviews and surveys

Following-up on the market chain

Formal surveys

Market inventories

Interviews with market functionaries

Consumer surveys

Gender considerations

Overall results from the surveys

Follow-up survey formats

Chapter 7 evaluating rural transport proposals

Choice of evaluation methods

Conclusions on evaluation methods

Selection criteria for road Improvements

Rural accessibility planning

Produce movement survey formats


Further reading


1.     Selected estimated percentage increases in urban populations (base year 2000)

2.     Transport means: indicative characteristics

3.     Choosing appropriate survey methods

4.     Typical market selection criteria

5.     Example of justification for adopting new approaches to produce marketing - Kathmandu

6.     Monitoring and evaluation impact indicators

7.     Social status of farmer group (number of participants)

8.     Farm household annual food balance

9.     Marketing margins for cucumbers

10.   Production by farm families (lbs.)

11.   Palau, comparative production and consumption of female-headed households

12.   Markets in northwest Bangladesh

13.   Estimated store and market throughput

14.   daily produce handled by traders, collectors and buyers (lb. per day)

15.   Marketing channels used by traders, collectors and buyers to purchase produce

16.   Consumer preference in purchasing fruits and vegetables (% of respondents)

17.   Comparison of average daily sales by market functionaries (lb.)

19.   Summary of group comments and ideas received during surveys

20.   Benefits to road users after improvement


1.     Impact of urbanization on food security

2.     Impact of polarization on small and intermediate urban centres

3.     Travel in Puok district, Cambodia

4.     development of intermediate market towns

5.     Typical market linkage study

6.     Estimating supply, demand and consumption

7.     Radius of catchment areas

8.     Gravity model format

9.     Case study - Agropolitan Project, Indonesia

10.   monitoring marketing improvement schemes

11.   Palau, comparison of fruit marketing

12.   examples of marketing channels - Cambodia

13.   Road ranking using points system

14.   Choice of an assessment technique

15.   Calculating an accessibility index


1.     farm to market transport chain and rural transport infrastructure

2.     hierarchy of settlements

3.     examples of mapping a marketing system - Albania

3.b: vegetable balance

3.a: vegetable production

3.c: Potato production

3.d: Potato balance

3.e: fruit production

3.f: fruit balance

3.h: marketing regions and action plan

3.g: Road accessibility

4.     Planning framework for prioritizing rural market development

5.     urban impact assessment model

6.     market design and development process

7.     Comparative utilization of produce

8.     Palau, marketing problems - all crops


Participatory marketing survey formats:

Form 5.1: Community PRA Survey - Typical format

Form 5.2: household food marketing and Consumption

Form 5.3: Analysis of Production Sales and Consumption

Follow up survey formats:

Form 6.1: Checklist for Preliminary market Inventory

Form 6.2: estimating the Throughput of markets and Shops

Form 6.3: mapping of food markets and Shops

Form 6.4: Interview Survey with marketing functionaries

Form 6.5: Consumer Surveys

Produce movement survey formats:

Form 7.1: Cordon Survey form

Form 7.2: Internal Produce movement Survey form