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New FAO Publications

Bartley, D.M. & Leber, K.M. (eds). 2004. Marine ranching. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 429. Rome, FAO. 213p.

With coastal fisheries in decline around the world, there is mounting concern about how long current sources of seafood can supply world needs. Governments, resource managers and those who make their livelihood from fishing are seeking better ways to improve fishing yields. Many seek greater emphasis on restocking and aquaculture-based stock enhancement as a way of rapidly replenishing depleted fish stocks and increasing fishery landings. This volume presents case studies that represent various scenarios and situations that use sea ranching and marine hatchery enhancement to generate income, re-establish fisheries and conserve aquatic biodiversity. The case studies include an integrated development programme for marine stocking in Norway; stock enhancement of barramundi in Australia for recreational fisheries; restocking sea cucumbers in Pacific Islands; sturgeon stocking programmes in the Caspian Sea with an emphasis on Iran; and an assessment of stocking effectiveness of flounder in Miyako Bay, Japan, through a fish market census. The studies demonstrate that stocking can clearly work in some cases to increase fishery landings, but that economic success will depend on many factors such as the management system, survival rates, culture costs and how the resource is valued.

Sea ranching technologies and strategies need more scientific development before stocking can be generally accepted as an economically effective fishery management tool in coastal regions.

For more information please contact:
Devin Bartley at FIRI

Halwart, M. & Bartley, D. (eds). 2005. Aquatic biodiversity in rice-based ecosystems. Studies and reports from Cambodia, China, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Viet Nam. (CD-ROM). Rome, FAO.

This CD-ROM illustrates the vital role that aquatic biodiversity from rice-based ecosystems plays for the livelihoods of rural people in southeast Asia. It contains the findings of five case studies on the availability and use of aquatic biodiversity as well as local management arrangements from Cambodia, China, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), and Viet Nam. The rich variety of utilized aquatic species (fishes, reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans, molluscs, insects and plants) collected by farmers in their rice field is presented together with information on traditional practices and local knowledge regarding collection tools and methods, species availability, consumption preference and preparation methods.

Advertised in FAN 31 (July 2004) “Integrated livestok-fish farming systems” is now available in French: Little, D.C. , Edwards, P. Systèmes agricoles intégrés bétail-poisson. Rome, FAO. 2005. 197p.

For more information please contact:
Matthias Halwart at FIRI

Helm, M.M., Bourne, N. et Lovatelli, A. (comp./éd). 2005. Ecloserie de bivalves. Un manuel pratique. FAO Document technique sur les pêches. No. 471. Rome, FAO. 184p.

In the FAO Aquaculture Newsletter (FAN) of December 2004 (No. 32) the FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 471 on “Hatchery culture of bivalves: a practical manual”was promoted. Since then this publication has been among the top requested among the technical publications prepared by the Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service (FIRI). We are pleased to communicate that the manual has been translated and now available in French, Spanish and Chinese. The French translation was carried out by Ms Zakia Massik working at the Institut national de recherche halieutique (INRH) in Casablanca, Morocco, and Mr René Robert based at the Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (IFREMER) in Brest, France. The Chinese translation was made by Prof Chen Jiaxin former Director of the Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute (YSFRI) in collaboration with Mr Chang Yaqing, Deputy Director of the College of Life and Technology, Dalian Fisheries University, PR China. Ms Marie-Louise Tall of the Instituto Agronómico Mediterráneo of Zaragoza (IAMZ) and Mr Juan Cigarría of Tinamenor (S.A) have translated the manual in Spanish.

This manual is a synthesis of the current methodologies applicable to the intensive hatchery culture of bivalve molluscs covering similarities and differences in approach in rearing clams, oysters and scallops in different climatic regions. All aspects of the culture process are described, together with considerations in choosing a site for hatchery development and in the design of suitable facilities. The manual also includes the post-hatchery handling of “seed”bivalves in land-and sea-based nursery culture preparatory to on-growing. This publication is intended to assist both technicians entering this field as well as investors interested in evaluating the complexity of intensive hatchery production. The authors bring together a combined 80 years of experience in the biology, management and operation of hatcheries encompassing a range of the more commonly cultured bivalve species in different parts of the world. (The Arabic version is under preparation).

Further details can be obtained by writing to:
Alessandro Lovatelli at FIRI

Moretti, A., Pedini Fernandez-Criado, M. & Vetillart, R. 2005. Manual on hatchery production of seabass and gilthead seabream. Volume 2. Rome, FAO. 152p.

This is the second and final volume of a manual on hatchery production of seabass and gilthead seabream. It is part of the programme of publication of the Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service (FIRI). The manual has been written based on the direct experience of technicians and managers of commercial hatcheries operating in the Mediterranean. It is intended to assist both technicians entering this field as well as investors interested in evaluating the complexity of hatchery production of seabass and gilthead seabream. The manual has been prepared by the authors under the overall sup-port and supervision of FIRI and direct technical coordination of Mario Pedini, Aquaculture and Fisheries Development Officer of the FAO/World Bank Cooperative Programme. Numerous colleagues have collaborated, contributing comments to sections of the manual, and ideas and assistance for its finalization.

Seabass and gilthead seabream are the two marine fish species which have characterized the development of marine aquaculture in the Mediterranean basin over the last three decades. The substantial increase in production levels of these two species, initially of very high value, has been possible thanks to the progressive improvement of the technologies involved in the production of fry in hatcheries. As a result of this technological progress, more than one hundred hatcheries have been built in the Mediterranean basin, working on these and other similar species. At present the farmed production of these two species derived from hatchery produced fry is far greater than the supply coming from capture fisheries.

The development of these techniques, based originally on Japanese hatchery techniques, has followed its own evolution and has resulted in what could be called a Mediterranean hatchery technology that is still evolving to provide higher quality animals and to reduce the costs of production. This is a dynamic sector but it has reached a level of maturity which merits the production of a manual for hatchery personnel that could be of interest in other parts of the world.

The manual has been divided in two volumes. The first one was finalized in 2000, and covered historical background, biology and life history of the two species, especially hatchery production procedures (this volume is currently also available as a PDF document on the FAO web site). This second volume is divided in four parts. In the first, it tries to cover the aspects related to hatchery design and construction, from site selection to hatchery layout, and description of the various sections of a commercial hatchery. The second part covers engineering aspects related to the calculation and design of seawater intakes, pumping stations, hydraulic circuits, and pumping systems. The third part deals with equipment in the hatcheries such as tanks, filters, water sterilizers, water aeration and oxygenation, temperature control, and auxiliary equipment. The last part covers financial aspects. This section, rather than explaining the way to calculate cash flows, tries to highlight aspects that managers and investors should consider when entering this business. Volume two also includes a series of technical annexes, and a glossary of scientific and technical terms used in the two volumes.

Further details can be obtained by writing to:
Alessandro Lovatelli at FIRI

FAO/General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean/International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas. 2005. Report of the third meeting of the Ad Hoc GFCM/ICCAT Working Group on Sustainable Bluefin Tuna Farming/Fattening Practices in the Mediterranean. Rome, 16–18 March 2005. FAO Fisheries Report No. 779. Rome, FAO. 108p.

The Ad Hoc GFCM/ICCAT Working Group on Sustainable Bluefin Tuna Farming/Fattening Practices in the Mediterranean was set-up following a 2002 decision by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) which, in view of the expansion of bluefin tuna farming in the Mediterranean, decided that practical guidelines to ensure the sustainability of this activity were required. The work plan of the Working Group (WG) was discussed and proposed by a Coordinating Committee which met in January 2003 (Madrid, Spain) as agreed during the twenty-seventh session of the GFCM. At its first meeting (Rome, Italy, 12–14 May 2003) the WG produced a survey form that would enable to produce a summary of the current situation of bluefin tuna farming in the Mediterranean, identify problem areas with respect to the issues to be addressed, and propose solutions. During the second meeting (Izmir, Turkey, 15–17 December 2003) the WG finalized a first snapshot on the current situation of bluefin tuna farming based on the information made available in the survey forms and progressed with the drafting of the guidelines. The summary snapshot consisted in three documents covering capture fisheries, farming and marketing/trade of bluefin tuna in the Mediterranean. The WG held its third and final meeting in Rome, Italy, from 16 to 18 March 2005. The meeting was attended by 19 experts representing 10 Mediterranean countries, Japan and the European Commission, and representatives from the Secretariats of the GFCM and the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). The WG completed its mandate and finalized and adopted the “Guidelines on Sustainable Bluefin Tuna Farming Practices in the Mediterranean”.Furthermore updated summaries on capture fisheries, farming and marketing/trade of bluefin tuna in the Mediterranean were also prepared by selected participants of the WG.

Further details and copies of the report can be obtained by writing to:
Alessandro Lovatelli at FIRI

The report is also available on the FAO web site at or

Moehl, J., Halwart, M. & Brummett, R. 2005.Report of the FAO WordFish Center Workshop on Small scale Aquaculture in sub-Saharan Africa: Revisiting the Aquaculture Target Group Paradigm. Limbé, Cameroon, 23–26 March 2004. CIFA Occasional Paper. No. 25. Rome, FAO. 54p.

In response to an increasing interest in sustainable aquaculture among governments and international donors, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the WordFish Center undertook a review of how aquaculture is targeted in sub-Saharan Africa as a first step in the identification of appropriate extension approaches and production strategies that would suit the various technology user-groups. Representatives of senior fisheries management agencies from nine countries in the region met to discuss progress, opportunities and key constraints to aquaculture development.

Through a series of presentations, working group sessions and plenary discussions, broad consensus was achieved on the way forward for African aquaculture. In an effort to realize the goals of aquaculture, an attempt was made to develop a set of practical recommendations that can be used by national governments to insure that the major constraints are being addressed and that the major opportunities for aquaculture are capitalized upon to increase the contribution of aquaculture to food security and economic growth.

For further information please contact:
John Moehl at FAO/RAF

Moehl, J. & Halwart, M. (eds). 2005. A synthesis of the formulated animal and aquafeeds industry in sub Saharan Africa. CIFA Occasional Paper. No. 26. Rome, FAO. 61p.

This document contains five country reviews (South Africa, Nigeria, Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya and Zambia) and one regional synthesis paper on the animal and aquafeed industry in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveys of the existing aquaculture and aquafeed industries were undertaken with the purpose to determine the status of commercial aquafeed production in sub-Saharan Africa, and to provide an indication of the region's potential to produce aquafeeds.

Main findings were the following:

Aquaculture production reported for the five countries was found to vary between 1 000 and 30 776 tonnes per annum. While Nigeria was the largest producer, Zambia reported the lowest production. Nigeria was the largest producer of manufactured aquafeeds (10 760 tonnes both in 2000 and 2001). With the exception of South Africa, farm-made feeds were found to supply a significant proportion of all the countries'aquafeed requirements.

Major feed ingredients that are used in livestock feed production were generally available across the region. In some countries, difficulties were reported in obtaining supplies of fish oils as well as specialised vitamin and mineral mixes.

• A projection of future aquafeed requirements for 2015 suggests that all countries will have the potential to produce sufficient aquafeeds using existing production capacities.

• Key indicators identified for a count's ability to produce aquafeeds were existing livestock feed manufacturing capacity, availability of suitable feed ingredients for incorporation into aquafeeds, availability of suitably trained personnel, and favourable legislative and taxation system.

Arthur, J.R., Baldock, F.C., Subasinghe, R.P. & McGladdery, S.E. 2005. Preparedness and response to aquatic animal health emergencies in Asia: guidelines. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 486. Rome, FAO. 40p.

This document provides guidance to assist developing countries in improving national emergency preparedness in order to maximize the efficiency of response to serious outbreaks of aquatic animal diseases. It is a product of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA)/WorldFish Center (WFC) Regional Workshop on Preparedness and Response to Aquatic Animal Health Emergencies, held in Jakarta, Indonesia from 21–23 September 2004. The workshop, which was hosted by the Government of Indonesia, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF), was attended by 51 participants, including national policy-makers and scientists from the Asian Region, and international experts and resource persons from both the region and elsewhere.

The primary objective of biosecurity arrangements is to prevent the incursion of exotic pathogens and pests. Knowing, however, that the risk of such incursions can never be reduced to zero, such arrangements must also include plans to ensure a rapid, well organized and appropriate response to an emergency disease incident. Infectious disease emergencies may arise within a country through incursions of known exotic diseases (transboundary aquatic animal diseases, TAADs), by a sudden change in the behaviour or distribution of endemic diseases, or via the appearance of previously unrecognized diseases. Effective emergency preparedness through contingency planning, early detection and a rapid response is critical to the successful management of such disease outbreaks. A strong national approach to contingency planning is essential to ensure that the necessary operational capability is in place so that early detection and effective responses are achieved. Recovery from an emergency disease response must be followed by measures to ensure that freedom from the particular disease is again maintained.

Having the capability to deal with emergency diseases involves systematic planning, training, and simulation exercises (field trials or “dummy runs”), as well as having access to an appropriate level of resources, including trained personnel, essential equipment and the necessary financial and legal mechanisms. Although a comprehensive capability in many countries will take a long time to achieve, it is hoped that this manual will assist developing countries in laying foundations within the framework of whatever resources presently exist.

For further information please contact:
Rohana P. Subasinghe at FIRI

Subasinghe, R.P. & Arthur, J.R. (eds). 2005. Regional workshop on preparedness and response to aquatic animal health emergencies in Asia. Jakarta, Indonesia, 21–23 September 2004. FAO Fisheries Proceedings. No. 4. Rome, FAO. 178p.

This document contains the proceedings, including the texts of 14 papers presented, the Working Group reports and resulting recommendations of the Regional Work-shop on Prepared-ness and Response to Aquatic Animal Health Emergencies, held in Jakarta, Indonesia from 21–23 September 2004. The work-shop was jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service (FIRI), the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) and the WorldFish Center (WFC), and was hosted by the Government of Indonesia, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF). The workshop was attended by 51 participants, including national policy-makers and scientists from the Asian region, and international experts and resource persons from both the region and elsewhere.

The papers contained herein cover a wide range of topics related to emergency planning and response to serious outbreaks of aquatic animal diseases, including a review of the history, current status and socio-economic impacts (including implications for international trade) of transboundary aquatic animal diseases (TAADs) in Asia; impacts of exotic diseases on aquatic biodiversity; experiences in the aquaculture and livestock sectors in developing and developed countries in the Asia-Pacific region and elsewhere (e.g. Canada, Norway) in dealing with major disease epizootics (including reviews of recent efforts in Indonesia and Japan to deal the serious outbreaks of Koi herpes virus disease); the role of national governments and the private sector; and analyses of regional needs in areas such as contingency planning, legislation (institutional and regulatory frameworks) and capacity building (training, infrastructure, disease diagnostics, surveillance, monitoring and reporting).

The major recommendations of the Workshop are:

(i) at the national level, the capacity and awareness of personnel at producer, disease support and decision-making levels, should be strengthened and adequate resources allocated to support implementation of emergency preparedness strategies; (ii) at the regional level, existing disease reporting systems (e.g. NACA/FAO/OIE Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease Reports) should be further strengthened to ensure increased sharing of information on national aquatic animal disease status and emerging aquatic animal diseases of significance to Asia; (iii) regional technical support mechanisms (e.g. the NACA Regional Advisory Group) should be used to provide expert teams and information to countries in order to assist in early response to disease problems; (iv) research to support early warning and early response should be targeted to rapid diagnostics (e.g. assessment of the accuracy of Level I diagnosis), epidemiology, risk assessments and biosecurity; (v) detailed post-mortem analyses of the outbreaks of Koi herpes virus (KHV) in Japan and Indonesia should be conducted to understand the actions taken by the government and private sector, the extent of their success and the lessons learned; and (vi) core funding should be allocated at national and regional levels to provide ready resources to respond rapidly to emergencies.

For further information please contact:
Rohana P. Subasinghe at FIRI

Briggs, M., Funge-Smith, S., Subasinghe, R.P. & Phillips, M. 2005. Introductions and movement of two penaeid shrimp species in Asia and the Pacific. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 476. Rome, FAO. 78p.

Both Penaeus vannamei and P. stylirostris are introduced species in Asia and the Pacific. They have now become important commercial shrimp species in many countries in Asia. The main reason behind the importation of P. vannamei to Asia has been the perceived poor performance, slow growth rate and disease susceptibility of the major indigenous cultured shrimp species, P. chinensis in China and P. monodon virtually everywhere else. However, for many reasons, particularly with the evidence of the introduction of exotic viruses to the region, there has been caution on the part of many Asian governments for the introduction of P. vannamei and P. stylirostris. Nevertheless, this caution has not been demonstrated by the private sector, which has been bringing stocks of illegal and often disease carrying P. vannamei into Asia from many locations, as well as moving infected stocks within Asia. The commercial success of these introductions, despite disease problems, has allowed the development of substantial culture industries for these alien penaeids within Asia, particularly in China and Thailand. One effect of this is that it is rapidly becoming difficult to control the importation and development of this new industry. This report attempts to gather all of the currently available data on the extent of P. vannamei and P. stylirostris importation and culture in Asia, its potential problems and benefits, and in this way to serve as a source document from which to investigate further means by which control over this issue might be re-established. Recommendations aimed at controlling the importation, testing and culture of these species have been made for all levels and are included in this report. This publication is also available in French, Spanish and Chinese.

For further information please contact:
Rohana P. Subasinghe at FIRI

Spedicato, M.T., Lembo, G. & Marmulla, G. (eds). 2005. Aquatic telemetry: advances and applications. Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Fish Telemetry held in Europe. Ustica, Italy, 9–13 June 2003. Rome, FAO/COISPA. 295p.

Freshwater and marine resources, especially fish, have long provided a valuable source of food for mankind. However, heavy fishing pressure and the environmental impacts associated with the fast growing human population are increasing the stress on the aquatic resources and this calls for the strict application of management regulations. To protect biodiversity and assure the sustainability of the resources for the future, sound and responsible management is today more important than ever before. Ideally, current regulations are to be based on various criteria including the biology of the species concerned, as outlined in the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and the related Technical Guidelines.

Telemetry, i.e. the remote measurement of biological variables, is a viable tool to obtain, in a limited time, information on the biology and the behaviour of the animals, one of the important preconditions for management decisions. The use of this technology in the aquatic environment has seen a rapid increase in the last two decades, as evidenced by the growing number of studies being undertaken.

The Fifth Conference on Fish Telemetry held in Europe, organized by COISPA Tecnologia & Ricerca in June 2003, brought together researchers and fisheries biologists involved in telemetry and biotelemetry studies on marine and freshwater ecosystems. The central theme of the conference was the interdisciplinary approach to provide the scientific basis for the conservation and rational management of natural resources. With the present book, FAO and COISPA are now publishing the Proceedings of a conference that was of particular relevance to all those involved in the field of fish ecology, aquaculture and fisheries management.

In an attempt to make the use of resources more sustainable, FAO is promoting the idea of using telemetry to study characteristics of fish, with a view to increase benefits for fisheries and aquaculture while maintaining a balance between exploitation and conservation. As part of its work under the Major Programme on Fisheries, the FAO Fisheries Department is active in raising the awareness of managers and scientists regarding the potential use of telemetry for supporting the management decision process. In this context, the FAO Fish Telemetry Web site 2, which was launched on the occasion of the Fifth Fish Telemetry Conference, provides access to technology to help foster sustainability, addresses key management issues, and promotes information and technology exchange between managers and researchers in fisheries and aquaculture. FAO also co financed a pilot workshop on the application of biotelemetry to fish studies for the management of inland fisheries in West Africa and is planning to provide inputs to training courses in future. Furthermore, a manual on telemetry is in preparation.

We trust that the compilation of excellent papers in these Proceedings, intended to serve as a showcase for the latest developments in aquatic telemetry and to give technical guidance to managers, will help provide concrete answers to questions in relation to fisheries management.

Foreword by Serge M. Garcia, Director,
Fishery Resources Division
Fisheries Department, Rome

For further information please contact:
Gerd Marmulla at FIRI

Bartley, D.M., Bhujel, R.C., Funge Smith, S., Olin P.G. & Phillips M. J. (comps./eds). 2005. International mechanisms for the control and responsible use of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. Report of an Ad Hoc Expert Consultation. Xishuangbanna, People's Republic of China, 27–30 August 2003. Rome, FAO. 195 p.

The use of alien species is a proven means to increase production and value from aquatic ecosystems. In the Mekong/Lanchang Basin, alien species such as tilapia (Oreochromis spp.)play an important role in providing cheap and readily available protein to rural and poor sectors. However, alien species are now recognized as one of the most significant threats to aquatic biodiversity. Members of FAO and signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity have obligated themselves to manage and control alien species that may adversely impact ecosystems. There are a range of international mechanisms that have been established to assist countries in meeting international obligations and responsibilities. The coverage of these international instruments, the signatory countries and the degree to which they are implemented varies throughout the world. Implementation is often difficult due to lack of awareness at national level of responsibilities under the respective instruments, problems with enforcement, and lack of basic information and capacity to undertake risk assessment. Several steps are necessary for effective use and control of alien species, but one of the most important was identified to be following codes of practice similar to that developed by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. The development and use of indigenous species are options to the use of alien species. However, indigenous species have not received the same amount of attention, research, development and use as many alien species. Regional coordination of policies and practices on alien species is needed for effective national management. National policies need to be in place and the population needs to be aware of issues before countries can implement international mechanisms. Thus, regional coordination and national policy development are necessary actions that should go hand in hand in order to facilitate implementation of broader international agreements.

For further information please contact:
Devin Bartley at FIRI

The FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 451 advertised in FAN 31 (July 2004) Surveillance and zoning for aquatic animal diseases has been published in French, Spanish and Chinese.

Subasinghe, R.P., McGladdery, S.E. et Hill, B.J. (éd). 2005. Surveillance et zonage des maladies des animaux aquatiques. FAO Document technique sur les pêches. No. 451. Rome, FAO. 78p.

Subasinghe, R.P., McGladdery, S.E. y Hill, B.J. (eds) 2005. Vigilancia y zonación de enfermedades de animales acuáticos. FAO Documento Técnico de Pesca. No. 451. Roma, FAO. 76p.

For further information please contact:

Rohana P. Subasinghe at FIRI

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