Aquaculture and Inland Fisheries Project
FAO - National Special Programme for Food Security Office, Abuja, Nigeria
Miller, J. 2006. The potential for development of aquaculture and its integration with irrigation within the context of the FAO Special Programme for Food Security in the Sahel. In M. Halwart & A.A. van Dam, eds. Integrated irrigation and aquaculture in West Africa: concepts, practices and potential, pp. 61–74. Rome, FAO. 181 pp.
Integrated aquaculture may help produce more fish and at the same time use water more efficiently in West Africa. In this paper, the potential for enhanced fish production in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal is assessed. Systems examined include floodplains, irrigation systems, lakes, wetlands and other water bodies. Floodplains form the basis of inland fisheries in Senegal, Mali and Niger. In Burkina Faso, the fisheries are based mainly on lakes and ponds. Floodplain fisheries yields are affected mainly by droughts and by upstream development of dams and irrigation schemes. Niger and Burkina Faso have benefited considerably from the development of small dams and other water bodies. Of the four contries, Senegal has experienced most development of fish pond aquaculture. Traditional marsh aquaculture exists in all four countries and involves keeping fish alive during the dry season in wells or holes in the wetlands. Methods used include collecting, holding, transporting and stocking fingerlings, combined with composting and some feeding. This artisanal aquaculture extends the availability of fish during the dry season and provides fish for restocking the wetlands when the rains return. Apart from some attempts at developing integrated rice-fish farming, most recent aquaculture development efforts have focused on more intensive technologoy involving raceways or cage culture. A number of environmental, socio-cultural, institutional, financial and technical constraints to aquaculture development in the Sahel region are discussed. The main opportunity for development lies in extensive, integrated systems using low-cost, locally available inputs over large land areas as found in irrigation schemes. These are presently underutilized and through their integration with aquaculture, rice and fish production can be increased. More attention is also needed for developing traditional forms of aquaculture. Recommendations for training and insitutional strengthening conclude the paper.
With decreasing fish catch across West Africa in contrast with growing populations and increasing demand for food, aquaculture can play a role in helping increase fish production in the Sahel region. However, water is a limiting resource and effective optimization of water use is a critical issue to be resolved. Integrated irrigation-aquaculture (IIA) has been proposed as a way of increasing the efficiency of water use and producing much-needed animal protein for human consumption. In the past, aquaculture development in the Sahel has been attempted in “large steps”, resulting in costly failures of intensive tilapia farming in raceways (e.g., Burkina Faso) and cages (e.g., Niger). Major undertakings have been tried in extensive and semi-intensive fish farming as well, but today, aquaculture remains limited to monocultures with little integration. One of the lessons of the past is that there is a clear need for integrated aquaculture.
In 1997, the FAO proposed an IIA Network for Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Burkina Faso and Zambia (Coche, 1998). The FAO’s Action Plan for Aquaculture Research in sub-Saharan Africa (Coche et al., 1994) had recommended eight priority research programmes including “Aquaculture in irrigation schemes” and “Small Water Body Fisheries Enhancement”. These programmes were to operate as part of the IIA network for comparative studies among the various countries as recommended at the IIA Workshop in Accra, Ghana in September 1999 (Moehl et al., 2001).The core of the network would be formed by a number of research and development institutions in each country. This would encourage collaboration and exchange of information,improved data collection,improved communications, capacity building and technology development with a focus on optimization in water management practices. The network would be linked with other regional groups including the Africa Rice Center (WARDA, for rice farming), the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), the WorldFish Center (previously ICLARM), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and its Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) and others.
Table 1. General information on Sénégal, Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso, January 2000. Sources: EIU (2005); aquaculture & fisheries strategy reports for Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso; FAO (2005).
|- General information|
|Area of country (km2)||274 000||1 240 190||1 267 000||196 720|
|Total population (inhabitants)||11 400 000||9 790 000||10 100 000||9 000 000|
|Population density (inhabitants/km2)||42||8||8||45|
|Rural population (%)||73||83||81||60|
|Average annual (mm)||844||334||north 180|
|Range annual (mm)|
|- Marine sector|
|Marine fishery production (tonnes)||0||0||0||450 000|
|No. marine fishermen|
|• industrial||0||0||0||10 000|
|• artisanal||0||0||0||45 000|
|- Inland fishery sector|
|Inland fishery production (tonnes)||6 000–8 000||100 000||6 000||14 000|
|- of which from rivers (%)||27||80||65||0.05|
|- of which from lakes (%)||73||20||35||-|
|Potential fish production (tonnes)||12 500||-||-||2 500|
|No. of inland fishermen||8 000||70 000||2 000–3 000||(est.) 40|
|Aquaculture production (tonnes)||80||100||(est.) 30||400 000|
|Total area of inland lakes (ha)||55 400||22 000||10 000||1 000 000|
|Potential exploitable inland water (ha)||200 000||560 000||270 000|
|Total area floodplain (ha)||-||2 000 000||400 000|
|- Economic impact|
|- Animal protein consumption|
|Fish (kg/capita/y)||1.5||10.5||0.3 – 0.5||37|
|Full/partial control (ha)||15 430||85 620||66 324||69 286|
|Total irrigated land (ha)||45 730||200 000||81 000||141 400|
|Gravity irrigation (ha)||3 917|
|Irrigated rice (ha)||30 900||193 000||30 000||32 000|
The Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) is FAO's flagship initiative for reaching the goal of halving the number of hungry in the world by 2015. Currently there are 852 million food insecure people in the world. Of these, 86 percent live in the 102 countries participating in the SPFS. The SPFS promotes effective, tangible solutions to the elimination of hunger, undernourishment and poverty. It was launched in 1994 with the goal of achieving sustainable increases in food production through dissemination of existing and proven agricultural technology. To maximize the impact of its work, the SPFS strongly promotes national ownership and local empowerment in the countries in which it operates. The SPFS has entered its second phase for diversification of activities in many countries. This offers opportunities for integration of aquaculture into irrigation schemes. Many constraints exist for agricultural development and the SPFS uses on-farm contact and small-scale demonstrations as entry points for identifying effective actions for removal of existing constraints faced by farmers. The SPFS strives to create an enabling environment conducive to the success and widespread adoption of improved agricultural techniques. Through participatory methodologies and partnerships with village organizations and farmer groups, the SPFS is increasing vegetable and grain production, improving small animal production, as well as improving management of water in irrigation schemes. Each country has a management committee to oversee implementation of the SPFS programme, monitor progress and assure adherence to the principles of partnership. In general, activities are focused on basic production including rice, maize and other cereals, vegetables, cowpeas and small animal husbandries. A major thrust of the programme is the management of water resources in valleys and irrigation schemes.
With such a broad range of activities, many possibilities exist for integration of aquaculture with crops, animals and irrigation schemes. Extensive aquaculture has already been incorporated in the activities in all four countries as with small dam construction and stocking small water bodies by fishermen. As the SPFS enters Phase II for diversification and expansion of activities, the integration of aquaculture into ongoing activities and irrigation schemes offers potential to improve the use of farm resources and water for an increase in production and revenues. In addition to integration of aquaculture, other SPFS activities could include encouragement for rural credit and savings and an increased focus on reduction of post harvest losses, through demonstration and training in using improved fish smoking technology.
In this paper, the current situation and potential for enhanced fish production is assessed in four Sahelian countries: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal. Systems examined include floodplains, irrigation systems, lakes, marshes, ponds and other bodies of water (locally, the French word mare is used for wetland pools). The paper particularly focuses on the potential for increasing fish production and aquaculture within the context of the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) and evaluates past and present aquaculture efforts. Recommendations for integration of aquaculture in ongoing programmes (including the SPFS) are made. The information on which the paper is based was collected during a mission of the author to the four countries between December 1999 and January 2000, during which discussions with government officials and other experts in local institutions and development projects were held, relevant documents were reviewed and visits to sites with aquaculture and culture-based fisheries were made.
Aquatic resources in the Sahel
Sahelian countries experience a harsh, deteriorating environmental situation of cyclical drought, causing increased desertification, diminishing surface waters, losses in agriculture and diminished fish catch. This is in contrast with growing populations in need of more food, including animal proteins. In view of this situation, it is urgent to seek methods to optimize the use of available water for food production. Africa has considerable potential to develop aquaculture but has not exploited this technology significantly. Less than 5% of Africa’s potential in aquaculture has been tapped (Kapetsky, 1994; FAO, 1996). The 1.39 million ha of irrigated land in the four countries under review have been exploited for rice and cereal production without consideration for integration, which offers more efficient use of water. Presently, the large area of irrigated lands are under-exploited and offer an opportunity to include integrated aquaculture as a diversification in irrigation schemes.
One of the constraints is the lack of statistics in fisheries and aquaculture. All countries in this study lacked data or had questionable information. Available reports sometimes presented conflicting data on fish production, and even basic quantitative information such as the number of ponds, lakes and even rainfall was missing. Clearly, there is a need to gather information in a systematic manner and to update information from the field. To accomplish this, local capacity needs to be improved through training and better organization.
Table 2. Significant rivers and floodplains in Senegal, Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso. Sources: Britannica (2005); EIU (2005); Country fisheries reports.
|low water||high water|
|Senegal||Senegal||1641||78 700||1 295 000|
|Mali||Niger||700||2 000 000|
|Niger||Niger||550||25 000||400 000|
|Mouhoun (Black Volta)||1 160||78 000|
|Nakambé (White Volta)||640|
Agriculture and fishing are held hostage to limited rainfall, which determines planting season, volume flow of the rivers and recharge of the underground aquifers. The past thirty years have witnessed unpredictable and decreased rainfall as well as decreased water flow in streams and rivers in the four countries under study. The cumulative rainfall deficit was 7% in the 1960s, but amounted to 16% in the 1980s. Rainfall has increased in recent years, but the region has experienced repeated, exceptionally low water flows in rivers and earlier drying of temporary water bodies (IRD, 1999). Although all four countries have experienced diminished water flows in streams and rivers over the past thirty years, a report from Niger indicates that underground aquifers appear to be unaffected by decreased surface waters). Rainfall in Niger averaged 650 mm between 1950 and 1970, but decreased significantly to less than 400 mm from 1971 to 1990 causing Lake Tchad's portion in Niger to dry up completely. However, increased rainfall in recent years has generally returned Lake Tchad to its normal levels, including 310 000 ha in Niger. Rainfall comparisons among the four countries are presented in Table 1.
Rivers and floodplains
Some data on rivers and floodplains in the four countries is presented in Table 2. A number of rivers contribute to the hydrogeography of the four countries in this study. Two major rivers traverse sub-Saharian Africa, the Senegal with a total length of 1641 km and the Niger with 4200 km. Both of these rivers as well as the Gambia (1120 km) originate in mountainous, forested areas with relatively high rainfall supplying a huge region with a well-developed hydrographic system flowing through desertic, arid zones as in northern Senegal, Mali and Niger. Thus, waters originating in humid tropical areas flow through arid areas, affording a much greater production potential than the arid zone would normally support on its own. This represents a significant transfer of productivity to the Sahel.
Floodplains form the basis of inland fisheries in Senegal, Mali and Niger. In Burkina Faso the fisheries are based mainly on lakes and ponds. Floodplain fisheries are subjected to great fluctuations caused by droughts. An example is the Niger floodplain in Mali, which produced only 40 000 metric tonnes during a drought in 1990 but in 1999 had yields surpassing 100000 tonnes (Table 1).
Table 3. Small water bodies (1–100 ha), lakes and dams, and village fish ponds in four countries of the Sahel region. Source: personal communication, field workers in each country.
|- small water bodies|
|Niger||1 023||10 000–27 000||175 permanent|
|Burkina Faso||2 100||200 000||400 permanent|
|- lakes and artificial water bodies|
|Senegal||Guiers||17 000–30 000|
|Burkina Faso||Bam||1 200–20 000|
|- village fish ponds|
|Mali||Niono, Segou, San||2734||12.5|
The Senegal River has some 1.295 million ha of floodplains, which used to produce 32000 mt per year of fish prior to the drought. The combined effects of damming of the Senegal, droughts and installation of many irrigation schemes in floodplain areas have severely impacted this once highly productive floodplain fishery. Similar developments have affected the Niger River in Mali and Niger. The drought and development on the Senegal River caused fish catch to drop drastically from 32000 to 14000 tonnes (Diop, 1999); other sources estimate inland catch to have dropped to 2000 tonnes. Such information is much debated in Senegal, as inland fisheries statistics have not been collected for 20 years. Nevertheless, poor inland fishermen have experienced tremendous decreases in fish catch, causing many of them to relocate. The number of fishermen decreased from some 10000 to around 2500 during this period of diminishing catch (Diop, 1999). Fishermen in Mali and Niger have also decreased in number, but have also actively sought to diversify into culture based fisheries or agriculture. A number have moved to other countries, especially Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana.
Small water bodies, lakes and fish ponds
Information on small water bodies, lakes and fish ponds is summarized in Table 3. Niger and Burkina Faso have benefited considerably from projects focused on the development of small dams and other water bodies. Both countries have programmes for stocking such temporary and permanent water bodies, involving participation of fishermen in the capture, holding, transport and stocking of fingerlings. Species caught include tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon melanotheron) and catfish species (Clarias gariepinus, Synodontis spp., Heterobranchus spp. and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) as well as some Alestes sp.
The four countries under study have a number of lakes and sizeable artificial bodies of water. As a result of the Government decentralization programme, fishermen are being permitted concessions for fishing a number of water bodies in Niger, Senegal and Burkina Faso. Irrigation schemes are associated with most of these lakes.
Of the four countries, Senegal experienced the most significant effort at developing village fish farming. In the 1970s and 1980s some 788 small (100–300 m2) fish ponds were built. Today only some 30% of these remain active. Little importance appeared to be given to record keeping, as no mention of fish ponds was made in any of the documentation obtained for the four countries (including national fisheries strategies and other important documents).
Table 4. Status of irrigation in Senegal, Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso (FAO, 2005).
|- Status of irrigation|
|Surface water irrigation (ha)||-||78 520||-||11 530|
|Pumped irrigation water (ha)||71 400||100||66 480||3 900|
|Equipped valleys/irrigation (ha)||37 000||3 826||-||8 900|
|Other valleys (ha)||37 000||109 023||12 000||21 400|
|Total irrigated lands (ha)||141 400||191 469||78 480||45 730|
|Irrigated rice fields (ha)||32 000||193 000||29 000||30 900||284 900|
|- Potential for rice-fish farming|
|Total irrigation potential (ha)||400 000||560 000||270 000||164 460||1 394 460|
|15% of irrigated rice (ha)1||4 800||28 950||4 350||4 635||42 735|
|Potential fish production at 0.25 tonnes/ha (tonnes)2||1 200||7 237||1 087||1 159||10 683|
1 Total of 4 countries = 42 735 ha of irrigated rice (15% of the total irrigated rice fields)
2 Total potential fish production = 10 683 tonnes
Table 4 presents the status of irrigation in each of the four countries under review. Farmers using irrigation schemes are often poorly organized. They are sometimes disadvantaged with the management of certain irrigation schemes, which may charge up to CFAF160 000 equivalent to US$246 per hectare per year(exchange rate 1 US$ = 651 CFA Franc in 2000) for frequently unreliable water delivery which sometimes cannot prevent crop failures.
Aquaculture development in the Sahel
Africa uses less than 5% of its potential for aquaculture (Kapetsky, 1994).Despite many constraints, the Sahel region does have potential for aquaculture development and tapping into this can contribute to increased fish production, employment and revenues for farmers. International aquaculture projects in the Sahel region have often failed to recognize the existence of aquaculture in the Sahel long before international assistance arrived on the scene.
Traditional extensive aquaculture
Extensive aquaculture in pools and ponds (mares)occurred in response to harsh droughts, which dried up ponds and shallow lakes near villages, threatening the loss of fish to the fishing communities. In an effort to maintain a stock of fish for their pond or marsh, villagers caught fish and held them in wells or holes dug in the bottom of the marshes. Fish were kept alive with some feeding and were restocked in the pond or marsh when the rains returned. This “artisanal marsh aquaculture”has been practiced for many decades and was mentioned by villagers in each of the four countries visited. Methods used include collecting, holding, transporting and stocking fingerlings, combined with composting and some feeding of fish in ponds and small lakes. Species used include Clarias sp., Heterobranchus sp., Synodontus sp., tilapias and others. This culture system effectively extends fish availability for nearby communities into the dry season and demonstrates a unique case of fishermen becoming involved in fish husbandry, a shift rarely seen as successful.
The “ownership” of fisheries by the fishermen represents much progress from the past. Much of this has come about through institutional decentralization and government’s efforts to empower fishermen for community-based management of fisheries resources. In Niger, fishermen have taken an active role in artisanal marsh aquaculture and today, some 100 ponds are stocked and exploited extensively for fish farming by fishermen in collaboration with the local villagers. In some areas of Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso, such ponds or small lakes are being leased to fishermen. In Senegal, similar activities have occurred with Vietnamese technical assistance in isolated areas of the country, like e.g. Kédougou.
A unique problem is the increased soil salinity of coastal areas once used for rice farming in the Casamance region in the south of Senegal. Here, over 50 000 ha of farmland have been lost to increased salinity from encroachment of the Casamance River during high tides. This river has become little more than an arm of the ocean. To combat this problem, farmers have established rice paddies on higher ground, using the freshwater overflow into the saline fields, which have been converted into fish ponds. This integrated effort has three goals: 1) production of rice; 2) production of fish; and 3) desalination of the fish ponds and their eventual recuperation for rice production.
Rice-fish farming has been attempted in all four countries. Most of these efforts unfortunately ended abruptly during floods with loss of fish and rice in some cases.Nevertheless, results from a few conclusive studies in Mali (Malengi-Ma, 1988; 1989) and Niger (Olivier et al., 1998)offer promise, as rice production was somewhat greater (up to 6–7 tonnes/ha/year) with the presence of fish which yielded between 130 and 190 kg/ha/year.
Village fish farming
In the past, a variety of aquaculture projects were initiated and several small fish stations were built, often with international assisstance. Although the use of some village fish ponds continues in all four countries, most of the fish stations and ponds have since been abandoned. Senegal has a variety of limited aquaculture activities including the culture of fish, shrimp and oysters. However, in spite of years of research and ongoing efforts in these activities, no commercially viable aquaculture enterprise is ongoing (Diop, 1999). With its large exodus from rural areas, Senegal has labor shortages in rural areas. Labour availability was also identified as a problem in the SPFS programme. All countries have plans for further aquaculture projects including a large commercial fish farm in northern Senegal with Chinese technical assistance and mixed involvement of both the private sector and government.Aquaculture activities are also being planned for the Zinder region of Niger with FED assistance.
Intensive fish farming
Two notable intensive aquaculture projects, supported by French assistance, have failed in Burkina Faso and Niger. A highly intensive and costly tilapia raceway farm system was attempted in Burkina Faso, but failed for technical reasons and lack of economic viability.Similar results were obtained with an intensive tilapia cage culture system in Niger. Fish were reared in cages in the Niger River and efforts were made to extend this technology to the private sector before the technology was proven to be economically viable. It was discovered that water temperatures dropped too low for acceptable growth during the winter period and it was only possible to carry out one production cycle per year. Both of these projects relied on costly imported inputs, forming the basis of their failure from inception. These efforts used complicated, costly technology to resolve basic problems of increasing fish production in a difficult environment.
Discussion: constraints and opportunities for aquaculture in the Sahel region
A number of commonalities among the four countries can be noted. Efforts to improve fish production could be focused on these common activities in all countries. The commonalities are:
Table 5. Constraints to aquaculture development in the Sahel region.
|Type of constraint||Details|
The SPFS is active in all countries with activities in fisheries and aquaculture, although the programmes are not identical.
The main constraints to aquaculture development in the Sahel are summarized in Table 5. Institutional and human capacity limitations exist in all countries, calling for training especially at the field technician level for transfer of aquaculture technology to farmers and individual investors. Support for universities and research institutions has also been limited or lacking. Other constraints include lack of coordination of activities both within and between countries. Technicians in each of the countries could benefit and learn from each other’s experiences, mistakes and successes.
The opportunity for aquaculture in the Sahel, lies not in intensive systems focused on maximizing production through capital intensive, hi-tech systems using the smallest area with the least labor and costs, but in extensive application of aquaculture using low-cost, locally available inputs for extensive, integrated systems over large land areas as found in irrigation schemes. These irrigation schemes are presently underutilized and through their diversification and integration with aquaculture, rice as well as fish production can be increased. This could improve the use of farm resources and water as well as increase overall farm output. Considering the large water areas involved, fish production could be significantly increased, thus strengthening food security in each country. Such aquaculture can also increase employment in rural areas and contribute to maintaining food security.
Aquaculture offers farmers more flexibility than other types of agriculture. This helps insure food security, as harvest of fish does not have to occur at a fixed time because fish can be harvested over time. Marketing of fish can be combined with other farm products in terms of transport and access to consumers. In many cases, fish in ponds serve as savings banks to farmers, who harvest their fish when financial emergencies arise. Technical details of this integration remain to be resolved in the particular context of the Sahel region for the benefit of farmers.
Table 6. Potential increased fish production, if 15% of rice paddies are converted to rice-fish farming with % increase in production, number of potential jobs and fish value at CFAF400.
|Country||Total average fish production||Potential increase in fish production from rice-fish||Estimated no. of new farm jobs||Value|
|Senegal||10 000||1 200||12||600||480 000||737 327|
|Mali||110 000||7 237||7||3 618||2 894 000||4 446 697|
|Niger||9 000||1 087||12||543||434 800||667 895|
|Burkina Faso||7 000||1 159||16||579||463 600||712 135|
|Total||136 000||10 683||8||5 340||4 273 200||6 564 000|
Table 6 provides an overview of the potential increased fish production with rice-fish aquaculture if 15% of the irrigated rice area would be integrated with aquaculture (42 735 ha) at an average production of 250 kg of fish/ha. At a value of only CFAF400/kg, increased revenues would amount to CFAF4.3 billion, or US$6.5 million. More than 10 500 tonnes could be added to the region’s fish production. This is significant as it would increase fish production in each country by 7 to 12%. Increased employment could be more than the estimated 5340 jobs, as this was calculated at only 1 person per 8 ha of rice.
The diversified approach taken by the SPFS programme orients the farmers to focus on integration of farming activities, benefiting from synergies and combined activities.Extensive aquaculture responds well to this integration and would contribute to more efficient use of water. The SPFS programme can serve as a springboard for integrating aquaculture with a number of ongoing activities including irrigation, various cultures and animal husbandries. Support can also be given to artisanal marsh aquaculture for training and basic equipment as well as follow-up data collection. The SPFS could involve research instiutions in training and applied research in the field (see Table 7).
Conclusions and recommendations
Table 7. Institutions for collaboration on the Integrated Irrigation Aquaculture network.
|Senegal||Centre de Recherches Oceanogra-Phiques de Dakar-Thiaroye||CRODT|
|Société d'Amenagement des Eaux du Delta||SAED|
|Institute de Recherche pour le Développement||IRD|
|Comité d'Action pour le Développement du Fogny||CADEF|
|Association Sénégalaise pour la Promotion de Petits Projets de Développement de Base||ASPRODEB|
|Union des Jeunes Agriculteurs du Koyli Wirndé||UJAK|
|Departement Eaux et Forets||DEF|
|West African Rice Development Agency||WARDA|
|Université Cheikh Anta Diop||UCAD|
|Institut Sénégalais de Recherche Agricole||ISRA|
|Mali||Ministry of Rural Development & Environment||MDRE|
|Directorate Support to Rural Populations||DNAMR|
|Chambers of Agriculture of Mali||CAM|
|Institute for Training & Applied Research||IFRA|
|Institute for Rural Economics||IER|
|Niger||Ministère Hydraulique et de l'Environnement||MH/E|
|Direction Faune, Pêches et Pisciculture||DFPP|
|Ministère de l'Agriculture et d'Elevage||MA/E|
|Institut National de Recherche Agronomique du Niger||INRAN|
|Association des Aquaculteurs||ADA|
|Burkina Faso||Ministry of Environment & Water Department of Fisheries & Fish Farming||MEW|
|Université Bobo Dioulasso's Institute of Rural Development||IDR|
|National Institute for Environment & Agricultural Research||INERA|
|Office for Dams and Hydraulics||ONBAH|
|Sourou Valley Development Authority||AMVS|
|German Fisheries Project for the SW||GTZ|
|Kou Valley farmers||-|
Training needs include:
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