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Albrechtsen, L., Fa, J.E., Barry, B. & Macdonald, D.W. 2005. Contrasts in availability and consumption of animal protein in Bioko Island, West Africa: the role of bushmeat. Environ. Conserv., 32(4): 340-348.

Azuma, D.L. et al. 2005. The western juniper resource of eastern Oregon, 1999. Resource Bulletin PNW-RB-249. Portland, Oregon, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 18 pp.

Barlow, J. & Peres, C.A. 2006. Effects of single and recurrent wildfires on fruit production and large vertebrate abundance in a central Amazonian forest. Biodivers. Conserv., 15(3): 985-1012.

Blundell, A.G. & Mascia, M.B. 2005. Discrepancies in reported levels of international wildlife trade. Conserv. Biol., 19(6): 2020-2025.

Blundell, A.G. & Mascia, M.B. 2006. Data on wildlife trade. Conserv. Biol., 20(3): 598-599.

Bouare, O. 2006. A policy tool for establishing a balance between wildlife habitat preservation and the use of natural resources by rural people in South Africa. Afr. J. Ecol., 44(1): 95-101.

Carrere, R. & Fonseca, H., eds. 2005. Indigenous peoples: their forests, struggles and rights. Montevideo, Uruguay, World Rainforest Movement, International Secretariat. 150 pp. ISBN 9974-7920-6-1.

Cayuela, L., Golicher, D.J. & Rey-Benayas, J.M. 2006. The extent, distribution and fragmentation of vanishing montane cloud forest in the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Biotropica, 38(4): 544-554.

Chapman, C.A., Lawes, M.J. & Eeley, H.A.C. 2006. What hope for African primate diversity? Afr. J. Ecol., 44(2): 116-133.

Chen, J. 2006. “There's no such thing as biopiracy ... and it's a good thing too.” McGeorge Law Review, 37. 35 pp.

Colfer, C.J.P., Sheil, D. & Kishi, M. 2006. Forests and human health: assessing the evidence. Bogor, Indonesia, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). ISBN 979-24-4648-6. This study has two central concerns: the state of human health in forests and the causal links between forests and human health. Within this framework, we consider four issues related to tropical forests and human health. First, we discuss forest foods, emphasizing the forest as a food-producing habitat, human dependence on forest foods, the nutritional contributions of such foods and nutrition-related problems that affect forest peoples. Our second topic is disease and other health problems. In addition to the major problems - HIV/AIDS, malaria, Ebola and mercury poisoning - we address some 20 other tropical diseases and health problems related to forests. The third topic is medicinal products. We review the biophysical properties of medicinal species and consider related indigenous knowledge, human uses of medicinal forest products, the serious threats to forest sustainability and the roles of traditional healers, with a discussion of the benefits of forest medicines and conflicts over their distribution. Our fourth and final topic is the cultural interpretations of human health found among forest peoples, including holistic world views that impinge on health and indigenous knowledge. The study concludes with some observations about the current state of our knowledge, its utility and shortcomings and our suggestions for future research.

Corlett, M.T. & Primack, R.B. 2006. Tropical rain forests and the need for cross-continental comparisons. Trends Ecol. Evol., 21(2): 104-110.

Cowlishaw, G., Mendelson, S. & Rowcliffe, J.M. 2005. Evidence for post-depletion sustainability in a mature bushmeat market, J. Applied Ecol., 42: 460-468.

Crookes, D.J., Ankudey, N. & Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2005. The value of a long-term bushmeat market dataset as an indicator of system dynamics. Environ. Conserv., 32(4): 333-339.

Delang, C.O. 2005. Economic valuation of non-marketed wild edible plants in Thailand. Environ. Conserv., 32(4): 285-287.

Diederichs, N., ed. 2006. Commercialising medicinal plants. A southern African guide. South Africa, Sun Press.

Dudley, N., Schlaepfer, R., Jeanrenaud, J.-P., Jackson, W. & Stolton, S. 2006. Assessing forests at a landscape scale. Earthscan. ISBN 1844072789.

Dutfield, G. 2006. Protecting traditional knowledge: pathways to the future. Draft paper. Geneva, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD). April. 53 pp.

East, T., Kümpel, N.F., Milner-Gulland, E.J. & Rowcliffe, J.M. 2005. Determinants of urban bushmeat consumption in Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea. Biol. Conserv., 126(2): 206-215.

Egli, S., Peter, M., Buser, C., Stahel, W. & Ayer, F. 2006. Mushroom picking does not impair future harvests - results of a long-term study in Switzerland. Biol. Conserv., 129(2): 271-276.

Elevitch, C.R. 2006. Traditional trees of Pacific islands: their culture, environment and use. Permanent Agriculture Resources. ISBN 0970254458.

Emery, M., Martin, S. & Dyke, A. 2006. Wild harvests from Scottish woodlands. Social, cultural and economic values of contemporary non-timber forest products. Edinburgh, United Kingdom, Forestry Commission.

Endress, B.A., Gorchov, D.L. & Noble, R.B. 2004. Non-timber forest product extraction: effects of harvest and browsing on an understory palm. Ecological Application, 14(4): 1139-1153.

Evans, K., Velarde, S.J., Prieto, R.P., Rao, S.N., Sertzen, S., Davila, K. & de Jong, W. 2006. Field guide to the future: four ways for communities to think ahead, eds E. Bennett & M. Zurek. Foreword D. Capistrano. This field guide is a practical, step-by-step manual describing four methods that can help communities think ahead and prepare for changes in their environment and natural resources: scenarios, visioning, pathways and projections. Spanish and French translations will be available shortly.

For more information and to obtain copies, please contact: S.J. Velarde-Pajares, M.Sc., Programme Associate and Acting Global Coordinator, Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn Programme (ASB), World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), PO Box 30677, 00100 GPO, Nairobi, Kenya. E-mail:;

Fa, J.E., Seymour, S., Dupain, J., Amin, R., Albrechtsen, L. & Macdonald, D. 2006. Getting to grips with the magnitude of exploitation: bushmeat in the Cross-Sanaga rivers region, Nigeria and Cameroon. Biol. Conserv.,129(4): 497-510.

Galatsidas, S. 2001. Development of an inventory system for non-timber functions of forests in the frame of management inventories: the case of Greece. Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde der Forstwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg i. Brsg. 141 pp.

Gautam, K.H. & Devoe, N.N. 2006. Ecological and anthropogenic niches of sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn, f.) forest and prospects for multiple-product forest management - a review. Forestry, 79(1): 81-101.

Gopalakrishnan, C., Wickramasinghe, W.A.R., Gunatilake, H.M. & Illukpitiya, P. 2005. Estimating the demand for non-timber forest products among rural communities: a case study from the Sinharaja rain forest region, Sri Lanka. Agroforestry systems, 65(1): 13-22.

Hamilton, A. & Hamilton, P. 2006. Plant conservation: an ecosystem approach. Earthscan. ISBN 1844070832. In this book, the latest in the People and Plants series, plant conservation is described in the context of livelihoods and development; and ways of balancing the conservation of plant diversity with the use of plants and the environment for human benefit are discussed. A central focus is the idea that local and tribal peoples must be involved if conservation is to be successful and resources are to be used sustainably.

Also examined are the identification of priority plant species and localities for conservation projects, the trade in wild plants and the contributions that are made by taxonomists, ecologists and sociologists.

Hawthorne, W. & Lawrence, A. 2006. Plant identification. Creating user-friendly field guides for biodiversity and management. Earthscan. ISBN 1844070794.

Herrmann, T.M. 2006. Indigenous knowledge and management of Araucaria araucana forest in the Chilean Andes: implications for native forest conservation. Biodivers. Conserv., 15(2): 647-662.

Hilfiker, K., Zingerli, C., Sorg, J.-P. & Luethi, R. 2006. Market potential and resource management of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in the northwestern uplands of Vietnam. Swiss Forestry J., 2: 49-56.

Hunter, C. & Shaw, J. 2005. Applying the ecological footprint to ecotourism scenarios. Environ. Conserv., 32(4): 294-304.

Islam, M.A., Kloppstech, K. & Esch, E. 2005. Population genetic diversity of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe - a conservation prioritized medicinal plant in Bangladesh. Conserv. Genet., 6(6): 1027-1033.

Johnston, A.M. 2005. Is the sacred for sale? Tourism and indigenous peoples. Earthscan. ISBN 1853838594.

Jones, E.T. et al. 2005. The relationship between non-timber forest product management and biodiversity in the United States. Submitted to the National Commission on Science for Sustainable Forestry. 61 pp.

Kajobe, R. & Roubik, D.W. 2006. Honey-making bee colony abundance and predation by apes and humans in a Uganda forest reserve. Biotropica, 38(2): 210.

Kanshie, T.K. 2002. Five thousand years of sustainability? A case study on Gedeo land use (southern Ethiopia). Treemail Publishers. 296 pp.

Kelatwang, S. & Garzuglia, M. 2006. Changes in forest area in Africa 1990-2005. Int. For. Rev., 8(1): 21-30.

Krul, L. & Ozinga, S. 2005. Funding Europe's forests. How to use EU funds for sustainable forest management and nature protection. Forests and the EU Resources Network (FERN) and Taiga Rescue Network.

Larsen, H.O., Smith, P.D. & Olsen, C.S. 2005. Nepal's conservation policy options for commercial medicinal plant harvesting: stakeholder views. Oryx, 39(4): 435-441.

Latif, A. & Shinwari, Z.K. 2005. Non-timber forest products in Pakistan can help in poverty alleviation. Science Technology and Development (Pakistan) (January-March), 24(1): 38-46.

Leaman, D.J., Schippmann, U., Klingenstein, F., Honnef, S. & Pätzold, B. 2006. ISSC-MAP. International Standard for Sustainable Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Paper submitted to the 1st IFOAM International Conference on Organic Wild Production. Teslic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 3-4 May 2006.

Leimgruber, P., Kelly, D.S., Steininger, M.K., Brunner, J., Müller, T. & Songer, M. 2005. Forest cover change patterns in Myanmar (Burma) 1990-2000. Environ. Conserv.,32(4): 356-364.

Lewu, F.B., Grierson, D.S. & Afolayan, A.J. 2006. The leaves of Pelargonium sidoides may substitute for its roots in the treatment of bacterial infections. Biol. Conserv., 128(4): 582-584.

Liese, W. 2004. Preservation of bamboo structures. Ghana J. Forestry, 15,16. Ghana has valuable bamboo resources. Theculms are an excellent material for countless applications. Their wider use for construction is encouraged by the overall scarcity of timber. Since bamboo has a low natural resistance, protection against biological degradation is of vital importance for long-term service. Although protective measures without chemicals are preferable,they are often limited in their effectiveness in a tropical environment. When choosing a chemical preservation, the restricted permeability of the culm tissue, the choice of a suitable preservative and treatment method and the environmental effects, as well as economical aspects have to be considered.

Lopez, C. & Shanley, P., eds. 2004. Riches of the forest: for health, life and spirit in Africa. Center for International Forestry Research. ISBN 9793361360.

Lopez, C., Shanley, P. & Fantini, A.C., eds. 2004. Riches of the forest: fruits, remedies and handicrafts in Latin America. Center for International Forestry Research. ISBN 9793361468.

Lund, H.G. & Singh, A. 2005. Reining in on rainforest destruction. The new renaissance, 37(XII 2): 14-28.

Lwanga, J.S. 2006. The influence of forest variation and possible effects of poaching on duiker abundance at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol., 44(2): 209-218.

Marshall, E., Schreckenberg, K. et al. 2006. Practical tools for researching successful NTFP commercialization: a methods manual. English and Spanish versions of this document are available at: (English) and (Spanish).

Marshall, E., Schreckenberg, K. & Newton, A., eds. 2006. Commercialization of non-timber forest products: factors influencing success. Lessons learned from Mexico and Bolivia and policy implications for decision-makers. Cambridge, United Kingdom, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

McFarlane, P. & Stevenson, M. 2004. Proceedings of the Non-Timber Forest Products and Aboriginal Research Issues Workshop. Vancouver, British Columbia, 21-23 August 2003. 9 pp.

Meyer, M.D. & North, M.P. 2005. Truffle abundance in riparian and upland mixed-conifer forest of California's southern Sierra Nevada. Canadian J. Bot. (Revue canadienne de botanique), 83(8): 1015-1020.

Miles, L., Newton, A.C., DeFries, R.S., Ravilious, C., May, I., Blyth, S., Kapos, V. & Gordon, J.E. 2006. A global overview of the conservation status of tropical dry forests. J. Biogeogr., 33(3): 491-505.

Miller, J., Orson, K. & Miller, H.H. 2006. North American mushrooms: a field guide to edible and inedible fungi. Falcon, Guildford, Connecticut. ISBN 0-7627-3109-5.

Mockrin, M.H. et al. 2005.Wildlife farming: a viable alternative to hunting in tropical forests? Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Working Paper No. 23. 32 pp.

Moktan, M.R., Norbu, L., Dukpa, K., Rai, T.B., Dhendup, K. & Gyeltshen, M. 2004. Bamboo and cane: potential of poor man's timber for poverty alleviation and forest conservation. A case study from Bjoka, Zhemgang, central Bhutan. YREP/2004/2. Renewable Natural Resources Research Centre, Yusipang, Council of RNR Research for Bhutan, Ministry of Agriculture.

Muller, S., Jerôme, C. & Mahevas, T. 2006. Habitat assessment, phytosociology and conservation of the Tunbridge filmy fern Hymenophyllum tunbrigense (L.) Sm. in its isolated locations in the Vosges Mountains. Biodivers. Conserv.,15(3): 1027-1041.

Murray, G., Boxall, P.C. & Wein, R.W. 2005. Distribution, abundance and utilization of wild berries by the Gwich'in people in the Mackenzie River Delta region. Econ. Bot., 59(2): 174-184.

Mutsaers, M., van Blitterswijk, H., van't Leven, L., Kerkvliet, J. & van de Waerdt, J. 2005. Bee products. Agrodok 42. ISBN 92 90813 05 9.

Nielsen, M.R. 2006. Importance, cause and effect of bushmeat hunting in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania: implications for community-based wildlife management. Biol. Conserv., 128(4): 509-516.

Niskanen, A., ed. 2006. Issues affecting enterprise development in the forest sector in Europe. Research Notes 169. Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu. 406 pp. ISSN 1235-7421, ISBN 952-458-851-X (printed publication), ISBN 952-458-852-8 (electronic publication). This publication discusses the problems and possible solutions to forest-based entrepreneurship in small-scale forestry, wood processing and NWFPs and services. The results of the second phase of the COST Action E30 “Economic integration of urban consumers' demand and rural forestry production” are presented. Download from:

Nyahongo, J.W., East, M.L., Mturi, F.A . & Hofer, H. 2005. Benefits and costs of illegal grazing and hunting in the Serengeti ecosystem. Environ. Conserv., 32(4): 326-332.

Ohara, M., Tomimatsu, H., Takada, T. & Kawano, S. 2006. Importance of life history studies for conservation of fragmented populations: a case study of the understory herb, Trillium camschatcense. Plant Species Biol., 21(1): 1-12.

Oudhia, P. n.d. Traditional medicinal knowledge about herbs used in treatment of cancer in Chhattisgarh, India. VII. Interactions with female traditional healers.

Pantanella, E. 2005. The silvicultural and sustainable management of rattan production systems. Viterbo, Italy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tuscia.

Panwar, J. & Tarafdar, J.C. 2006. Distribution of three endangered medicinal plant species and their colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. J. Arid Environ., 65(3): 337-350.

Paudel, S.K. & Chowdhary, C.L. 2005. Managing rattan as a common property: a case study of community rattan management in Nepal. J. Bamboo and Rattan (Netherlands), 4(1): 81-91.

Peck, J.E. 2006. Towards sustainable commercial moss harvest in the Pacific Northwest of North America. Biol. Conserv., 128(3): 289-297.

Pfund, J.-L. & Robinson, P. 2005. Non-timber forest products between poverty alleviation and market forces. Switzerland, Intercooperation.

Pilz, D.A., Smith, S.J., Schoreder, J. & Freed, J.R. 2006. Non-timber forest product opportunities in Alaska. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-671. Portland, Oregon, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 79 pp.

Non-timber forest products (also called special forest products) from southern Alaska have been used for millennia as resources vital to the livelihoods and culture of Alaska Natives and, more recently, as subsistence resources for the welfare of all citizens. Many of these products are now being sold, and Alaskans seek additional income opportunities through sustainable harvest and manufacture of such forest resources.

The authors discuss the unique legal, regulatory, land tenure, geographic, vegetation, and climatic context that southern Alaska presents for marketing NTFPs; they summarize the various species and types of products being harvested; and they consider the marketing challenges and opportunities that new entrepreneurs will encounter. The information and resources provided are intended to enhance income opportunities for all Alaskans, while sustaining the organisms harvested, respecting traditional activities and ensuring equitable access to resources.

Polansky, C. 2006. Guide to low-cost practical forest resources inventory in the context of participatory management of dry tropical forests of Africa.

Prado, L. & Valdebenito, H. 2000. Contribución a la fenología de especies forestales nativas andinas de Bolivia y Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador, Intercooperation.

Reed, D. 2006. Escaping poverty's grasp. The environmental foundations of poverty reduction. Earthscan. ISBN 1844073718.

Ros-Tonen, M.A.F. & Wiersum, K.F. 2005. The scope for improving rural livelihoods through non-timber forest products: an evolving research agenda. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods (United Kingdom), 15(2).

Salvador, S. & Patzold, B. 2005. International Standard for Sustainable Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (ISSC-MAP). Minutes of the 2nd Expert Workshop on the Isle of Vilm, 2-6 December 2005.

Schippmann, U., Leaman, D. & Cunningham, A.B. (in press). A comparison of cultivation and wild collection of medicinal and aromatic plants under sustainability aspects. In R. Bogers, ed. Proceedings of the Frontis Workshop on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Wageningen, the Netherlands, 17-20 April 2005.

Schreckenberg, K., Marshall, E., Newton, A., Willem te Velde, D., Rushton, J. & Edouard, F. 2006. Commercialisation of non-timber forest products: what determines success? ODI Forestry Briefing, 10, March. Commercialization of NTFPs has been widely promoted as an approach to rural development in tropical forest areas. However, donor investments in the development of NTFP resources have often failed to deliver the expected benefits in terms of poverty alleviation and improved conservation of natural resources. This briefing paper discusses different conceptions of what constitutes successful commercialization and examines the key factors that influence the outcome of NTFP commercialization initiatives.

Serio-Silva, J.C. 2006. Las Islas de los Changos (the Monkey Islands): the economic impact of ecotourism in the region of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. Am. J. Primatol., 68(5): 499-506.

Shackleton, S. & Shackleton, C. 2005. The contribution of marula (Sclerocarya birrea) fruit and fruit products to rural livelihoods in the Bushbuckridge district, South Africa: balancing domestic needs and commercialisation. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods,15(1): 3-24.

Shah, N.C. 2006a. Black soybean: an ignored nutritious and medicinal food crop from the Kumaon region of India. Asian Agri History,10(1): 33-42.

Shah, N.C. 2006b. Stinging nettles: ethnomedicinal and modern uses. Herbal Tech. Industry, 2(3): 13-18.

Shah, N.C. 2006c. Berberine and its commercial sources in India. Herbal Tech. Industry, 2(5): 13-19.

Shah, N.C. 2006d. Ginkgo: an ancient Chinese medicinal tree in India. Herbal Tech. Industry, 2(6): 13-16.

Shanley, P., Pierce, A. & Laird, S. 2005. Beyond timber: certification of non-timber forest products. Washington, DC, Forest Trends.

Sinha, A. & Brault, S. 2005. Assessing sustainability of nontimber forest product extractions: how fire affects sustainability. Biodivers. Conserv., 14(14): 3537-3563.

Solowey, E.M. 2006. Supping at God's table. A handbook for the domestication of wild trees for food and fodder. Biblio Books. ISBN 09785565-1-8.

Indigenous fruit and nut trees are an undervalued resource, ignored and neglected for many years by the scientific and economic powers but often a mainstay and a lifesaver for those with no money. The fact that these plants are used and needed by some of the world's poorest people is enough reason to study, promote and preserve indigenous fruit trees.

Stamets, P. 2005. Mycelium running: how mushrooms can help save the world. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 1580085792.

Stockdale, M. 2005. Steps to sustainable and community-based NTFP management. A manual written with special reference to South and Southeast Asia. NTFP Exchange Programme for South and Southeast Asia. ISBN 979-99355-0-4.

Subedi, B.P. 2006. Linking plant-based enterprises and local communities to biodiversity conservation in the Nepal Himalaya. New Delhi, Adroit Publishers.

Taylor, D.A. 2006. Ginseng, the divine root. The curious history of the plant that captivated the world. Algonquin Books. Prized for centuries by Chinese emperors, Native American healers and black market smugglers, ginseng launched the rise to power of China's last great and influential dynasty; inspired battles between France and England; precipitated America's first trade with China; fostered the study of comparative anthropology; and made and broke the fortunes of many. Today its healing properties are being studied for the treatment of diabetes, cancer and Parkinson's disease. The book traces the market links from mountain communities to consumer markets.

Tchatat, M. & Ndoye, O. 2006. A study of non-timber forest products in Central Africa: reality and prospects. Bois et forêts des tropiques, 289(3).

Tewari, V.P. & Srivastava, R.L., eds. 2006. Multipurpose trees in the tropics: management and improvement strategies. Jodhpur, Scientific Publishers. 760 pp. ISBN 81-7233-424-9.

Trauernicht, C., Ticktin, T. & Herrera, G.L. 2006. Cultivation of non-timber forest products alters understory light availability in a humid tropical forest in Mexico. Biotropica, 38(3): 428-436.

Tyler, S.R., ed. 2006. Communities, livelihoods and natural resources - action research and policy change in Asia. ITDG Publishing. ISBN 1853396389.

Veddeler, D., Schulze, C.H., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Buchori, D. & Tscharntke, T. 2005. The contribution of tropical secondary forest fragments to the conservation of fruit-feeding butterflies: effects of isolation and age. Biodivers. Conserv., 14(14): 3577-3592.

Waylen, K. 2006. Botanic gardens: using biodiversity to improve human well-being. Richmond, London, United Kingdom, Botanic Gardens Conservation International. ISBN 1-905164-08-4. Download from:

Weyerhaeuser, H., Wen, S. & Kahrl, F. 2006. Emerging forest associations in Yunnan, China: implications for livelihoods and sustainability. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). ISBN 1 84369 607 X.

Wiegmann, S.M. & Waller, D.M. 2006. Fifty years of change in northern upland forest understories: identity and traits of “winner” and “loser” plant species. Biol. Conserv., 129(1): 109-123.

Wilcove, D.S. & Master, L.L. 2005. How many endangered species are there in the United States? Front. Ecol. Environ., 3(8): 414-420.

Williamson, G.B. et al. 2005. How many tropical rain forests? Tropinet, 16(1): 1-3. Supplement to Biotropica, 37(1).

Wright, S.J. 2005. Tropical forests in a changing environment. TREE, 20(10): 553-560.

Wright, S.J. & Muller-Landau, H.C. 2006. The future of tropical forest species. Biotropica, 38(3): 287-301.

WWF. 2005. Beyond belief: linking faiths and protected areas to support biodiversity conservation. A research report by WWF, Equilibrium and the Alliance of Religions and Conservation (ARC). WWF. ISBN 2-88085-270-6.

WWF. 2006. Joining the dots: species and protected areas - a contribution to the implementation of the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas. Vienna, WWF Global Species Programme. 94 pp.

Zhou, W. & Chen, B.K. 2006. Biodiversity of Bitahai Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. Biodivers. Conserv., 15(3): 839-853.

Zhu, H., Shi, J.P. & Zhao, C.J. 2005. Species composition, physiognomy and plant diversity of the tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern Yunnan. Biodivers. Conserv., 14(12): 2855-2870.

New publications in the FAO Non-Wood Forest Products Series

Wild edible fungi, No. 17 in FAO's NWFP publication series, has now been translated into French.

Copies of this publication - Champignons comestibles sauvages. Vue d'ensemble sur leurs utilisations et leur importance pour les populations - can be purchased from FAO's Sales and Marketing Group at

An electronic version is available from FAO's NWFP home page at:

Pipeline publications

FAO's NWFP programme is currently preparing a variety of publications and working documents. Future publications will include the following.

* Trade measures - tools to promote the sustainable use of NWFPs? A working document planned for February 2007

* Non-wood forest products: resource assessment guidelines (a new publication in our NWFP series; planned publication date March 2007)

* Bees and their role in forest livelihoods - a new publication in our NWFP series; planned publication date May 2007

Hikojiro Katsuhisa, Chief, Forest Products Service, Forest Products and Industry Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy. E-mail:

Other recent publications

Tendencias y perspectivas del sector forestal en América Latina y el Caribe (Estudio FAO Montes 148)

Un nuevo estudio de perspectivas del sector forestal para América Latina y el Caribe (ESFAL) ha sido lanzado a mediado del 2006. Esta publicación forma parte de una serie de procesos de perspectivas realizados por la FAO en diferentes regiones del mundo en colaboración con los países miembros y actores relevantes del sector privado, con organizaciones no gubernamentales y otras instituciones involucradas en el sector forestal de cada región. Mediante este estudio se visualiza y caracteriza la probable situación del sector forestal con horizonte al año 2020, si las actuales tendencias continúan o bien si se toman acciones que influyan el desarrollo del sector.

Este estudio pretende ser un importante apoyo a otros instrumentos para la planificación estratégica, en particular a los Programas Forestales Nacionales en la región de América Latina y el Caribe (ESFAL). Para el caso de los productos forestales no madereros (PFNM), de gran importancia para las economías de comunidades locales en América Latina y el Caribe, se menciona la carencia de datos en serie sobre la producción y el valor económico de estos productos, las dificultades en la comparación de la información de los mismos y la falta de recolección de información sistemática.

Para mayor información acerca de los estudios de tendencias y perspectivas del sector forestal en América Latina y el Caribe, dirigirse a: Olman Serrano, Oficial Superior, Dirección de Productos e Industrias Forestales, Departamento Forestal, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Roma, Italia. Correo electrónico:;

Steps to sustainable and community-based NTFP management.
A manual written with special reference to South and Southeast Asia

Rural and forest-based communities in South and Southeast Asia have managed NTFPs for generations,whether these products are mangoes from India, rattan from the Philippines or honey from Indonesia. These communities have relied on NTFPs for subsistence needs as well as cash income and have often also had close cultural and spiritual associations with NTFPs. In recent times, a decline in the availability of these products has been noticed in many places. The causes range from loss of forest habitat to a decline in traditional systems for controlling NTFP management and to overharvesting by both communities and outsiders as a result of increased commercial demand.

This manual, written by Mary Stockdale, provides the reader with a practical guide to working with a community towards sustainable NTFP management.

Linking plant-based enterprises and local communities to biodiversity conservation in Nepal

People in the mountainous region of Nepal are struggling to survive and the nearby forest gives them the hope to live. They are able to collect fuel and fodder from the rich forest. However, they realize that they are depleting the forest but they do not know that they are destroying both lives and the environment. The practice results in increased poverty and decreased biodiversity. Can poverty be alleviated and biodiversity improved? Is there no synergistic way that brings both factors together? How can poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation be sustainable? The author, Bhishma P. Subedi, applies different methods and experiments to come up with a practical solution to the challenges.

Subedi concludes that enterprise-oriented community forest management can generate positive outcomes at both conservation and local livelihood levels. In the light of different approaches being tested and implemented to resolve conservation problems, the findings challenge the approaches that set communities aside from forest resources and keep forests untouched. The author finds that there are good prospects for forest-based enterprise development on the local, national and international markets.

Indexes of Non-Wood News

Since its first issue in March 1994,
Non-Wood News
has focused on highlighting the importance of NWFPs and promoting all their aspects. Through its global coverage, the publication has sought to raise awareness among policy-makers and other readers about the multiplicity of NWFPs and the opportunities they can offer, as well as the vital role they play in forest-dependent communities.

Over the years, Non-Wood News has included articles, publications and readers' contributions on a variety of NWFPs (bamboo, medicinal plants, mushrooms, rattan, shellac, etc.); their uses (e.g. in energy drinks and cosmetics, or as dyes, fabrics, fodder and shelter); their economic benefits (NWFP trade takes place in local, national and global markets); and their links to other key issues, such as the bushmeat crisis and biodiversity conservation, as well as traditional knowledge, bioprospecting and benefit-sharing.

Non-Wood News has, therefore, collected a wealth of information since its inception. In an effort to manage this knowledge and facilitate its use and retrieval, the first 12 issues of Non-Wood News have now been indexed. These indexes are available in two volumes: the first covering issues 1 to 6, with its companion volume covering issues 7 to 12. These volumes and all issues of Non-Wood News (available now in pdf and html) can be accessed from the NWFP home page at

We hope these new information tools will be of benefit to our readers and to everyone researching the multifaceted world of NWFPs.

For more information, please contact:
Tina Etherington at the address on the front page.

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