Previous PageTable of ContentsNext Page

Annex 2
COUNTRY REPORTS

2.1. Rehabilitation of agriculture in tsunami affected areas in India: one and a half years later1

N.B. Singh, Agriculture Commissioner, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India

Background

The severe earthquake of 26 December 2004 followed by the tsunami struck the Indian coast line causing extensive damage to property, crops and significant loss of life to communities in the island states of Andaman and Nicobar, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. The greatest degree of damage occurred in Nicobar districts and in Little Andaman of Andaman district. Extensive damage also occurred in the South Andaman Islands and the intensity of the damage gradually declined towards the North Andaman.

Within the Andaman and Nicobar Island chain there are three clearly defined land use patterns associated with agriculture that include:

Areca nut, coconut and banana are established on slopes and highlands. The areca nut and coconut plantations are inter-cropped with spices that include black pepper, clove and jaiphal. This system has a high income potential and offers regular employment to the farmers. Vegetables (cowpea, cabbage, okra, cauliflower, bitter guard, cucumber, ridge guard etc.) and maize are grown in areas immediately below the foothills; and summer vegetables in the midlands and rice in the lowlands.

On the gentle sloping hills and foothills, the farmers practice a rice-vegetables, rice-cereal and rice-fallow systems. These areas are at a relatively higher elevation and are established on predominantly terraces. In the lowlands and valleys in close proximity to sea front, the farmers follow rice-fallow production system.

Extent of damage to Agriculture, Horticultural and Plantation Crops in Affected areas

In all four states the standing rice and plantation crops were significantly impacted upon. Among the plantation crops areca nut, coconut and banana stands were severely affected. Seawater intrusion not only affected the standing crop but also resulted in the salinization of soils and water bodies. In some areas in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands land was permanently inundated and cannot be reclaimed. The extent of damage incurred due to the tsunami in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the mainland states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu were as follows:

Andaman and Nicobar: In the Andaman and Nicobar Island some islands were completely destroyed with significant loss of life and property. Of the standing/harvested rice crop, approximately 2/3 area the total area (4 000 ha) was lost or severely affected in the island chain (Table 1.1). Other crops including vegetables, pulses and oilseeds were completely destroyed. Approximately 10000 ha of plantation crops (i.e. coconut, banana) crops were severely damaged or completely destroyed along with root crops on selected islands of the chain (Table 1.2). All coconut seedlings in the nurseries were completely destroyed. The total estimated cost of these losses was estimated to be US$149.58 million.

Table 1.1. Estimated area of rice and monetary value of the crop lost on the islands of the Andaman and Nicobar

Name of the Island

Cropped area affected
(ha)

Monetary value
(million US$)*

South Andaman

1750

1.31

Havelock

200

0.15

Baratang

400

0.30

Middle Andaman

1000

0.75

Little Andaman

100

0.07

Car Nicobar

-

 

Nan Cowry Group of Islands (10 Islands)

-

 
Campbell Bay

500

0.37

Total

3 950

2.96

* Assuming Rs.40 to 1 US$

Table 1.2. Area and estimated monetary value of plantation and root crops destroyed in the island chains of the Andaman's and Nicobar's

Island/Crop

Cropped area affected
(ha)

Monetary value
(million US$)
*

A. Plantation crops

   
South Andaman

10

0.22

Little Andaman

450

9.84

Car Nicobar

2 000

43.75

Nan Cowry Group of Islands (10 Islands) 3 000 65.56
Campbell Bay

1 200

26.25

Total A

6 640

145.62

B. Root crops

400

1.00

Total

7 060

146.62

Kerala: In the coastal districts of Kerala more than 7 051 ha of rice 282 ha of coconut, some areas of areca nut, vegetables and other crops were either loss or damaged. In addition, 68 744 seedlings of coconut were completely destroyed.

Tamil Nadu: The greatest impact of the tsunami was to 250 ha aqua farms that were owned by small and marginal farmers. The destruction wreaked by the tsunami included the loss of important breeding fish stocks and fingerlings. In the state of Andhra Pradesh losses to field crops was relatively small. In addition, there were extensive losses incurred in the livestock sector with cattle, goats, fish, poultry and other animals in all four states.

In general three distinct impacts on soil and topography could be identified:

Action Plans to Rehabilitate Tsunami Affected Areas and Progress

The Government of India's immediate response to the crisis was to take care of the large numbers of displaced persons. Furthermore extensive surveys were conducted by central and state government teams within the affected areas to quantify the impact of the tsunami on the agricultural sector. The outcome of these activities was the development of short- and long-term plans in order to restore the agricultural sector and livelihoods of thousands of displaced farmers. Monitoring of progress with respect to the implementation of the plans is being undertaken by the central and state governments.

Immediate steps taken in meeting the short-term plan for the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are described in Table 1.3. In the Nicobar district 5 000 m of protective dykes were constructed to prevent seawater intrusion to rice fields. Debris was cleared from 1 600 ha This included the clearing of debris from affected agricultural land, the scraping of surface deposits of salt and the application of organic manures and gypsum to salt-affected lands. In addition, equipment and implements were provided to affected farmers to assist in the establishment of agronomic, horticultural and plantation crops. Progress as of the 31 March 2006 in achieving the short-term goals are presented in Table 1.3.

Table 1.3. Progress as of 31 March 2006 with respect to meeting the short-term plan objectives for the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Action plan targets

Achievements

Repair and reconstruction of 5 000 m of dykes and 100 drop spillways with sluice gate

5 000 m of earthen dykes constructed by Zila Parishad

Cleaning of deposited debris from 6 660 ha

A total of 1 616.65 ha have been cleared of debris

Scraping of surface salt from 1 320 ha of rice and 2 220 ha of plantation crop (Total 3 540 ha)

45.5 ha were scraped. However this was found to be time consuming hence surface flushing and leaching has been adopted through the building on bunds in affected fields

Application of organic matter to 6 660 ha of plantation crops

4 660 tonnes of organic manure procured

Application of gypsum to 1320 ha of rice, 2 220 ha of plantation crop and 460 ha of other crop land (Total 4 000 ha)

Further assessment of the extent of damage has indicated that in most cases the application of gypsum is not required

Construction of 1 000 check dams for rainwater harvesting

The design and estimate for the construction of structures have been finalized

Construction of 5 000 ponds and wells

151 ponds and 2 ring wells completed

The supply of 5 000 pump sets

2 300 pump sets procured and distributed to farmers

Establishment of 2 640 ha of rice and 6 660 ha of plantation crops

1 376.02 ha under plantation; 320.26 ha under paddy; and 361.05 ha under vegetables have been brought back into cultivation

Creation of drainage canals

820 m drains have been constructed

Provisions of farm implements equipment (1000 power tillers)

6 500 sets of farm implements have been distributed to farmers

In Tamil Nadu and Kerala there was a significant effort to collect soil samples and make recommendations based on these tests for the application of gypsum and green manures. Major activities to restore agricultural production and livelihoods in Tamil Nadu and Kerala included the following:

A positive impact of these interventions has been observed in rice yields in affected districts (Table 1.4). Whilst there are no data that can be used to make comparisons between pre- and post-tsunami rice yields, the yields obtained post-tsunami are reasonable and clearly indicate a return to normality.

Table 1.4. Rice yields in tsunami affected areas after reclamation in Tamil Nadu

Districts

Yield (after reclamation) (kg ha-1)

Max

Min

Average

Kanchepuram

2 610

2 012

2 311

Cuddalore

4 816

680

2 748

Villupuram

5 610

2 967

4 319

Nagapattinam

686

136

411

A long-term action plan for the rehabilitation of affected coastal areas of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands has been drawn up and include the following activities:

Similar activities associated with infrastructure rehabilitation and the sustainable management of the immediate coastal region are planned for Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.

Constraints faced in Rehabilitation of Agriculture

A major constraint immediately after the disaster was the procurement of sufficient quantities of quality seed and planting material to reestablish crops and plantation; the availability of appropriate varieties of seed and planting material suited to the prevailing soil conditions and in the case of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands the availability of local organic composts/manures and inorganic fertilizers. Care was taken to avoid the transportation of coconut seedlings source from the plains of India to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to prevent possible insect pest and diseases being introduced to the islands. Poor road infrastructure affected transportation of relief supplies and impeded the rehabilitation process. In addition, the inadequate availability of suitable earth moving equipment to remove debris from affected fields as the first phase in the rehabilitation process and to assist in the construction of dykes, water storage structures and roads hindered progress. Problems of attracting suitably trained and experienced persons to go to the Islands to assist in the rehabilitation process were experienced due to fear that further earthquakes and tsunamis would occur.

Lessons Learnt

The following lessons learnt have been identified and for the focus of future developments along the coast:

2.2. Agricultural rehabilitation scenario in India2

Prepared by Tamil Nadu Tsunami Resource Centre (TNTRC)

Background

Farmers and agriculture workers in India and in particular those in the states and territories of Tamil Nadu and Andaman Nicobar Islands were shaken and traumatized by the destruction wreaked by tsunami of December 26, 2004. Crops were destroyed and fields contaminated with saline salts and deposited sediments. India had not experienced such destruction of this kind in the recent years.

The following provides a situational analysis of the agricultural sector one and a half years later, and covers to a large extent, the rehabilitation constraints, gaps, challenges and lessons learnt mostly from Tamil Nadu. This is based on feedback and the experiences of core group members of the livelihoods sector facilitated by the TNTRC at the state level, coordination efforts of NGO Coordination and Resource Centre (Nagapattinam), Government information on progress and has drawn upon reports and discussions with farmer networks affected by the disaster and field visits to affected areas.

Limited understanding of agricultur - little focus on agriculture

Efforts of some organizations and work of the coordination centres and groups succeeded in bringing the focus of some of the international organizations and the national and community based organizations, involved in rehabilitation to the role of the agricultural sector on which the livelhoods of significant numbers of persons depend. This resulted in organizations prioritizing agriculture land reclamation as an important area to address. Collaboration, knowledge networking of different stakeholders was initiated by the coordination and resource centres both at the state and district level. The government assessed the damage and announced their Rehabilitation of Tsunami Affected Agricultural Lands (ROTAAL) plans. The coordination effort at the district level by the NGO Nagapattinam Coordination and Resource Centre (NCRC) brought large areas of agricultural land into the reclamation process and successful livelihoods restoration to a large extent. Details of government package and implementation are presented in Annex 2.2.1.

Opportunities to build better and secure agricultural communities

The aftermath of the tsunami disaster offered an opportunity to build better and securer agricultural production systems and communities. A comprehensive approach to rehabilitation was required. In this respect the process did not stop with land reclamation activities but encompassed long-term sustainability through improving the fertility of the soil, improving the yield and income of farmers. Besides, the disaster has provided an excellent opportunity to revisit traditional knowledge and to incorporate it into the concepts of sustainable agricultural practices through organic farming, the growing of traditional species, and traditional practices.

Long-term approaches required include an integrated approach to farming systems development, diversification and value adding through various activities (promotion of horticulture and tree crops, food processing, agro-based enterprises), integrated disaster preparedness and proofing from floods/drought and other disasters, aimed at improved capacities and to provide institutional linkages to assist in the transfer of knowledge.

A second disaster - Consequent rains and flooding that ravaged Tamil Nadu

Close on the heels of tsunami, Tamil Nadu was hit by a second disaster - the floods, which inundated the fields, brought great losses to the farmers, both inland as well as the coastal. In Nagapattinam alone the total damages estimated from field reports were 80 000 hectares of paddy crops, 300 ha of horticultural crops, were either lost or lower yields were experienced. Only a few NGOs and government participated in flood relief. The positive side of this disaster is that the lands that had become salinized due to the tsunami were leached/flushed of soluble salts to a large extent thereby reducing/eliminating the saline affects.

Progress of Activities of the Government/NGOs in Tamil Nadu

The Government of Tamil Nadu provided a package under the Rehabilitation of Tsunami Affected Agricultural Lands (ROTAAL). Through this, the government announced compensation packages for crop and livestock loss. Tamil Nadu Government implemented a package of Rs.12500/ha for land reclamation for 3 years initially, which was increased to Rs.15 000/per ha subsequently . This includes soil testing, removal of salt, land leveling, gypsum application, green manures, sowing of seeds, ploughing and cultivation, subsistence allowance every season in the second and third years, and insurance premium for two years.

NGOs Packages ranged from Rs.4 000 to Rs.50 000/ha. NCRC initiated coordinated action and evolved a package with NGOs for land reclamation. TNTRC ensured state level information sharing and dissemination.

Coordination at state level (Tamil Nadu)

At the state level the Tamil Nadu Tsunami Resource Centre (TNTRC) ensured information dissemination, knowledge networking, and provided a platform for sharing of issues and good practices with regard to livelihoods rehabilitation with a focus primarily on agriculture. The strategy consisted of bringing different stakeholders together to form a 'core group' that facilitated the sharing of concerns and identified matters that needed attention.

Coordination at District level

NGO Coordination and Resource Centre, Nagapattinam (NCRC) coordinated the agricultural rehabilitation scenario at the district level (Nagapattinam). The various activities taken up by them included assessment of damages through a survey of 42 panchayats, disseminating the findings, developing a comprehensive package in a participatory manner with NGOs to address immediate, short-term as well as long-term needs for desalination of affected production systems. Geographical land allocations were made the responsibility of 22 NGOs who were involved in the reclamation of 5 500 ha of land. This allowed for bridging gaps and avoiding overlaps. The focus of the reclamation efforts were on individual farmer's lands as well as common lands on which the establishment of green manure crops, the growing of salt tolerant crop varieties and the application of organic manure were encouraged. An ensured common understanding among NGOs, created linkages and partnerships, capacity building of NGOs and coordination through review and planning meetings. In the second year the feasibility of integrating disaster preparedness into agriculture is being planned. The outcomes of these efforts in Tamil Nadu have resulted in the following progress:

(Source: GoTN status report, Feb 06)

Gaps Identified

Challenges

There are several challenges that will confront the rehabilitation process as it moves into the medium- to long-term. These include the following:

  1. Maintaining stakeholder interest in the reclamation process and support for integrated farming practices. In Nagapattinam out of 175 NGOs, initially only 23 were involved in reclamation activities. Now one and a half years later this number has been reduced to six clearly indicating the perceived low priority that agriculture has amongst these organizations.
  2. Capacity building is still seen as a challenge.
  3. Pre-tsunami production levels have yet to be attained in many places.
  4. Clearance of irrigation/drainage canals has occurred to a limited extent but needs to be completed in order to normalize the situation.
  5. The operations of most NGOs are rather small and limited and several inland affected areas have not yet seen the presence of an NGO in their area.
  6. Desalination of indirectly affected villages more than 3 km from sea where water entered through canals has yet to be undertaken.
  7. In areas where leaching is not feasible due to a lack of adequate drainage, it is estimated that it will take more than 3 years before reclamation is completed.

Pre-tsunami - Long-Term Issues

Certain pre-tsunami long-term issues need to be addressed in order to build a stronger, sustainable and viable agricultural sector. Issues to be addressed include:

Viability of Farming: Farming is fast becoming a non-viable livelihoods option due to increased costs of production, lack of affordable credit, and low productivity of the land. This is a serious issue as farmer debt levels increase resulting in elevated levels of suicides in several Indian states.

Water management: There is a need to enhance effective water management at the farm level. This can be achieved through the promotion of water harvesting techniques; de-silting irrigation canals; restoration and maintenance of drainage canals; building bunds and check dams; the construction of rainwater storage ponds/tanks through community participation and local government linkages. All of these efforts would assist in promoting and improving water management.

Post-harvest losses: Inadequate storage, preservation and transportation facilities pointing to a need to address the issue of post-harvest losses through improved infrastructure development.

Salization of agricultural lands due to aquaculture: Agriculture in the coastal areas is increasingly under threat from aquaculture farms that are being developed along the coastline. These farms lead to increased salinity of soil and water, thus directly affecting the productivity of agricultural lands. In the post-tsunami period there are instances of salinized agricultural lands being converted to aquaculture farms.

Lessons learnt

  1. Assessment of damages: A participatory needs assessment is required to be undertaken with the full involvement of farming communities before making decisions associated with the rehabilitation process. Parameters for assessment of damage that have been incurred and the proposed rehabilitation programmes need to be based on transparent and a scientific basis.
  2. Variation in damages and intensity: The impact of the tsunami was not uniform throughout the affected areas. Differences in the extent of damages and the contrasting soil types that were affected call for different rehabilitation techniques and approaches. Hence a blanket approach should not be encouraged.
  3. Technical expertise: Mixed messages regarding the rehabilitation process was often experienced by farmers. Operational guidelines for rehabilitation need to be in local languages and made simple. Farmers were often confused by the different recommendations made by expert's. For example farmers were told to plough the marine sediments into their top soils along with removing the sand/clay deposits; the ploughing in of the green manure crops as wells as the burning of the green manure crops. Such recommendations resulted in significant confusion amongst farmers.
  4. Targeting and policy: The rehabilitation programmes need to focus on the farmer working the land who may not always be the owner of the land. Progrmames need to be gender sensitive and provide opportunities for women to earn an income. Policies/programmes need to consider the food security needs of the farmers' families in order to ensure adequate dietary intake, enhanced health and reduced vulnerability.
  5. Comprehensive approach: Since lands affected by the tsunami are contiguous, a comprehensive approach to reclamation from salinity should be undertaken that includes lands of larger farmers. Reclamation should be part of an integrated farming practice to include diversification, value addition, capacity building and linkages for more sustainable agriculture and vulnerability reduction.
  6. Need for coordination: In the context of several actors involved in rehabilitation, each with differing priorities, there is a possibility for gaps and overlaps. The geographical coordination, coupled with consensual approach helps to effect uniform reclamation. The need to compliment and supplement the activities of each of the actors is important as has been demonstrated in Nagapattinam. A coordination committee should consist of all the stakeholders such as the members of the farming community/leaders, government representatives, NGOs/civil society and agricultural scientists. Evidences have shown time and again that initiatives with good participation of the communities have more chances for success.
  7. Role of information collection, trends analysis and dissemination: There is the need for the collection of information, trends analysis and dissemination as a means of influencing stakeholders. This was effectively achieved in the case of NGO coordination centre in Nagapattinam NCRC. The NCRC was influential in persuading NGOs to focus on agriculture reclamation activities. TNTRC's role at the state level complemented those efforts.
  8. Focus on traditional wisdom: There is a need to integrate indigenous traditional wisdom and practices into the rehabilitation process and to adapt them to the current situation. Organic methods were used to reclaim lands. The traditional varieties of salt tolerant and tall varieties of paddy used earlier in Nagapattinam have been found to be well suited in tsunami rehabilitation context.

Convergence between different activities in the rehabilitation process: In the post-tsunami development programme new facilities are being created through the construction of houses with the incorporation of associated sanitation infrastructure. There is the opportunity to incorporate the sanitation objectives into the agricultural rehabilitation programme. Currently these two sectors are viewed independently. The benefit of bringing these two sectors together will result in the development of ecologically sustainable waste disposal. Ecological sanitation is considered as an appropriate sanitation practice where there are high water tables and sandy soils as is common to coastal areas. There is a need to change the mindset of farmers towards using 'Golden manure' which will enhance and add value to both sectors leading to a sustainable environment.

Annex 2.2.1. Counting losses

Overall, 897 villages across 27 districts in 3 states and 2 Union Territories were affected by the 26 December 2004 tsunami. Farmers and fisher were the main groups affected by the tsunami. More than 600 000 agriculturists and agricultural workers were affected (According to the Tamil Nadu unit of the All India Kisan Sabha).

Approximately 25 000 hectares of farmland was affected across the states. Other than farm land damages which were in terms of crop loss, erosion of soil, salination of soil, accumulation of silt/sand and significant amounts of sea bed organic deposits of a sodic nature characterized the damages. Fresh water ponds were salinated and contaminated, were rendered unfit for irrigation, Irrigation/drainage infrastructure was damaged and livestock washed away. Intensity and type of damage varied across regions. Over 85 percent of the damage was in Tamil Nadu and Andaman's.

Losses across India (Tsunami Impact study, CII)

Category

Tamil Nadu (TN)

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Pondicherry

Kerala

Farm land (ha)

8 460*

10 837

1 633

949

Types of crop damaged

Paddy Gingelly
Black gram
Groundnut
Coconut
Horticultural

Coconut
Paddy fruits
Areca nut
Vegetables spices

Paddy
Groundnut
Banana
Coconut
Vegetables

Paddy banana
Coconut

Severely affected areas

Nagapattinam Cuddalore

South Andaman
Middle Andaman
& Great Nicobar
Nancowry group of islands
Car Nicobar
Little Andaman

Karaikal
Kottuchery
T.R. Pattinam

Alappuzha
Kuttanadu

* Govt. of TN Record for damages of farm land.

The worst affected districts within Tamil Nadu were Nagapattinam and Cuddalore and in the Andamans region: South Andaman, Middle Andaman, Little Andaman, Car Nicobar, Great Nicobar and Nancowry group of islands. Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry have a coastal length of 1025 kms. Tsunami water ingress was recorded to occur up to 1-3 km inland from the coast. Average height of tsunami was 7-10 m. The total number of villages affected was 376 and 33 in Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry respectively. Largely, soil testing across the region showed that there were no changes in pH but there were considerable differences in the Electric Conductivity (EC).

Government package for the state of Tamil Nadu implementation details

Sno

Details

Total in Tamil Nadu

Beneficiaries

1.

Formation of tsunami farmers self-help groups

478 8

13 511

2. Supply of gypsum (tonne) 794.84
3. Supply of green manure seeds (tonne) 491.4
4. Distribution of crop seeds (tonne) Paddy, pulse, millet (salt tolerant) 417.6
5. Soil testing (samples collected) 25 531
6. Training to farmers through KVK (no.) 13 511

Source: GoTN status report, Feb 06.

Box 1. Tamil Nadu Organic Farmers Movement (TOFARM)

A case study of successful organic reclamation of land

Report of the regional workshop on rehabilitation of agriculture in tsunami affected areas: one and a half years later

In the aftermath of tsunami, Tamil Nadu Organic Farmers Movement (TOFARM), a network of farmer's associations based in Trichy, decided to assist people to reclaim the lands through the use of organic methods. The activities of the organization were successful in the reclamation of more than 1600 hectares of land through the application organic based approaches in 25 Panchayats, desalination of 1024 ponds, de-silting of 19 km of drainage canals and establishment of 3200 vermicomposting pits directly and influencing the reclamation process of agricultural lands in Nagapattinam.

In Nagapattinam most families own less than 2.0 hectares of land. A handful of farmers in each village own more than 4.0 hectares of land. The land was degraded and saline due to the earlier cyclones and the tsunami rendered the land uncultivable. TOFARM was quick to rise to the occasion and worked with the district coordination centre in assessing the damaged lands, it took up South Poigai Nallur in Nagapattinam to demonstrate the effects of organic reclamation work which proved to be successful and in influencing the others in the district to adopt the same approach. Their understanding and focused work helped the farmers to regain their confidence and hope.

ASB - Germany, CII, Care India, India today and OXFAM provided financial support and the moral and institutional support was extended by the Government Departments headed by the District Collector. The activities included removal of the clay/sand deposit by ploughing, constructing trenches along the bunds to facilitate lateral leaching of salts, the planting of green manure plants i.e. Sesbania maculata and the application of compost. The organization was instrumental in teaching and training of farmers vermicomposting techniques and helped to establish vermicomposting units. Trainings to farmers in organic methods of reclamation, vermicomposting and farming helped in capacity building of farmers.

TOFARM is continuing with its work and in the short term is planning to train 800 labourers to take up economic - on farm and off farm activities such as honey bee rearing; mushroom cultivation; nursery raising; grafting and layering; compost and vermicompost preparation; goat rearing; poultry and dairy production; preparation and selling of bio-inputs; value-adding of farm products; leasing of lands and vegetable cultivation; native seeds production; herbal cultivation; and animal husbandry. TOFARM also plans to provide financial support for start up and also help with market linkages.

Contact Address:
Revathi, Tamilnadu Organic Farmers Movement, Nagapattinam, mobile: 919443343336;
e-mail: Revathi7359@yahoo.co.in

2.3. Progress report on agricultural sector rehabilitation one and a half years after tsunami disaster in Aceh, Indonesia3

Sutarto Alimoeso, Director General Food Crops Ministry of Agriculture

Background

On Sunday December 26, 2004, Indonesia was hit by a powerful earthquake and tsunami that developed in the Indian Ocean. The quake triggered a powerful 10 m high tsunami, which affected coastal settlements in Aceh and North Sumatra. The impact of the tsunami was felt in 10 districts in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province and 2 districts in North Sumatra (Nias Islands) (Figure 3.1). It is estimated that hundreds of thousands of people were killed and injured and 400000 persons displaced.

Report of the regional workshop on rehabilitation of agriculture in tsunami affected areas: one and a half years later

Figure 3.1. Area affected by the tsunami included 10 districts in Aceh and 2 districts in Northern Sumatra

Besides the hundreds of thousands of victims, the earthquake and tsunami swept homes and buildings away and also caused the economic capacity of individuals to dramatically decline. The estimated total cost of the losses incurred is US$4700 million. More than 37 percent of the damage was in housing, education, and health facilities, 25 percent was in the productive centres such as agriculture, fisheries, industries, and trades; and about 19 percent was in the infrastructure facilities, including electricity, transportation, communication, water resources, sanitation, irrigation, and drainage; the remaining 19 percent was accounted for in the environment, government institutions, and economics sectors. In the agricultural sector, significant losses and negative impacts were incurred with respect to human resources, loss of land, livestock, office buildings, laboratories, housing complexes, and infrastructure (Table 3.1). The estimated loss of productivity in the agriculture sectors is estimated to amount to US$270 million. The damages directly affected by the quake and tsunami are salinity and sedimentation.

Table 3.1. Estimated losses in the agricultural sector associated with the impact of the tsunami on Aceh and Northern Sumatra

Attribute

Quantity

Crop lands (includes both wetland (paddy) and rainfed)

61 400 ha

Plantation estate lands

22 000 ha

Livestock losses includes cattle, buffalo, goats and poultry

1.944 million

Farm implements and machinery

3 120 units

The recovery programme (R3MAS)

The recovery process in Agricultural Sectors undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture has been termed the R3MAS (Rehabilitation and Reconstruction for the People of Aceh and North Sumatra) which will be executed over a 5 year period (2005-2009). The estimated budget required for this programme amounts to US$397.6 million. The programme consists of 3 main areas of focus:

The overall focus of the R3MAS programme is to develop the agricultural sector with a focus on addressing food security, the development of agribusiness, and enhancing the social welfare of farming communities.

The budget for the year 2005-2006 is US$69.4 million. The R3MAS activities for the 2005-2006 that are currently being undertaken include the following:

Progress has been made with respect to achieving targets within the rehabilitation of the agricultural sector. Estimates of the progress to restoring agronomic production systems, plantation crops and livestock production systems for Aceh and Northern Sumatra are presented in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2. Estimates of progress to date in rehabilitating the land and livestock production systems in Aceh and Northern Sumatra

Activity Damaged/Lost Achieved Still to be completed

Cropping systems (ha)

Food crops and horticulture

61 400 25 800 35 600

Estate crops

22 000 10 281 11 719

Animal husbandry

a. Cows

40 000 745 39 255

b. Buffalos

39 000 - 39 000

c. Goats

65 000 2 000 63 000

d. Poultry

1 800 000 5 000 1 795 000

Challenges currently being encountered in the implementation of R3MAS

In the implementation of the R3MAS programme some challenges have been encountered that can be grouped into the following:

Technical - The reclamation of soils with high salinity levels; the low productivity of food crops and livestock, there are some problems such as, the high salinity, low food crops and livestock productivity; and limited technological inputs.

Economic, social and human resource limitations - low farm incomes due to reduced productivity and poor commodity prices; a low level of farmer motivation; insufficient agribusiness skills amongst farmers; and limited agricultural extension services due to a lack of manpower.

Organizational structure - in general farmer groups and organizations are poorly organized with limited institutional structure; the lack of adequate extension services to cope with demand; and changes in the organizational structure with respect to executing agency from Ministry of Agriculture to Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Board (BRR).

Short- and long-term rehabilitation plans

Within the short-term plan (2005-2009) of the R3MAS programme the focus will be on the rehabilitation of the tsunami affected paddy fields that are classified as suffering from light and medium damages; optimization of the land used for dry land food and horticulture commodities; the establishment of new paddy fields; the replanting of green crops and fruit crops in backyards; procurement of facilities and agriculture inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, and machinery; the evaluation of crops variety for tolerance to salinity; capacity building of the rural communities/ farmers/and extension workers; rehabilitation of peoples farms that include coconut, palm oil, coffee, rubber, cacao, and nutmeg; education and farmers training; the development of livestock processing facilities and local disease control; and distribution of livestock (goats, cows, buffalos, and poultry) to farmers. It is estimated that for the completion of the R3MAS short-term programme in 2009 a further US$328.2 million is required.

The long-term R3MAS rehabilitation programme set to go beyond 2009, will focus on the rehabilitation of heavily affected paddy fields with an emphasis on the rebuilding of new paddy fields; the establishment of new farms to produce coconut and palm oil; the development of workshops for the servicing of agricultural machinery; the rebuilding the market facilities for livestock; redevelopment of farmers organization and extension workers; redevelopment of the agricultural education and training; development of the new suitable technologies appropriate for agro-industries; the development of market oriented activities through the establishment of agribusiness terminals; and establishing of business partners.

2.4. Rehabilitation of agriculture in tsunami affected areas: Aceh and Nias after one and a half years4

Muhammad Ikhsan Sulaiman, National consultant for monitoring and evaluation at the UNFAO

Background

On 26 December 2004, Indonesia was severely hit by a powerful earthquake, followed by a series of aftershocks that triggered a tsunami that various coastal communities. The most affected areas in Indonesia were the provinces of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) and Northern Sumatra. In Indonesia alone, more than 131 000 people were killed, another 37 000 classified as missing 5, and over 400 000 survivors lost their homes and livelihoods. According to the initial damage assessments of the agriculture sector carried out by FAO together with Indonesia's Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), it was estimated that about 37 500 ha of wet land and 29 000 ha of dry land agricultural lands were inundated by the tsunami, causing erosion of bunds, salinization of soil, siltation of lands and irrigation and drainage canals. About one-third of the affected land was situated along the north-east coast and two-thirds on the west coast of Aceh. The earthquake damaged irrigation networks and canals rendering irrigation schemes inoperative. A significant amount of livestock in affected areas were lost to the tsunami. Survivors of the disaster found themselves without a means of livelihood and lacking the tools and capital to restart productive activities. Moreover, key infrastructure was destroyed and the Government's local capacity to rebound was severely compromised, as several district and provincial level staff and extension workers lost their lives in the disaster.

Given the scale of the disaster, and the need to restore normality to the lives of coastal communities and internally displaced persons (IDPs) as soon as possible, the Ministry of Agriculture and Development (MoA) and the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) of the Republic of Indonesia officially requested emergency assistance from the international community on 30 December 2004.

Projects

Three projects in agriculture recovery have been completed 1.5 years after the tsunami. Support came from the government of Belgium, Japan and the European Community through the projects OSRO/INS/501/BEL, OSRO/INS/503/JPN, and OSRO/INS/509/EC. One project OSRO/INS/513/ BEL is still going on through time extension until October 2006 with the title "Support to farmers in tsunami affected areas through the provision of agricultural and livestock inputs".

The overall objective of the projects was to assist the Indonesian Government's efforts to safeguard the livelihoods of the earthquake and tsunami affected coastal communities and to enable them to resume their occupations and produce food crops for nutrition and income earning. The assistance was meant to rapidly kick-start basic agricultural activities through the supply of urgent agricultural inputs and the rehabilitation of basic farm infrastructure, thereby reducing dependency on food aid for some of the most vulnerable farmers.

Projects Implementation

i. Procurement

For the first phase of its overall agricultural relief programme, FAO procured 286 tonnes of rice seed, 119 tonnes of secondary crops, 8000 packages of vegetables, 373000 seedlings of estate crops, 2833.5 tonnes of fertilizer, 38000 pieces of tools, 770 hand tractors, 250 threshers, 50 paddy reapers, and 300 water pumps with a total value of US$2782217. Table 4.1 provides details on the procurement for the first phase of the overall agricultural relief programme.

Table 4.1. Procurement for the first phase of the overall agricultural relief programme

Input

Unit

Project

Total

501/BEL

503/JPN

509/EC

Rice seed

Tonnes

 

174

112

286

Urea

Tonnes

 

653

420

1073

SP-36

Tonnes

 

435

280

715

KC1

Tonnes

 

218

143

361

Groundnut

Tonnes

   

60

60

Soybean

Tonnes

   

45

45

Maize

Tonnes

   

14

14

Vegetables

Kits

   

8 000

8 000

NPK

Tonnes

   

685

685

Hoe & rake

Pieces

   

38 000

38 000

Cocoa

Seedling

    200 000 200 000
Oil Palm

Seedling

    130 000 130 000
Areca nut

Seedling

    25 000 25 000

Coconut

Seedling

   

10 000

10 000

Manggo

Seedling

   

4 000

4 000

Rambutan

Seedling

   

4 000

4 000

Hand tractor

Units

695

 

75

770

Thresher

Units

100

 

150

250

Reaper

Units

   

50

50

Water pump

Units

   

300

300

Value of inputs

US$

887 399

394 851

1 499 967

2 782 217

ii. Selection of Beneficiaries

The primary targeted beneficiaries were the poor farming communities in the tsunami affected areas that, having lost their production assets and consequently the means to support their livelihoods, were unlikely to meet the immediate food needs of their families without assistance. Priority was to be given to the most vulnerable households and poorest farming families who had sufficient experience in agriculture and had access to at least 0.5 ha (5000 m 2) of land.

iii. Agricultural package

There were four agricultural packages that were offered to each farmer/family, while the agricultural machineries were addressed to farmers group. Agricultural packages were distributed to farmers who had access to secure land. The rice package consisted of 20 kg rice seed, 75 kg urea, 50 kg SP-36 and 25 kg KC l. Secondary crop packages were distributed to farmers who had access to dry land areas. It consists of either 30 kg groundnut, 10 kg soybean or 5 kg maize seed along with 50 kg NPK and a hoe and rake. Vegetable packages consisted of 5 types of seed (kangkung, chilly, tomato, long bean, and lettuce) along with 20 kg NPK and a hoe and rake. Moreover, twenty to thirty farmers in a group could receive agricultural machinery such as a hand tractor, thresher, paddy reaper or water pump.

iv. Distribution of agricultural package

The distribution of agricultural kits to beneficiaries was undertaken through NGO partners. In 2005 and early 2006, FAO has signed Letter of Agreements (LoA) with 27 NGOs consisting of 10 local NGOs and 17 international NGOs. NGO partners undertook the selection of beneficiaries according to FAO's criteria, distribution of agricultural inputs in their working area as part of livelihood programme, and monitoring and evaluation during plant growth and harvest. The agricultural inputs were distributed in 742 villages in 8 districts of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam province (NAD).

Almost 23000 farmers received benefit from the distributed rice seed. However, only 50 and 69 percent of the rice seed was cultivated by the farmers in the east and west coast, respectively, due to the lateness in distribution. In total more than 10000 ha of rice fields have been re-cultivated and harvested and only 36 percent of the rehabilitated area in west coast. Table 4.2 provides a breakdown of the distributed rice seed. The rice seed was used in the first planting season after the tsunami as the traditional planting season of May/June and September/October were was changed.

Table 4.2. Distribution and planted area of rice seed and percentage of cultivated rice seed

District

Number of beneficiaries

Allocation (tonne)

Planted Area (ha)

Planted Seed (percent)

Aceh Utara

8 879

40

2 052

100

Bireuen

2 757

42

1 886

44

Pidie

3 042

42

1583

11

Aceh Besar

350

7

1260

36

Total East Coast

15 028

130

6 780

50

Aceh Jaya

4 129

78

12978

61

Aceh Barat

2 588

53

1984

78

Nagan Raya

275

6

110

80

Semeulu Island

1231

19

372

80

Total West Coast

8 223

155

3 764

69

Grand Total

23 251

286

10 545

61

More than 15500 farmers received vegetables and secondary crop seed. Most of the seed have been planted in dry land areas or as share crops below coconut, cocoa, or banana trees. In addition, estate crops have been distributed to more than 5000 beneficiaries since the tsunami had a negative impact on these crops since they died due to salt toxicity. 20000 farmers have benefited from the distributed agricultural machinery. The machineries have been used in land preparation, watering and harvesting. However, the newly introduced paddy reaper used for harvesting is still relatively unfamiliar with farmers and is taking a greater than anticipated period for its adoption.

v. Cash-for-Work Programme

Beside distribution of agricultural inputs, FAO has two projects associated with the land clearing and rehabilitation of 240 ha of paddy fields in two districts, Aceh Besar and Aceh Barat. After tsunami, the fields were covered with debris and marine sediments preventing the establishment of crops. Communities have participated in the clearing of their own land. Around 500 people have participated in project with a total of 24500 worker days being consumed.

vi. Training

To complement the distribution of seeds and fertilizer, FAO also distributed motorized cultivators, including hand tractors and threshers to farmer groups (see Table 1). Some 147 community representatives were trained by FAO in the use and maintenance of the hand tractors. Thus, complementary projects helped increase the impact of the overall programme, as some of the farmers were able to utilize the distributed seeds and fertilizer more efficiently, through distribution of, and training in farm equipment.

Impact

It is difficult to quantify the impact of these interventions on the overall livelihoods and incomes of recipient farmers. Key indicators for measuring impact in the short, middle and long term in Aceh and Nias are being developed together with BRR, UNDP and other agencies.

However, agricultural activities in NAD are returning to normalcy after a break of one planting season in the east coast and one to two or even three seasons in the west coast. Agriculture can be viewed as a supplementary income generating enterprise since the effect of salinity are still clearly evident through the low productivity of rice (Table 4.3). Net income per farmer with an average area of 0.5 ha is low compared to income from other activities in the tsunami affected areas such as paid labour, fishing, etc.

Table 4.3. Productivity and price of rice, as well as net income from the rice cultivation of 0.5 ha land

District

Productivity (tonne/ha)

Rice price
US$/kg

Net income*
US$

East Coast

     
Aceh Utara

3.2-4.5

0.13

111-116

Bireuen

3.2-3.4

0.13

111-178

Pidie

4.3

0.14

117-167

Aceh Besar

3-4

0.14

161

West Coast

     
Aceh Jaya

4.5-8

0.19

178

Aceh Barat

4-5

0.17

84-167

Nagan Raya

3.3

0.17

 
Semeulu Island

3-4

0.18

111-167

* 2005 1 US$ = 9 000 IDR

Constraints

In the implementation of the projects, some problems were encountered as summarized in the Figure 4.1. Inputs such as seed, fertilizers and hand tractors were sold off to generate cash. An excessively long time was needed in distribution of packages in the first phase of the project that caused the seed to become non-viable and reduced its germination ability.

Report of the regional workshop on rehabilitation of agriculture in tsunami affected areas: one and a half years later

Figure 4.1. Problem analysis in the distribution of agricultural inputs in NAD, Indonesia

There were several factors that contributed to these excessive delays in the distribution of agricultural inputs. Initially, the peace agreement between the GAM and the Indonesian government were not in place. Damage to infrastructure due to the tsunami made the distribution of these assistance packages extremely difficult.

Incomplete agricultural packages delayed the cultivation of secondary crops and vegetable and predisposed crops to serious damage from livestock. It is suggested that in future packages to be distribute the inclusion of materials for the construction of a fence to protect the plants from animals and wild pig should be considered. Some implementing partners did provide farmers with the fence so that the crops could be planted.

In many locations especially the west coast, farmers have paid greater attention to the shelter programme than livelihood programme. As they still receive daily food allocations from the WFP, activities including agriculture, become a secondary priority. Moreover, farmers were also targeted by the many activities of NGOs thereby reducing their time to pursue agricultural activities. In this respect coordination at the field level was very low. For example the same inputs as provided by the project were found also to be distributed by other agencies without coordination. Duplication often occurred with the BRR also taking on the role of implementer. Strengthening the BRR function as a coordinator in rehabilitation activities is a priority in the future and would enhance the effectiveness of the rehabilitation process.

Conclusion and recommendation

The FAO has been successfully reactivating agriculture activities in the 8 tsunami affected districts of NAD, Indonesia. More than 44000 farmers have received agricultural inputs in terms of seed, fertilizer, and machineries. More than 10000 ha paddy field has been re-established and harvested with productivity levels of 3-8 tonne/ha being achieved. Each farmer earned between US$84-178 in their first crop after the tsunami, thereby reducing their dependence on external food aid.

The capacity of farmers to increase crop productivity should be enhanced. This may take the form of growing high value products that would significantly enhance farmer incomes from agricultural activities. The development of agro-industry units in individual districts that promote specific products should be accelerated in order to enhance the value of agricultural products.

Finally, there is a need to harmonize coordination between implementation agencies to avoid overlap of service provision, enhance the impact of these activities and improve the effectiveness of the rehabilitation process. Improved systems and mechanisms of coordination must be developed at the sub-district or village level to avoid overlapping of programmes or duplication of the same inputs.

2.5. FAO post-tsunami agricultural support: Maldives6

Winston R. Rudder, OIC FAO Office, Maldives

Background

The Republic of Maldives is an archipelago of 1 190 small coral islands grouped into 26 atolls, widely dispersed over a distance of some 800 kilometres in the Indian Ocean, and located between latitude 7 degrees north to slightly south of the equator. The population of about 300 000 inhabited 199 islands prior to the tsunami. Only 28 islands have a land area greater than one square kilometre. One third of the inhabited islands have a population of less than 500 and 70 percent have a population of less than 1 000. The extremely low population density raises the cost of delivering social services and of public administration, since there is hardly any scope to generate economies of scale. The altitude of most islands is very low, just above sea level. As a result, rising sea levels cause many islands to disappear and new ones to appear. This has rendered some inhabited islands ecologically vulnerable, while others have become too densely populated to sustain their communities.

The tsunami which struck on December 26, 2004 had dramatic and nation-wide impact. Tidal waves ranging from just over one to about four metres inundated many islands. 83 people were confirmed dead and another 25 missing and feared dead and more than 1 300 were injured. Thirty-nine islands were damaged and nearly a third of the population or 100 000 people were affected. Fourteen islands were completely destroyed and had to be evacuated. Approximately 12 000 people were displaced from their islands, and another 8500 temporarily relocated within their home island; thus 7 percent of the population was displaced. The force of the waves caused widespread infrastructure devastation in the tolls. Flooding wiped out electricity on many islands, also destroying vital communication links. Water supply was disrupted in about 15 percent of the islands and 25 percent had major damage to the essential infrastructure such as jetties and harbours.

Economic loss was estimated at 62 percent of GDP; the latter recording a 5 percent decline in 2005. Employment was adversely affected by low hotel occupancy rates and loss of assets in the fisheries, agricultural and other productive sectors. Livelihoods needed to be restored. The relief and reconstruction effort encountered constraints of insufficient and untimely financing, inadequate human resource capacity (quantity and quality) and high costs and logistical difficulties of internal inter-island transport.

Notwithstanding, impressive gains were recorded in the months following the tsunami in terms of shelter, food, health, water and sanitation and education. This bore testimony to the strong coordination between Government, the UN system, the IFIs and international humanitarian partners. However, many challenges remain: approximately one-third of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) are in temporary shelters or with relatives; a growing problem of waste management and groundwater pollution (with attendant health risks); inadequate information/communication/ participation involving the affected communities. This latter aspect has led to uncertainty and resulted in unrest in some communities.

Impact of the tsunami on Agriculture

Agricultural and rural livelihoods were particularly hard hit by the tsunami. It was estimated that the tsunami damaged field crops in 2 100 farms; destroyed home gardens and agricultural tools in 11 700 homesteads; and damaged more than 700 000 fruit trees and 840 000 timber trees in inhabited islands. The damage to land and groundwater resources was severe in 35 agricultural islands, and saline water intrusion has affected 112 inhabited islands. Damage was estimated at US$11.1 million. A further US$11 million are required for the re-establishment of the agricultural crops, for improving soils, forestry, and water resources, for importation of planting material and for strengthening institutional capacities and providing support services.

The geographical dispersion of the islands severely constrained the collection, collation and analysis of reliable data in a timely manner to inform the required immediate intervention responses of the Government and its supportive international development partners. The situation was further compounded by the lack of baseline data on the agricultural sector prior to the tsunami.

The FAO response

FAO responded swiftly and decisively to the crisis by immediately mounting a mission, coordinated by the Representation in Colombo, to assist MFAMR (Ministry of Fisheries, Agriculture and Marine Resources) in the initial agricultural and fisheries damage assessment surveys thereby establishing a basis for determining the requirements for immediate support. Prior to the tsunami, FAO was not physically present in the Maldives. This changed with the deployment an FAOR a.i. (subsequently designated Officer-in-Charge) who arrived in the country on January 29, 2005. An Operations and Programme Officer (OPO) was out-posted on February 5.

The establishment of the embryonic FAO ERCU Maldives was warmly received by the Minister and senior officers of MFAMR. However from the very outset, the Minister expressed his dissatisfaction with the dual accreditation modality according to which the Maldives falls under the FAOR Sri Lanka. It was claimed that distance and relative inaccessibility for continual interaction worked to the country's disadvantage and there was need for a permanent FAO presence in the country.

The foregoing constituted the socio-political context in which the ERCU was established and demanded the application of considerable tact and diplomacy to create a credible working relationship with the Ministry's hierarchy. Notwithstanding, MFAMR generously hosted and provided administrative support for the FAOR a.i./OiC and OPO in its already cramped facilities for five weeks until office accommodation could be arranged. This facilitated the development of excellent working relationships with the Minister and key counterparts; an introduction to the Maldivian bureaucracy; an understanding of the operations of the Ministry - its strengths and weaknesses; and contributed significantly to building trust and credibility between FAO and MFAMR. This first-hand appreciation of the Ministry's human resources capacity provided an informed context in which to design meaningful support interventions and modalities.

FAO ERCU Maldives opened its office on March 1 and local support staff was recruited in early March. A two-week AFFC mission provided invaluable assistance in setting up the financial management system and training in the related FAO procedures. A 3-day ITO mission from the Regional Office assisted with advice on interconnection arrangements, installing the ICT system, provision of hands-on training and selection of a local IT support service provider. By mid-April the office was fully operational and able to communicate with the rest of the FAO system.

The establishment of the ERCU ensured that attention was focused on working more closely with MFAMR counterparts on the urgent task of collating and refining data re: quantities and specifications (including verification of damage assessment surveys). This was a priority for accelerating procurement of needed supplies for the agricultural relief activities. In addition, considerable time was spent (up to April/May 2005) before eventually convincing the authorities that FAO procedures and arrangements should govern the procurement process. As a result, after much delay the outstanding issue of government signing the relevant project documents was resolved.

With the out-posting of the ERC in July, procurement on track and in-country activities taking off, there was a surge in the volume of transactions, with expenditure levels increasing almost ten-fold between the second and fourth quarters of 2005 and into 2006. Changing expenditure patterns, contract administration and the logistics and coordination tasks associated with procurement, delivery and distribution in this multi-island archipelagic state made heavy demands on the oversight, management and implementation capacity of the ERCU.

The blend of skills and competences of the OiC and ERC, their common vision on the modalities of office operations and their willingness to share roles and responsibilities resulted in the unique situation (and an unwritten agreement) where everything was discussed and communicated -whether emergency/relief or rehabilitation/recovery/development. In effect, this facilitated the ERCU to function both as a de facto FAOR, undertaking regular programme-related tasks and an emergency coordinating unit, delivering on the post-tsunami commitments; with the OiC and ERC sharing responsibilities across this divide as circumstances dictated. As an example, with respect to regular programme TCPs and hosting of missions, the OiC functions as an FAOR and the ERC as a Progamme Officer; in emergency tasks they equally serve as coordinators whether for agriculture, fisheries or forestry activities linking with the relevant headquarters and regional office technical units. This obviated the need for long-term coordinators in these technical areas.

This culture of work infused the entire staff of the ERCU so that office functions and responsibilities were seen as cross-cutting tasks, involving all, to be achieved irrespective of being regular programme type or emergency. In this way, Maldives was more comprehensively served by the FAO in-country presence. Importantly too, the Organization could more effectively interact and coordinate with the other key stakeholders, its modest personnel complement notwithstanding.

Current core staff of the ERCU comprise:

  1. Officer-in-Charge
  2. Emergency Rehabilitation Coordinator
  3. Secretary/Administrative Assistant
  4. Finance/Administrative Assistant
  5. Logistics Assistant

The services of an FAO Volunteer were available from 3 May to 5 December 2005. An Information/ Reporting Assistant was recruited over the period 20 November 2005 to 20 May 2006.

FAO activities and achievements in the agricultural sector

Tsunami-related Agricultural Activities

The post-tsunami relief/recovery activities in the agricultural and forestry sectors were a key focus of FAO Maldives operations. Much effort was expended during the first four months in detailing and refining needs, including specifications for procurement of goods and services. The delay in finalizing agreement with Government on acceptance of FAO procurement procedures adversely affected delivery and inhibited progress in field activities. Notwithstanding, FAO was the first agency whose implementation and delivery activities actually reached beneficiaries in the affected agricultural communities of the Maldives.

FAO assistance to victims of the tsunami in the agricultural sector will impact approximately 4200 households comprising just about 21000 inhabitants of 50 islands in 13 atolls across the archipelago. An important feature of this intervention is the FAO collaboration with UNDP Maldives in the replacement of lost assets including tools and other inputs.

Main activities include the provision of a package of technical assistance through short-term consultants/experts, capacity building for farmers and MFAMR staff effected through training workshops and the distribution of replacement of agricultural assets (start-up agricultural kits comprising a range of selected inputs seeds, seedlings, cuttings, fertilizer, compost and assorted implements). Details on these are highlighted as follows:

  1. Technical assistance: farmers and relevant Ministry staff benefited from 6 man-months of technical assistance. A soil salinity control expert undertook a soil assessment mission, developed guidelines for action in dealing with salinity and facilitated staff training. A water resources consultant surveyed the water table, analyzed the fresh water lenses in selected tsunami-afflicted islands and advised on follow up action. A plant pathologist assessed the pest/disease status of the nurseries contracted for supplying planting material, advised on the establishment of a plant quarantine/plant protection system and conducted basic awareness training to selected staff of relevant government institutions;
  2. Capacity building/training: MFAMR staff were trained to use and interpret results from salinity metres. Two Customs and one MFAMR staff benefited from a one-week training attachment to the Sri Lanka Quarantine authorities to observe passenger/goods handling procedures at ports and airports. A two-week training workshop on plant quarantine/ plant protection was conducted for 20 persons drawn from staff of MFAMR, Customs, Ports Authority, Port Health, Airports and Immigration. A soil fertility expert conducted a two-day workshop on composting for 17 persons including Ministry staff and farmers, preparing guidelines and manuals for compost production. A technical consultant conducted a two-day workshop on the operation and maintenance of mist blowers and provided related hands-on technical assistance to staff of MFAMR. An intensive two-day training workshop on improved nursery preparation and plant propagation techniques was held for 20 extension staff of MFAMR;
  3. Provision of agricultural inputs: The initial distribution of procured agricultural inputs to beneficiaries was launched in a formal ceremony attended by the Minister and the FAOR Sri Lanka and the Maldives in one of the affected island communities. So far 3376 farming families in 45 islands (13 atolls) have been assisted; 1,879 receiving the complete agricultural kit composed of 16 different items valued at US$260 per beneficiary. These included vegetable seed, seedlings/cuttings, compost, organic manure, inorganic fertilizer and agricultural tools/implements (hoe, rake, shovel, sprayer, bush knife, watering can and wheel barrow); for the remaining 1397 only the seedlings are pending. 250000 seedlings have been distributed so far. The distribution is continuing.

Development Assistance

FAO ERCU Maldives functions as more than a focal point for implementing the Organization's tsunami-related activities. The advice of the Unit is canvassed by the Minister and senior officers of MFAMR on matters pertaining to agricultural development generally. Field trips to outlying islands and attending meetings and interacting with farmers and island/atoll officials by both the OiC and ERC provide invaluable insights on the demand for, and state of, agricultural administrative and technical support services outside the capital. They also deepen understanding of the development challenges posed by the transportation logistics and the institutional distance of rural folk from centres of decision-making in the Ministry and government.

The ERCU briefs and makes arrangements for Ministry delegations attending FAO meetings, including the biennial FAO and Regional Conferences and also serves on one of the consultative committees for the preparation of the 7th National Development Plan 2006-2010. In addition, visiting missions of the IFI’s (WB and ADB), IFAD and UN system and other development agencies call on the Unit for briefings on the agricultural sector and on overall development. There is particular interest in understanding how ongoing relief activities fit or may integrate into a broader rehabilitation and recovery framework and within a medium- to longer-term development framework and strategy.

The Unit anticipates and ensures it is prepared to cope, as far as practicable, with the full range of demands made of a regular representation. This is the expectation of our counterparts and partners in the external development community. The OiC and ERC continue to remain sufficiently flexible and agile to respond to these demands.

Main regular programme agricultural activities for which FAO Maldives provided/continues to provide oversight are highlighted hereunder:

As a follow up to the Minister's attendance at FAO Conference and the Regional Conference, the OiC and ERC assisted MFAMR re: preparation of TCP on assistance for review/development of policy and legislative framework for food security and agricultural development. In addition, the Ministry consults the ERCU continually on agricultural development matters generally.

Sector Coordination

Prior to the tsunami, UNDP, UNICEF, WHO and UNFPA were the only external development agencies represented in the Maldives. The period immediately after December 26, 2004 witnessed an explosion in the numbers of such organizations in the country. This has severely stretched the limited human resources in public sector agencies in terms of their capacity for coordination and implementation. What may have been a manageable problem before the tsunami has turned into a crisis following the influx of significant financial resources and the multiplicity of external partners and activities within a constrained time period.

MFAMR has been finding it difficult and challenging to cope satisfactorily with the sudden expansion and intensification of activity and especially with linking the emergency/relief response to its regular agricultural development work. Implementation of some approved donor-funded post-tsunami relief activities got off to a slow start. The Ministry continues to look to FAO for assistance and support in strengthening planning, organizing and implementing capacity. The external development partners understand this. The IFI’s, actively and regularly seek out FAO ERCU Maldives for guidance on matters related to agricultural development.

MFAMR has expressed willingness but has not yet been able to assume leadership responsibility for sectoral coordination. In this vacuum, the ERCU has convened ad hoc agricultural livelihoods coordination meetings of development partners. FAO attends the weekly meetings of the UNCT where it is called upon to provide leadership and direction on food security and agricultural development issues. It is also a member of the UN security team and plays an active role in the Waste management Theme Group.

Lessons Learnt

The lessons to be learnt from the past 18 or so months operational experience of the FAO ERCU Maldives constitute a mix of constraints to be loosened and opportunities to be grasped.

Key Constraints

Agricultural emergency operations in the Maldives were affected by two types of constraints; those which derived from the in-country situation and others which may be described as FAO institutional.

In-country: Significant in-country constraints which impeded progress and extended timelines for implementation of the agricultural activities, thereby delaying responses to the needs of beneficiaries include:

FAO/Institutional

Success Factors

The foregoing constraints notwithstanding, the ERCU was able to make considerable progress in delivering on its mandate. The achievements highlighted previously and below reflect the collective effort of the entire team. They were also the result of the generous support and cooperation of many understanding and helpful colleagues at headquarters, the regional office and the Representation in Colombo. Most importantly, these would not have been possible without the active collaboration of counterparts in the MFAMR.

Accordingly, the following key success factors are acknowledged:

The Future

The immediate challenge for the ERCU is to successfully complete the approved tsunami-relief activities. These relate in the main to the distribution of remaining procured seedlings and cuttings. In addition it is necessary to design and implement an exit strategy that would facilitate smooth closure of the office. Fortunately, it is already agreed to extend operations to September 2006 to allow completion of project activities. Planning the related operational and financial/administrative management activities to effect the foregoing is already in train.

However, there is the larger question of FAO's role in the transition from relief to rehabilitation and recovery. This is a major preoccupation of Government and development partners alike. In this regard, many current activities have significance implications beyond the immediate. For example, the distribution of mist blowers needs to be located within the context of IPM; distribution of agricultural inputs and the follow-up discussions with farming communities have exposed the inadequacies of the agricultural extension services and underscored the need for training and enhanced technical assistance.

Discussions will be intensified with MFAMR and other partners on proposed new strategies and interventions for FAO to continue to support medium- and long-term agricultural development. These must be seen within the comprehensive framework of the 7th National Development Plan (2006-2010) and the Agricultural Master Plan (2006-2020), both currently in preparation. Of relevance here too are the possible and required linkages with the shelter programme undertaken by UNDP and the Red Crosses; and initiatives being pursued with ADB, WB and IFAD.

How can FAO be more fully involved in all of this?

In recognition of a larger and continuing role expected of FAO, MFAMR (both the Minister and senior officials) has been advocating with development partners for FAO Maldives to be involved in implementing their planned and ongoing activities. In this regard, discussions are continuing with WB, ADB and IFAD. In the latter case, an inception mission for the approved post-tsunami Agricultural and Fisheries Post-tsunami Rehabilitation Project (Loan - SDR 1.4 m; Grant - SDR 140 000) will be in country in a few weeks to finalize implementation arrangements. MFAMR intends to pursue with the proposed IFAD mission the feasibility of FAO Maldives having an active role in the implementation. Meanwhile, a current IFAD/TCI formulation mission for a follow-up US$4 m agricultural and fisheries development project has also raised concerns about viable implementation mechanisms and is interested in the decisions on implementing the current IFAD project.

The Minister has formally approached the Director-General on the issue of a more permanent FAO presence in the Maldives. Cognizant of the financial constraints impacting the realization of this objective, he is using the full weight of his office to influence the extension of the current model of FAO operations in the Maldives until a more permanent solution is found.

The main driver of this approach is the recognition by MFAMR that FAO - and the current model of its operations in the Maldives - has been an effective, accessible vehicle of development support the need for which will continue to be critical over the short- to medium-term as the country transitions from emergency/relief to rehabilitation and recovery. The enhanced contributions to rural livelihoods, economic diversification and strengthened inter-sectoral linkages (e.g. agro-tourism) expected of the agricultural sector will make increased demands on the Ministry and be reflected in an intensified call for FAO technical assistance.

The FAO relief to affected communities is considered a precursor to more sustainable agricultural and rural development. The FAO ERCU Maldives, using the relief activities as a point of departure, has been catalytic in managing and implementing in-country FAO development assistance in a coordinated and integrated manner. In light of the current deep search for ways of enhancing FAO relevance and effectiveness in the field, the applicability of this model could be further analysed as a possible approach to managing FAO in-country field activities.

In addressing the challenge to develop a sustainable mechanism(s) for FAO's continued support to agricultural development in the Maldives, the ERCU is seeking answers to the following questions:

What is FAO's role in the transition from relief to rehabilitation/recovery?

What are the priority sectoral issues/challenges?

What are the priority programmes?

Where does FAO have a comparative advantage?

How to take advantage of the linkages - actions and arrangements - implemented for the tsunami-related operations?

How to effectively recruit, integrate and coordinate the involvement of the FAOR, the Regional Office and Headquarters in all this?

An instructive lesson emerging from the ECRU's operations in the Maldives is that all major stakeholders in the sector - Government and development partners, including the UN system and IFI's - recognize FAO as a corporate unity and make no distinction and really care little about the preoccupations of its constituent units, divisions and departments.

2.6. Rehabilitating the tsunami affected agriculture sector of Maldives7

Mohamed Zuhair, Deputy Minister, Ministry of Fisheries, Agriculture and Marine Resources, Male, Maldives

Background

The 26 December 2004 tsunami devastated the agriculture sector of the Maldives. Approximately 50 percent of the cultivated area on inhabited islands was destroyed due to salt water intrusion with economic losses in agricultural sector estimated to be US$6.46 million. Fields of perennial trees such as coconuts, breadfruits, mango, betel leaf, guava, water apple were reportedly uprooted by the waves and (except for coconut) died from salt toxicity. Banana stands being highly susceptible to salt stress were severely damaged. The groundwater aquifer in more than 50 percent of the inhabited islands was seriously affected by salt water intrusion and in the remaining islands the water quality was severely compromised. It is estimated that approximately 58 percent of the farmers and 14172 home gardeners on the islands were impacted upon by the tsunami.

In an effort to rehabilitate the agricultural sector and provide assistance, 8 major programmes were drafted, out of which 3 programmes are currently progressing with the aid of ADB, FAO, UNDP, World Bank, IFAD and JICS support (Table 6.1). One of the programmes was ruled out after the initial assessments. The rest of the programmes are set to begin as funding becomes available.

Table 6.1. List of major agricultural sector programmes proposed along with their associated funding requirements and current status

Project Code

Project Title

Cost
(US$ m)

Funds Received

Financing Gap

AGR 001

Replacement of Basic Production Inputs and Infrastructure to the Tsunami Affected Agriculture Communities

11.17

9.38

1.79

AGR 002

Strengthening of Agriculture Extension to Facilitate Re-Establishment of Agriculture & Horticulture

0.36

0.25

0.11

AGR 003

Improvement of Soil, Forestry and Water Resources in the Tsunami Affected Areas

0.75

0.58

0.17

AGR 004

Detailed Assessment of the Status of Terrestrial/Land and Water Resource

0.57

~

~

AGR 005

Provision of Credit for Small Scale and Commercial Farmers

1.11

~

1.11

AGR 006

Capacity building in the Agriculture Section of MoFAMR

0.16

~

0.16

AGR 007

Strengthening Agriculture Institutional Capacity

2.20

0.47

1.73

AGR 008

Development of Agricultural Infrastructure in Uninhabited Islands (including commercial farming islands)

0.31

~

0.31

TOTAL (US$ million)

16.63

10.67

5.38

Details and progress of current programmes being implemented

Agri: 001 — Replacement of basic production inputs and infrastructure to the tsunami affected farmers and home gardeners.

Under this programme 9 individual projects are being undertaken, namely:

  1. Restoration of livelihoods of tsunami affected farmers in the Maldives.
  2. Tsunami emergency assistance programme.
  3. Emergency assistance to support affected rural communities in the Maldives.
  4. Immediate provision of agricultural inputs to worst affected fisher and farmer groups in the Maldives.
  5. Rehabilitation of marine fisheries and agriculture sectors.
  6. Replacement of inputs to farmers and home gardeners.
  7. Forestry programme for early rehabilitation of Asian tsunami affected countries.
  8. Island livelihood revitalization and development programme.
  9. Provision of agriculture machinery and equipment to strengthen agriculture after the tsunami.

The projects 1 and 2 are aided by funding support from the Asian Development Bank (ADB). These projects are being carried out jointly as both have similar goals. Under this programme a revolving fund has been setup in 26 of the tsunami affected major agriculture islands. The fund will provide loans to tsunami affected beneficiaries to be used for agricultural purposes. Fund Committees have been elected and Fund Officers have been given training in operating and monitoring the loans. Workshops to introduce the cooperative concept have also been conducted in the 26 target islands. These projects will endeavor to strengthen as well as develop agriculture extension services and facilities. The projects will also promote the concept of cooperative societies to farmers in the Maldives.

Projects 3 to 7 are currently being undertaken with assistance from Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Under projects 3, 4, 5 and 6, seedlings, fertilizers, agriculture inputs and hand tools are being distributed to 50 worst affected agricultural islands. Technical assistance is being provided by FAO in the distribution process and beneficiaries are receiving instructions on how to apply the fertilizers provided to them. The 7th project is related to forestry and as a large area of natural forest in the Maldives was affected by the tsunami, work is underway to assess the damage and plan sub-projects in collaboration with affected island communities that have a focus on their rehabilitation.

The 8th project is supported by the World Bank and has the explicit purpose of providing cash grants to the tsunami affected farmers and home gardeners. Phase one of the project has successfully been undertaken with assistance having been given to 88 islands. Work is underway to assist later claimants.

The Japan International Cooperation System provides aid with respect to the 9th project, which has the objective of providing medium sized-medium-load machinery to tsunami affected farmers and home gardeners in 21 major agricultural islands. This mechanization includes tractors, shredder machines and composting units have been provided to the islands.

Agri: 002 - Strengthening of agricultural extension to facilitate re-establishment of agriculture and horticulture

Under this programme 2 projects have been initiated:

  1. Saving the tsunami affected fruit trees in the Maldives. (Poverty and Environment Programme). Under this programme a team of tree doctors visited severely affected islands and treated damaged fruit trees. Currently work is underway to distribute fruit trees to the affected islands.
  2. Assisting the tsunami affected islands with agriculture extension volunteer, under the United Nations Volunteer (UNV) programme. A UNV has been placed on 3 of the agricultural related islands to assist in the extension programmes.

Agri: 007—Strengthening agriculture institutional capacity

The programme focuses on strengthening and re-habilitating the local goods markets in Male. Construction of infrastructure is about to commence in the capital and several regional goods markets are planned for the islands.

Agri: 003 — Improvement of soil, forestry and water resources in the tsunami affected areas

The project is being implemented with the assistance of FAO and includes the management and rehabilitation of shoreline forest communities. Forest sites have been classified rehabilitation has been initiated.

Constraints

There a several issues and constraints that have been encountered during the implementation of these assistance programmes and are highlighted below:

Outcome

The plants and seedlings that were distributed to the farming communities have been effectively utilized by the communities. Some crops that were established have been harvested and with the diversity of planting material that was provided it has acted as an incentive for them to broaden their farming capacity. The islands that do not engage in agriculture have also begun farming and home gardening as a result of the high income earned by farming communities.

After the cooperative society introductory workshops, voluntary cooperatives have emerged within the communities. Work is underway to legally register the cooperatives.

The beneficiaries who have received training in agriculture have started to set up their own farms using new and better techniques with other farmers following suit. This has had a positive impact of the quality and lifestyle of farmers.

Lessons Learnt

The following lessons were learnt:

2.7. Rehabilitation of agriculture and fisheries in tsunami affected areas of Myanmar8

Tin Shwe, Township Manager, Pathein Township, Ayeyarwaddy Division, Myanma Agriculture Service, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation

Background

The tsunami of the 26 December 2005 had limited impact and was confined to areas of the Myanmar coastal zone. The most severely affected townships in Myanmar were: Labutta and Ngaputaw Townships in Ayeyarwaddy Division; Kawthaung Township in Tanintharyi Division, and Kyaukphyu Township in Rakhine State. In general, the magnitude of destruction caused by tsunami was not as severe as that experienced in Thailand, Indonesia and Sri Linka. The Pyinsalu sub-township of Labutta Township was the worst affected area with 25 people losing their lives, more than one thousand people left homeless and 289 houses totally destroyed. Four villages, namely Khar Pyat Thaung, Lay Yin Kwin, Kaingthaung and Aung Hlaing in the Pyinsalu sub-township were severely affected.

Without the intervention of government, international organizations and NGOs, it would have been very difficult to rehabilitate the livelihoods of affected communities. As part of the rehabilitation effort project (MYA/05/001) that addressed fishing communities, fisher-farmers and homestead gardeners was launched and implemented in accordance with the Letter of Agreement that was signed by FAO with UNDP on 13 April 2005. The project was started on 13 March 2005 and completed at 30 April 2006. The major contributor was the Government of Japan. Total budget used in the project was US$804 000.

Project Objectives

The main goal of the project was to provide necessary assistance so as to resume the livelihoods of tsunami affected fishers and farmers with a focus on both the immediate and long-term. To meet this goal the following objectives were laid down and implementation activities were undertaken accordingly.

Target Beneficiaries

This project was designed to support small scale fishers and farmers, living in the worst affected tsunami areas of Pyinsalu Sub-township in Labutta Township, Ayeyarwaddy Division. Beneficiaries were selected according to the following criteria:

Project Components

The project components could be grouped into two categories - fisheries and agriculture.

Fisheries

Small and medium fishing boats and fishing gear were planned to provide a total of 149 beneficiaries who lost their fishing gear as a result of the tsunami. In addition technical trainings on ecologically friendly and sustainable fishing methods were conducted so as to avoid the depletion of marine resources. Similarly, post harvest technologies and production of valued added goods using with marine resource were disseminated to diversify income sources and create employment opportunities. Fishermen who had decided to give up fishing and convert to farming were encouraged and assisted in this process.

The total amount of distributed aid to fishers through the programme is presented in Table 7.1.

Table 7.1. Complete list of fishing materials distributed through the programme

Item No.

Description

Distributed

1

Bottom set gill net (thread fin, sea bass, shark) (7.5" mesh)
(Mesh Length and depth -300 x 15.5 = 28.5 m x 2.9 m) for 32' boats.

480 nets

2

Drift/gill net, 3" mesh (Hilsa, Pomfret, Thread fin, Spanish mackerel)
(Mesh length and depth) -700 x 105.5 = 26 m x 7.9 m) for 32' boats.

2 080 nets

3

Drift/gill net, 3.5" mesh (Hilsa, Pomfret, Thread fin, Spanish mackerel)
(Mesh length and depth) -615 x 105 = 28 m x 9.5 m) for 32' boats.

2 560 nets

4

Drift/gill net, 3" mesh (Hilsa, Pomfret, Thread fin, Spanish mackerel)
(Mesh length and depth) -700 x 105.5 = 26 m x 7.9 m) for 20' boats.

2 010 nets

5

Tiger Mouth nets

950 nets

6

Long lines

67 units

7

Ice boxes

131 boxes

8

Life jackets

361 units

9

Top lantern

67 units

10

Signal lamps

32 sets

11

Medium motorized fishing boats

32 nos.

12

Small fishing boats

67 nos.

13

Engine spare parts

32 sets

14

Tool boxes

32 sets

15

Magnetic compass

32 nos.

16

Anti-foulant (5 litres can)

64 cans

17

Earth oil

294 gals

Agriculture

Farmers who lost their crops, livestock assets and home gardens to the tsunami, were provided with fertilizers, HYV seeds, OPV seeds of various crops including paddy, pulses (peas and beans), oilseed crops (sunflower) and different kinds of vegetable seeds (gourd, melon, squash, watercress, roselle, chilies, tomato, egg plants). Agricultural hand tools comprising of a sickle, hoe, machete, shovel and spades were also provided. A complete breakdown of the distribution of aid to farmers is presented in Table 7.2.

Moreover the following training activities were conducted and altogether 516 trainees participated.

  1. Home gardening and post-harvest management.
  2. Field crops management training.
  3. Horticultural crop production and protection training.
  4. Crop production technology training.
  5. Training on salinity mitigation measures.

Table 7.2. Comprehensive list of agriculture aid distributed through the programme

Item No.

Description

Distributed

1

Paddy seeds (46 lbs baskets)

2 625 baskets

2

Sunflower seeds (35 lbs baskets)

3 600 kgs

3

Mung bean seed (72 lbs baskets)

570 baskets

4

Cowpea seed (72 lbs baskets)

1 875 baskets

5

Black gram seed (72 lbs baskets)

275 baskets

6

Mango seedlings

3 600 nos.

7

Pummelo seedlings

1 200 nos.

8

Lime seedlings

1 200 nos.

9

Urea Fertilizer (50 kg bags)

1 920 bags

10

Triple super phosphate (50 kg bags)

1 200 bags

11

Muriate of potash (50 kg bags)

12

15:15:15 Compound fertilizer (50 kg bags)

1 500 bags

13

Rock phosphate fertilizer (50 kg bags)

1 200 bags

14

Gypsum fertilizer (10 kg bags)

24 000 bags

15

Rhizobium bio-fertilizer

3 600 kg

16

Acephate Insecticide

2 100 kg

17

Mancozeb Fungcide

3 600 kg

18

(a)

Vegetable seeds packages (gourd, watermelon, squash, watercress, roselle, chilli, tomato, & egg plant)

1 200 packs

(b)

Vegetable seeds packages (gourd, watercress, roselle, ladies' finger)

1 250 packs

19

Agricultural hand tools packages (1 sickle, 1 hoe, 1 machete, 1 shovel, 1 spade)

1 200 packs

20

pH meter

8 units

21

Salinity meter

4 units

22

Foot operated thresher

28 units

23

Manual cleaner

16 units

24

Jacto Sprayer

32 units

Technical Backstopping Missions

Technical backstopping missions, for fisheries and agriculture were undertaken to support the government in implement the projects activities. The Backstopping Missions were headed by representatives from Fishing Technology Service (FIIT) and FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (FAORAP) and Emergency Operation Service (TCEO).

Constraints

During the implementation of the project, there are some constraints encountered. These were listed below:

Lessons Learnt

There are several lessons learned during the project including the following:

  1. The affected areas are situated along the shoreline of the Ayeyarwaddy Division where transportation is rather difficult. The people who live in this remote area do not have advanced knowledge and technical know-how regarding agriculture and fisheries. Therefore they should be equipped with advance technologies which are adaptable to their existing environment;
  2. There was a decline in fish catches post-tsunami with a gradual recovery. It is suggested that a survey be conducted to verify this phenomenon;
  3. Post-harvest fish technology that would allow the production of healthy and value-added products is important with respect to enhancing the health and economic status of the people from the project area. Proper drying techniques and availability of ice is important in this respect;
  4. Keeping the boats in the saline water without proper maintenance could cause damage to boats. Anti-fouling or proper maintenance such as painting with exterior of the boat with anti-foulant and the interior with earth oil once every 1-11/2 month is necessary;
  5. The size of Tiger Mouth Nets differs according to the place/village, therefore, the Tiger Mouth Net making should be done at that place or nearby villages with the supervision of the local fishers. Empowering the women in this area is very important as the female population is more than 50 percent;
  6. Tiger Mouth Net making i.e. connection of ready made netting materials as demonstrated by Trainers from DOF which is one of the project activities is beneficial due to: a) faster in net making; b) better fish catch; c) less expensive;
  7. Seawater intrusion has a hidden effect on growth and yield of rice although the result of salinity testing in these fields during the rainy season indicated a low EC content. The height of paddy fields were significantly shorter than in previous years and the yield is about 1/3 of the yield of former years;
  8. Cowpea, sunflower, and watermelon grow better in the seawater intruded area when compared to black gram and mung bean. The soil fertility of most of the affected areas is poor as the farmers cannot afford to use chemical fertilizers and also availability of organic fertilizers is limited;
  9. The farmers in these areas are not used to growing a second crop such as pulses and vegetables after paddy, and introduction of cowpea, sunflower, and vegetables is very effective. Watermelon grown using the seeds provided by the project was popular in and enhanced the income of the farmers;
  10. There is a lack of seed technology expertise amongst farmers, training and assistance in this area would be of great benefit.

Recommendations for follow-up activities

Based on the experiences gained and lesson learned, the following recommendations are made in the rehabilitation process:

2.8. Effects of the tsunami on the agriculture sector of Sri Lanka9

R.M. Senanayake, Additional Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture, Sri Lanka

Background

The tsunami that struck the coastline of Sri Lanka resulted in the loss of over 38000 individuals, 5000 persons remain unaccounted for and 550000 people were displaced (Figure 8.1). The waves caused extensive damage to fishing, tourism, agriculture and small-scale industries. 53 percent of the fishing fleet was destroyed and 23 percent of the fleet damaged.

Report of the regional workshop on rehabilitation of agriculture in tsunami affected areas: one and a half years later

Figure 8.1. Map showing in red the area of Sri Lankan coastline impacted upon by the tsunami

Within the agricultural sector significant losses in livestock, including cattle, buffalo, goat and poultry were sustained and damage to irrigation infrastructure was significant. The deposition of debris on farming land was extensive and losses of fruit orchards, home gardens and crop land ware widespread in the affected area.

Recovery programme

The recovery programme implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and NGOs in the agricultural sector has focused on the following elements:

Recommendations

Several recommendations have been suggested that would effectively empower communities to cope more effectively with such disasters. They include the following:

2.9. Agricultural rehabilitation one and a half years after the tsunami in the northeast region of Sri Lanka10

K. Subramaniam, Provincial Director, Ministry of Agriculture, North East Province, Trincomalee, Sri Lanka

Background

Sri Lanka has been extremely hard-hit in terms of loss of life, infrastructure and economic assets. Tsunami is widely acknowledged as the most devastating natural catastrophe in the history of the country. Mostly the poorest families of fisher communities and smallholder farmers were extremely affected necessitating the mobilization of external support to assist in the recovery process. It is important to note that the northeast region of the country was significantly impacted by the tsunami since communities in the region are still recovering from the affects of twenty years of civil war.

The northeast consists of 8 administrative districts and occupies approximately 28.7 percent of the island. It falls within the dry zone, has a total population of 2.62 million made up of 250 000 farmer families. Approximately 800 km of the coastline was affected by the tsunami with the northern districts of Jaffna and Mullaithevu being hardest hit and the eastern districts of Trincomalee, Batticaloa and Ampara being severely impacted upon.

Extent of damage

Crop sector

The damage to the agricultural sector was mainly confined to the destruction of standing crops in paddy, other crop fields, home gardens, fruit orchards and economic perennial tree crops along the entire coastal belt. This included the washing away of parts of cashew and beetle plantations along the eastern coast. Inundation by seawater of productive fields has induced high levels of soil salinity. Consequently, farmers are unable to grow crops on these soils until the salinity levels have been reduced through flushing of salts associated with the seasonal monsoon rains. A total of 3 400 hectares of crop land area were completely destroyed. In addition, about 2 000 homestead with crop gardens were washed away. The total damage to the agriculture sector was estimated to be $8.7 million.

Livestock sector

In terms of livestock, the overall damage is not significant at the provincial level, although many poor families have lost domestic animals, which served as a safety net against vulnerability which provided supplementary incomes, and had added health and nutritional benefits. In terms of value of lost resources, it was estimated to be $2.7 million.

Fisheries sector

Sea fishing has been the most severely hit sector industry and the livelihoods of these communities have been negatively impacted upon by the tsunami. The total damage to the sector excluding the damage to housing and personal assets of the victims is about $60 million.

Activities undertaken in address the agricultural needs of communities

A number of activities and initiatives have been undertaken and implemented since the devastating event. These include the following:

Land rehabilitation: Soil samples were collected to assess the degree of salinization and permanent monitoring sites established to assess the degree of remediation associated with the monsoon (Figure 1). There is clear evidence to suggest that flushing of salts is occurring (Figure 9.1).

Report of the regional workshop on rehabilitation of agriculture in tsunami affected areas: one and a half years later

Figure 9.1. Effect of flushing of salt associated with the onset of the monsoonal. Permanent salinity monitoring site established at Mulliyawalai where pH and electrical conductivity (EC)are routinely measured

Crop recommendations: Field demonstration plots have been established that evaluate different strategies and crop species that could be grown during the rehabilitation process. In addition, crop recommendations based on soil salinity levels have been made to farmers.

Infrastructure rehabilitation: The reconstruction of damaged wells has been undertaken. This has included the pumping out of saline waters.

Farmer empowerment: Capacity building in salinity reclamation has taken the form of field and institutional training activities along with the establishment of crop demonstration plots in the field. Basic inputs of seed, fertilizers, hand tools and water pumps/2W tractors have been provided to farmers. Social mobilization in rehabilitation has resulted in the mobilization of communities to take responsibility for their lives through group action. This has included the establishment of community gardens in transit camps, the cleaning and clearing of drainage channels, and the establishment of home gardens.

Lessons learnt

There are several aspects in the rehabilitation process from which lessons have been learnt. These include the following:

There are different levels of salinity in the soils that is contingent on the degree of inundation, length of period the soils were inundated for and the soil type. Hence the rehabilitation process with differ from place to place.

Dug wells remain saline even after the soil has been flushed of salts. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that salinity levels in the soil fluctuate in some locations indicating the possible remobilization of salts from lower down the profile.

The land productivity as indicative of crop production has increased by 75 percent over time, but has still not reach levels of productivity that were being achieved prior to the tsunami.

Sunhemp cultivation and its incorporation into the soil as a green manure have been shown to be an effective tool in reducing salinity. In addition, the application of large quantities of organic matter has been demonstrated to improve the productivity of saline affected soils.

There appears to be a quality change in the crops produced on these affected soils.

Constraints

Whilst the rehabilitation process has continued several constraints have been experienced associated with productivity improvement, social mobilization, the provision of services and poor governance.

Salinity remains a problem in some locations thereby hindering the return to normalcy. Lost farm implements have not been fully replaced and crop lands have been left fallow due to a delay in resettlement. There is a general lack of interest in crop diversification to species that are more salt tolerant and adapted to the prevail environment.

There has in general been poor people participation in community action activities; a reluctance to resettle away from an individuals domicile; delay in infrastructure rehabilitation; and problems with land adjudication and titling. Added to this service institutions in the affected areas have not been adequately re-equipped to provide the required level of service to clients. Finally there has been a general lack of coordination and transparency that has hindered the rehabilitation process.

Status of recovery needs

Immediate recovery programmes focused on helping affected families to recover from their losses. In addition, the affected population was provided with micro-credit facilities through community-based revolving fund mechanism to restart their livelihoods.

The rehabilitation of damaged structures and agriculture/livestock service is require and has been inadequately addressed. Through addressing these aspects in the rehabilitation process one would reduce adverse environmental impacts and also provide immediate employment opportunities in affected villages.

The agriculture department has been carrying out testing of salinity and take measures to provide technical guidance for a speedy recovery of those fields. Relief inputs such as seeds, fertilizer and basic farm tools were supplied to restart agriculture for livelihoods in collaboration with national and international NGOs. Efforts should also be made to repair the agricultural related infrastructure (buildings and other public facilities) damaged by the tsunami to enable a fast resumption of services to those who have been affected.

Farmer capacity building in soil reclamation and productivity improvement should be effectively implemented in participatory manner. The lost capacities of the service providers should also be re-equipped and strengthened.

The recovery strategy should focus on medium- and long-term needs of the victims. Therefore, enhanced and meaningful consultation with local affected communities and stakeholders is essential. Local communities should be empowered to make their own decision in the recovery process. The principle of subsidization should be applied in rehabilitation interventions.

All interventions need to respond to clearly identified and articulate needs of the affected community. A coordinated approach is critical to ensure the participatory principle and to avoid duplication in activities. The recovery process also needs to focus on the reduction of future vulnerabilities through multi - hazards risk approach.

Future plans

The focus areas for future activities include the resettlement and restoration of the productive capacity of salt-affected lands; crop development and diversification that takes into account the prevailing soil conditions (i.e. tolerance to salt); the renovation of damaged agro-wells; the establishment of salt exclusion/perimeter bunds; protective tree plantings along the coastal belt; and the strengthening of service providers.

2.10. Income recovery programme: community level planning as the best option for sustainable livelihood recovery in Sri Lanka11

Livelihood Unit, Reconstruction and Development Agency (RADA), 41, Janadhipathi Mawatha, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Background

The widespread destruction caused by the tsunami brought a heavy toll on livelihoods in the affected areas of Sri Lanka. Job losses are particularly acute in the large informal sector in the affected areas due to loss of productive assets and markets especially in fisheries, tourism and small service and retail businesses. Young people and the women are among the most vulnerable groups.

The Government of Sri Lanka, having evaluated the relatively slow progress of recovery, decided that improvements needed to be made in the delivery, progress and quality of the interventions provided by a wide range of service providers, ranging from the national government departments, to international and local development agencies. To this effect the Reconstruction and Development Agency (RADA) was en established in November 2005 by a directive of His Excellency the President through the merging of the Taskforce For Rebuilding the Nation (TAFREN) with other agencies. The mandate of RADA is to carry out reconstruction and development work in districts affected by man-made or natural disasters in a cost effective and expeditious manner.

Sri Lanka's Proposed Disaster Recovery Cycle

Report of the regional workshop on rehabilitation of agriculture in tsunami affected areas: one and a half years later

RADA's Mission, Vision and objectives

Mission

Accelerate and coordinate the reconstruction and development of areas affected by man-made and natural disasters, and ensure sustainable recovery of properties, livelihoods, industries and infrastructure to mitigate the effect of such disasters in the future.

Vision

Ensure rapid recovery of affected areas and foster long-term social and economic development to achieve Sri Lanka's 21st century growth plan and Millennium Development Goals, through empowerment of local communities and strategic coordination of existing government and non-government stakeholders.

Objectives

  1. Accelerate sustainable reconstruction and development through information gathering, programme monitoring and project coordination.
  2. Optimize utilization of resources, strengthen existing government structures and provide policy leadership.
  3. Improve the long-term well-being of affected people through social and economic development.
  4. Ensure short and long-term social protection for vulnerable groups, women and children.
  5. Reduce future vulnerability through improved social infrastructure.
  6. Empower local communities to foster local economic development.
  7. Ensure compliance to a core of 10 guiding principles;
  1. Equity
  2. Empowerment, subsidiary and participation
  3. Sustainability (social, economic, environmental)
  4. Sensitivity to future vulnerability
  5. Sensitivity to local culture and diversities
  6. Information sharing, cooperation and teamwork
  7. Transparency and zero tolerance of corruption
  8. Accountability and good governance
  9. Efficiency
  10. Effectiveness

RADA's Role

RADA's role is seen to cover eight specific areas:

  1. Coordinate Ministries and other government/non-government organizations involved in the planning, implementation and monitoring of reconstruction and development work.
  2. Establish policies, support and monitor implementation.
  3. Develop Strategic Actions Plans with relevant stakeholders to ensure sustainable recovery and reduce future vulnerability.
  4. Resolve problems and ensure timely approval/execution of reconstruction and development work.
  5. Empower local communities through community-based development and participation to foster local economic development, while ensuring protection of vulnerable groups.
  6. Strengthen and empower existing government structures (Provincial, District, Division, Village and Ministries) to improve planning, execution and monitoring.
  7. Identify/secure funding needs and monitor utilization.
  8. Collect information from beneficiaries, government, non-government and private institutions to;

RADA consists of 4 major programmes that cover housing; social infrastructure, physical infrastructure and livelihoods, and also supports the following supporting divisions: management & IT support, aid coordination and monitoring, operations and regional support, strategic planning & policy and communication/public relations.

The Livelihood Unit of RADA has developed the Income Recovery Programme (IRP), with the assistance of the World Bank, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the International Labour Organization (ILO). This is also known as the "Back to Work" component of a wider strategy of the Government to "Build Back Better". The IRP is concerned with the recovery of the local economies devastated by the tsunami by fast-tracking, monitoring, and coordinating livelihood recovery activities under four major sectors that include agriculture, fishery, tourism, and small and medium sector enterprises. It further receives technical advisory support from the International Labour Organization (ILO) through the Income Recovery Technical Assistance Programme (IRTAP).

The Income Recovery Programme (IRP)

Key Challenges: Livelihood recovery is complex and diverse and is primarily concerned with providing individuals and families the means to regain social and economic stability. Recovery efforts that followed the tsunami have been diverse and are provided by a multitude of service providers that include central and local Government, national and international non-governmental organizations and the private sector. The complexity of the task requires adequate attention to implementation mechanisms and processes. This has created a number of challenges:

Objective, strategy and guiding principles: To respond to these challenges the IRP was formulated with the following objectives, strategy and guiding principles.

Development Objective

To contribute to the (re) establishment of sustainable livelihood for the tsunami affected people, and to help reconstruction and poverty reduction in 10 tsunami affected districts.

Development Strategy

Improve institutional capacities at national, district and local levels to coordinate, target and guide the livelihood recovery efforts.

Immediate Objective

Enhance technical capacities for coordination, monitoring, planning and management of the income recovery activities in the areas of social protection, community infrastructure recovery and long-term economic development.

Guiding Principles

The programme provides a relevant response to the needs of tsunami affected individuals and communities. The main principles are based upon the Government Policy of the revival of community based productivity that includes the following:

Subsidiary: decisions should be made at the lowest possible level, as close as possible to, or by the beneficiaries, while providing for checks to ensure that decisions are justified in the light overall policies and the possibilities available at higher levels;

Equity: Livelihood recovery activities should be equally distributed geographically based upon the extent of the damage and the vulnerability of communities;

Identification of eligible beneficiaries and projects should be left as much as possible to local communities - within broad eligibility criteria - and the process monitored in a democratic manner;

Information and transparency are crucial: everyone should have access to information;

The reconstruction processes should reduce future vulnerabilities to natural hazards: the country has a wide range of institutions, channels and capacities that are relevant to securing and rebuilding livelihoods, making full use of these will enhance the speed and appropriateness of the interventions;

There is a need to build and strengthen capacities, where the outreach of institutions is inadequate, and where community and district level structures are insufficient;

A coordinated approach to recovery is critical; Ministerial, departmental, private sector and International and National Non-Governmental Organization boundaries need to be overcome at all levels, for greater efficiency and impact;

Major Instruments

RADA has conceptualized the income recovery assistance under three broad types of instruments:

  1. Social Protection that focuses on those affected by the tsunami who have lost their capacity to earn an income, or for whom there is no work. Especially vulnerable categories of the affected population include youth, widows, orphans, disabled and the elderly, need to be brought under the coverage of existing Government social assistance programmes.
  2. Community Infrastructure Recovery: Income generation mechanisms through community and public works programmes that will generate temporary jobs for those who are able and willing to work while ensuring that infrastructure investments are sustainable and facilitate local economic recovery.
  3. Support to revive and develop economic activities that move women and men out of dependency, to restore previously existing livelihoods and to improve upon them. This includes improving access to micro-finance and non-financial services such as business development and skills training that will enable people to develop and improve their livelihoods, including finding alternative livelihoods where appropriate and especially targeting vulnerable groups to improve their access to small business start-up grants.

Report of the regional workshop on rehabilitation of agriculture in tsunami affected areas: one and a half years later

Current activities are guided by Gama Neguma (Village rehabilitation) programme designed to address important issues of community driven development and the need for a concerted area planning approach that contributes to local economic development within the wider context of regional and national development plans and based upon the guiding principles of the "Mahinda Chintana - the President's Vision ".

For coordination purposes, the district and divisional teams strengthen and rationalize the livelihood coordination committees. For information management purposes, the IRP has established District Livelihood databases (Coordinating and Planning Systems - CAPS) that monitor the progress of recovery at community and divisional level. For counseling purposes, the programme has horizontal and vertical linkages with government institutions, private sector and development agencies.

Structure of the Livelihood Recovery Unit

The IRP has established a decentralized structure to strengthen districts and divisions in livelihood coordination in 10 tsunami affected districts. The main function of these livelihood teams is: to assist the local government authorities coordinating livelihood recovery activities; livelihood information management and the counseling of day to day problems encountered by individuals, families and micro- and small enterprises in restoring their livelihoods.

National level

The livelihood unit of RADA at national level is headed by a Director and supported by a National Programme Officer (Deputy Programme Director), Economic Recovery Officer, Social Protection Officer, Cash for Work Coordinator and Communication and Data Coordinator. The unit is supported by IRTAP of ILO. The IRTAP under a Senior Technical Advisor is providing technical expertise to the livelihood division in the fields of local economic development, infrastructure development, management information and monitoring evaluation and social protection. At present around ten international/national experts from IRTAP are working with the livelihood division.

District level

RADA has established livelihood units in ten tsunami affected districts under the District Recovery and Development Unit (DRDU) which is represented by District Representative responsible for overall RADA activities. Livelihood unit is headed by a District Livelihood Coordinator and supported by district Economic Recovery Officer and a Management Information System officer. The unit is located in the district secretariat and work under the direct supervision of the district secretary. The unit has been funded by ILO and UNDP.

Divisional level

Divisional livelihood officers have been allocated to 43 tsunami affected divisions of the ten districts. Livelihood officers who have been appointed by Ministry of Labour with the financial support of IRTAP are attached to the divisional secretaries and technically guided by the district livelihood coordinator. Administrations of livelihood officers are carry out by the Programme Management Unit of Ministry of Labour located at RADA.

The programme thus provides a flexible decentralized system of management and coordination for a comprehensive and transparent response to local livelihood needs.

Working jointly towards our Future: Divisional Livelihood Recovery Planning

Objective of Divisional Livelihood Development Plan (DLDP)

The Central point in the work of RADA Livelihood Division is the initiation and coordination of a holistic and participatory planning process at divisional level to ensure the optimum allocation of resources for tsunami recovery efforts; be it in the field of social protection, local infrastructure development, and local economic development or information and information systems.

Consequently RADA Livelihood Division embarked on support and facilitation of local stakeholders in developing Divisional Livelihood Development Plans (DLDPs), reflecting the short and medium term requirements of the affected communities. In the following, rationale and methodology of the DLDPs will be laid out describing the implementation cycle, and detail the outcome and implementation strategy of the plans.

The rationale can be summarized as follows:

  1. Initiating a continuous and holistic planning process at Divisional level, integrating the voices of communities, the private sector, I/NGOs, donors and Government;
  2. Identifying completed, ongoing programmes and gaps in Divisional livelihood recovery and develop activities/projects to fill them;
  3. Optimal utilization of financial and physical resources allocated or to be allocated for each division/district by stakeholders;
  4. Coordinating stakeholders and implementing agencies to expedite sustainable livelihood development programme.

Methodology

The methodology chosen for the development of DLDPs and the overall implementation cycle uses recognized Participatory Planning Methodologies such as Focus Group Discussions (FGD), Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning (IRAP) and other Participatory Rural Appraisal Techniques (PRA). The planning approach is:

This methodology allows for a dynamic planning and learning process under the leadership of District/divisional secretaries, bringing together multi stakeholders from different backgrounds, including

  1. Community representatives,
  2. Local business leaders,
  3. Bank representatives,
  4. Divisional and Pradeshiya Sabha authorities,
  5. District and Provincial Council representatives related to livelihood e.g. Fishery, Agriculture,
  6. UN, I/NGOs active in livelihood development,
  7. Members of the Divisional livelihood teams.

Salient Features of Divisional Planning

Moreover, the methodology allows stakeholders to identify with the planning process and to prioritize identified projects and activities. Implemented as a programme cycle, it gives the stakeholders at the divisional level the know how to repeat this participatory planning and implementation exercise with (diminishing) facilitation from RADA.

Programme Cycle of DLDP

Process and Expected Outcome

Together with stakeholders in the field and at national level, RADA will facilitate the development of divisional livelihood development plans for 43 divisions in 10 districts. Given the limited implementation capacity of RADA, 35 divisions were selected as priority and included into the first batch and 8 more divisions will be completed under phase 2.

Following table specifies selected districts and number of divisions (DS = Divisional Secretary) and Grama Niladhari = GN). All DLDPs that have been launched (10 nos.), are online on www.rada.gov.lk or http://dldp.rada.gov.lk/livelihood web pages.

Table. Selected Divisions

District

DS

GN

District

DS

GN

Jaffna

2

32

Hambantota

4

33

Kilinochchi

1

43

Galle

6

132

Ampara

9

126

Matara

4

72

Trincomalee

5

52

Kalutara

3

55

Batticaloa

8

88

Mullaitivu

1

18

     

Total

43

651

Figure 10.1. Geographic Locations of DLDPs

Implementation Strategy

After completion of the draft DLDPs and following the programme cycle, RADA will evaluate them and seek the endorsement of the final DLDPs, including a prioritized list of projects. The implementation of identified projects will not be undertaken by RADA, but strictly by Government Ministries and bodies, donors and Development Agencies. RADA will, however, reserve the right to facilitate and actively participate in the implementation of those projects identified as pilot projects due to their innovative methodology or implementation strategy.

Investment funding and implementation will be mobilized through a variety of resources:

Finally, RADA will play an active role in (i) systemizing and publishing feed back from implementing agencies on project selection, duration, implementation time schedules and progress through its district livelihood database, (ii) in project appraisal in collaboration with implementing agencies, and (iii) in preparing the next generation of DLDPs with a focus on problem analysis and amendments to the DLDP template.

Conclusion

Livelihood recovery is well underway, but can be improved to achieve the goal of building back better by improving coordination mechanisms, optimization of financial and physical resources by better targeting of livelihood recovery investments based upon community driven approaches and increasing the quality of investments, particularly in community infrastructure.

Three main recommendations to accelerate equitable livelihood development are:

  1. Efforts need to be increased in those districts where livelihood recovery is lagging behind;
  2. In most of affected areas families were already living well below the poverty line, recovery efforts need to include this poverty dimension in order to cater for those divisions and districts where the need is greatest;
  3. Livelihood recovery issues are not only tsunami related but also conflict related, in order to achieve equity these issues need to be addressed to ensure social stability.

The RADA Livelihood Unit Income Recovery programme provides a flexible decentralized system of management and coordination for a comprehensive and transparent response to local livelihood needs. Current standards in community infrastructure development are improved through establishing and disseminating policies and standards and training of technical staff on best practice sites. The IRP promotes reconstruction through appropriate technology that creates employment and maximizes the use of local human and physical resources.

Divisional Livelihood Development Plans (DLDPs) provide communities with the opportunity to participate and take the lead in the prioritization of investments and creates a platform for joint planning between the Government, communities, private sector and Non-Governmental Organizations. Implementation mechanisms are proposed and need to be discussed in detail with Government decision-makers to guarantee that the needs based investment priorities are realized in service of a better livelihood for affected communities, providing families and businesses with means to build a brighter future.

2.11. FAO emergency and rehabilitation operations in Sri Lanka12

Serge Tissot, Deputy Coordinator, FAO ERCU, FAO Sri Lanka

Background

Post-tsunami events in December 2004, the FAO became the lead UN coordinating agency for the fisheries and agricultural sectors in Sri Lanka. The current rehabilitation programme that is being lead is worth US$26.5 million and comprises of 9 projects in the fisheries sector worth US$23.3 million; 4 projects in the agricultural sector worth US$2.5 million; and regional project associated with forestry rehabilitation that has a Sri Lankan component worth US$0.75 million.

Within the agricultural sector 7843 families were affected by the tsunami with 3646 ha of paddy and a further 488 ha of food crops/vegetables destroyed. More importantly from a livelihoods and household food security perspective 27710 home gardens were destroyed with significant loss to livestock. Land and groundwater bodies were affected by salinity and a number of water storage facilities lost.

This brief report outlines the relief efforts and activities that have been coordinated by FAO with support from partners in rehabilitating the agricultural sector in Sri Lanka.

Relief activities in the agricultural sector

The first priority of the relief effort in the agricultural sector focused on supporting farmers to resume their livelihoods. Activities in this respect included the following:

The total number of beneficiaries that benefited from the distribution of seeds and fertilizer in 9 districts affected by the tsunami is presented in Table 11.1. A total of 13298 individuals benefited from the distribution of paddy, vegetable seeds and orchard seedlings over the Yala and Maha seasons since the tsunami (Table 11.1). With respect to the livestock distribution programme a total of 2044 individuals benefit from the allocation of cattle, goats and poultry with the highest number of beneficiaries being in the Trincomalee district (Table 11.2). Further a total of 14420 individuals received training in improved farming techniques, animal husbandry and food processing and nutrition (Table 11.3).

Along with the aforementioned distributions, the programme allowed for the provision of tools and equipment that included the following:

Table 11.1. Number of beneficiaries that received seeds and fertilizers in nine tsunami affected districts of Sri Lanka. Values in italics indicate the number of recepients receiving seed and fertilizers packages in the Yala seasons, all other values pertain to the Maha season.

District

Paddy/Fert

OFC/Fert

Home Garden

Total

Galle

417 + 510

 

188 + 200

1315

Matara

286 + 288

 

97 + 51

722

Hambantota

965

 

275 + 868

2 108

Ampara

2 633

100

200

2 933

Batticaloa

150

100

620

870

Trincomalee

200

830

400

1430

Mullaitivu

1620

100

1 000

2 720

Kilinochchi

-

 

700

700

Jaffna

240

 

260

500

Total

7 309

1130

4 859

13 298

Table 11.2. Number of beneficiaries of the livestock distribution programme in the nine worst affected tsunami districts

District

Cattle

Goat

Poultry

Galle

34

9

28

Matara

6

7

4

Hambantota

13

16

7

Ampara

50

50

250

Batticaloa

50

50

250

Trincomalee

60

160

490

Mullaitivu

50

50

250

Kilinochchi

30

50

 

Jaffna

30

50

 

Total

323

442

1279

Table 11.3. Numbers of participants attending training courses in improved agricultural techniques, animal husbandry and food processing and nutrition on a district basis

District

Agriculture

Livestock

Nutrition

Galle

729

93

 
Matara

274

10

 
Hambantota

930

8

 
Ampara

2 275

350

550

Batticaloa

880

350

429

Trincomalee

1300

820

251

Mullaitivu

2315

356

343

Kilinochchi

700

80

398

Jaffna

440

80

459

Total

9 843

2 147

2 430

In addition to the role of facilitating the relief effort, the programme has played a significant role in coordinating the relief effort amongst a diverse number of players. This included the co-chairing of monthly meetings between the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) and Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (MFAR) and various NGOs, donors, the Red Cross Movement and UN agencies with the objective of harmonizing the work effort and providing guidance. The coordination role also included the consolidation and analysis of data collected at the field level; technical assistance; maintaining dialogues between the Government and NGOs; and directing activities with respect to longer-term planning efforts.

Impact of FAO emergency projects

There have been significant impacts that can be attributed to the FAO and its partners in implementing the range of projects. These impacts include:

In addition, the organization was responsible in convening the Rehabilitation Programme Workshop in Colombo on the 23rd-24th March 2006, where a large number of actors discussed and assessed activities currently being undertaken.

Constraints

The programme has not been without its problems that have affected the relief effort to varying degrees. These constraints include:

2.12. Damage, needs and aid to tsunami affected farmers in Thailand13

Kasem Petchsung, Senior Agricultural Extensionist, Provincial Agricultural Office, Phang-Nga Province Thailand

Background

The effects of the tsumani in Thailand were confined to coastal communities along the Andaman Sea. A total of 5800 people died with 2900 declared missing. 3600 houses were destroyed and 412 communities were affected. The worst affected province was Phang-Nga where 4225 people lost their lives and 4394 households were affected by the disaster. Within the province 957 ha of agricultural land was lost and 412 farmers were affected. Along with this, livestock were destroyed and natural resources (i.e. mangroves, beaches, corals and fresh water) were all negatively impacted upon.

Response to the disaster

The Royal Thai Governments response to the crisis with respect to farmers was to compensate farmers in a one-off cash payment equivalent to 10 percent of their production costs. In addition, external agencies such as the FAO provided coconut, oil palm and cashew nut seedlings for the establishment of 94 ha. Similarly, gypsum, inorganic and organic fertilizers and vegetable seeds were supplied to farmers for rehabilitation purposes and the establishment of crops. Selected farmers were provided with inexpensive vegetable hydroponic kits and associated training. Land and houses were provided to 152 farmer families and various alternative career options were promoted.

Lessons learnt

The lessons learnt from the disaster are that there was a strong willingness to cooperate with national and international organizations in providing humanitarian aid to affected communities. However, with the many actors involved in the relief effort there was a problem with coordination; a mismatch in aid with the real needs of individuals and communities; and a dependency of people on the aid provided.

2.13. Tsunami related agricultural damage assessment in Thailand14

Project undertaken between Prince of Songkhla University and FAO

Background

A detailed assessment of damage caused by the tsunami to agriculture (field crops and plantation crops including horticulture) was carried over the last 6 months. High resolution satellite imageries and aerial photos were used to delineate the boundaries of the damaged area and to identify preliminary results. The related attributes including present land use, type and extent of damage, and salinity level of the soil were collected through ground-based surveys and interviews. The soil samples and the X, Y coordination of the sampling points were also recorded by a handheld GPS device.

The classification of agricultural damage criteria used in this study was a modification of the FAO procedure for each specific land use type based on the extent and rehabilitation measures needed. The main criteria used included the percentage of crop damage, ECe, type of damage, soil texture, landform and depth of water table (Table 13.1).

Table 13.1. Examples of criteria and weighing of each criteria for different land use types

Field damage criteria

Low

Medium

High

Suggested ranking

Coconut

Land form

1-2

3

4

1.-2. foot slope and sand dune, respectively
3. flat, gentle slope
4. depression, back swamp

Percent of field damage

2

4

6

2. less than 20 percent of crop damage 4. between 20-60 percent of crop damage
6. more than 60 percent of crop damage

ECe

-

1

2

1. less than 8 dS/m
2. more than 8 dS/m

Cashew nut

Percent of field damage

2

4

6

2. less than 20 percent of crop damage 4. between 20-60 percent of crop damage
6. more than 60 percent of crop damage

ECe

1

2

3

1. less than 4 dS/m
2. between 4-8 dS/m 3. more than 8 dS/m

Damage type

1

2

4

1. inundation of seawater
2. deposition of salted sediment
4. erosion/top soil fertility losses

Fruit tree

Percent of field damage

2

4

6

2. less than 20 percent of crop damage 4. between 20-60 percent of crop damage
6. more than 60 percent of crop damage

ECe

1

3

5,7

1. less than 2 dS/m
3. between 2-4 dS/m
5. more than 4-8 dS/m
7. more than 8 dS/m

Damage type

2

4

6

2. inundation of seawater
4. deposition of salted sediment
6. erosion/top soil fertility losses
Texture 1 3 5 1. coarse-textured soil
3. medium-textured soil
5. mod. medium to fine-textured soil
Depth of water table 1 3 5 1. less than 0.5 m
2. between 0.5-1 m
3. more than 1 m
Rubber
Percent of field damage 2 4 6 2. less than 20 percent of crop damage
4. between 20-60 percent of crop damage
6. more than 60 percent of crop damage
ECe 1 3 5,7 1. less than 2 dS/m
3. between 2-4 dS/m
5. more than 4-8 dS/m
7. more than 8 dS/m
Texture 1 3 5 1. coarse-textured soil
3. medium-textured soil
5. mod. medium to fine-textured soil
Depth of water table 1 3 5 1. less than 0.5 m
3. between 0.5-1m
5. more than 1 m

Table 13.2. Scores of damage level in different land use types

Level of damage

A (low)

B (medium)

C (high)

Coconut

<6

6-9

>9

Cashew nut

<7

7-10

>10

Fruit tree

<14

14-21

>21

Rubber

<11

11-17

>17

Oil palm

<8

8-12

>12

Paddy

<10

10-15

>15

Vegetable/field crop

<13

13-17

>17

Types of damage included the following: a) direct impact or wave action which uprooted crops/plantations/horticultural crops; (b) crop damage due to salinity caused by seawater inundation; (c) top soil fertility losses; and (d) deposition of salt sediments.

The score given according to the criteria from both field observation and the analysis of soil samples were organized into a GIS database. The above-mentioned criteria scores for each point or polygon values were extrapolated to grid data/surface and then overlaid using GIS techniques to evaluate the final score of each damaged area. The agricultural damage levels for different land use were classified into 3 categories as presented in Table 13.2.

The assessment results showed that the most highly damaged provinces were Phang-Nga, Ranong and Satun with a total agricultural area affected by the tsunami of 6671, 3306 and 1183 rai (1 rai is

equivalent to 1/6 of a hectare) respectively (Table 13.3). The main agricultural land uses affected were coconut (5468 rai), cashew nut (3382 rai), vegetable and watermelon (755 rai), and paddy (506 rai) mainly in Trang and Satun provinces. Other crops losses included rubber plantations (469 rai), forage crops (399 rai), fruit crops (213 rai) and oil palms (132 rai), and 444 rai of shrimp farms (Table 13.3).

Table 13.3. The agricultural area affected by the tsunami in different provinces

Province

Coconut

Cashew nut

Fruit crop

Para rubber

Oil palm

Forage crop

Vege­table

Paddy

Other tree crops

Total

Karbi

-

-

Trang

190

233

423

Phang-Nga

4 675

350

213

467

132

206

184

6 671

Phuket

249

2

118

369

Ranong

81

3 032

193

3 306

Satun

273

637

273

1 183

Total

5 468

3 382

213

469

132

399

755

506

184

11952

Level of damage

The level of damage to agricultural land was evaluated and classified into 3 categories. The area of low, medium and high damage were 918.4 (8.7 percent), 8800.7 (83.6 percent) and 807.5 (7.7 percent) rai, respectively. The most highly damaged crops were coconut, consisting of a total of 5245.0 rai, of which 88.4 percent was located in Phang-Nga province. The total damage to cashew nut plantings was 2676.8 rai, and about 2245.6 rai or 84 percent was in Ranong province. The damaged area of paddy was 1104.0 rai and most of it (87.5 percent) was at a medium level of damage. About 65.3 percent of the damage area was in Ranong province (Table 13.4).

Table 13.4. Level of damage under major land use type in the affected area (rai)

Major Crop

Province

Low

Med

High

Total

Percent

Cashew nut

Ranong

-

1911.20

334.3

2 245.60

83.9

Phang-Nga

174.8

84.40

172.0

431.20

16.1

Total

174.8

1 995.70

506.4

2 676.80

100.0

Percent

6.5

74.60

18.9

100.00

 

Coconut

Ranong

-

80.60

-

80.60

1.5

Phang-Nga

395.8

4 219.30

23.8

4 638.90

88.4

Phuket

-

231.30

21.3

252.60

4.8

Satun

-

273.00

-

273.00

5.2

Total

395.8

4 804.10

45.1

5 245.00

100.0

Percent

7.5

91.60

0.9

100.00

 

Paddy

Ranong

-

583.10

137.6

720.70

65.3

Satun

-

150.90

-

150.90

13.7

Trang

-

232.50

-

232.50

21.1

Total

0.0

966.40

137.6

1 104.00

100.0

Percent

0.0

87.50

12.5

100.00

 

Description/Discussion of each criteria

Type of damage

The relative severe initial crop damage was the main criteria used in this assessment and it was shown that there was medium damage level in most of the affected area, especially for coconut, cashew nut trees and paddy located in the area near the shore.

ECe

A total of 832 soil samples were analysed and the result indicate that most of the ECe values of the soil samples (80.8 percent) were relatively low (less than 2.0 dS/m) (Table 13.5). This was in agreement with the preliminary FAO report that soil salinity problems were less severe than initially expected. Salinity levels of the soil significantly declined due to the heavy monsoon rainwater and the coarse texture of most of the soil in the region. The salt contamination in the soil was probably washed away and most of the agricultural land damaged by the tsunami waves in the area can be used for cultivation this year.

Table 13.5. Distribution of ECe levels of the soil samples

ECe (dS/m)

Phang-Nga

Ranong

Phuket

Satun

Trang

Krabi

Total

Percent

<2.0

455

73

30

86

20

8

672

80.8

2.0-4.0

67

9

8

4

2

0

90

10.8

4.0-8.0

33

6

4

2

1

0

46

5.5

>8.0

14

2

8

0

0

0

24

2.9

Total no.

569

90

50

92

23

0

832

100.0

Average

1.84

1.35

3.84

0.66

1.25

0.26

   

Stdev

3.15

1.98

5.82

1.06

2.87

0.17

   

Soil Texture

Analysis of samples indicate that 88.24 percent of soil were coarse to medium-textured suggesting the high leachability that would facilitate a rapid return to agricultural production (Table 13.6).

Table 13.6. Distribution of soil texture classes of the soil samples

Province

Coarse-
textured

Medium-
textured

Mod/Medium to fine-textured

Total

Karbi

6

2

-

8

Trang

21

2

-

23

Phang-Nga

455

94

21

570

Phuket

47

3

-

50

Ranong

4

9

77

90

Satun

31

61

-

92

Total

564

171

78

833

Percent

67.71

20.53

9.36

100

Depth of water table

The deep percolation of saline water may occur leading to groundwater recharged by saline water, which may diminish the water supply for irrigation and other usage. The depth of water table at the representative sampling sites was measured for final classification of the field damage.

There were a total of 55 sampling sites, mostly located in Phang-Nga province, with relatively high water table of less than 50 cm. These sites needed more water to leach soluble salt out the soil profile during the dry season to prevent the upward movement of the soluble salt to the rooting zone through capillary rise due to evaporation.

Site specific recommendations

Rehabilitation options and cost will depend on the severity and extent of the crop damage, soil salinity levels and the soil capacity to flush out salts and the re-establish crop/plantation. Detailed site specific damage information and the recommended soil management practices were also presented in the report and the presentation. The major cause of the damage and the criteria indicating the reclamation options in each land use/crop can be summarized as follows:

Coastal zone

The main land use types of the area were coconut and cashew nut plantations. Most of the damage levels were at a medium level consisting of 91.6 percent and 74.6 percent of the total damage areas for coconut and cashew nut, respectively. The major cause of damage for coconut and cashew nut were the initial crop destruction and the erosion of the top soil/loss of fertility. The rehabilitation for these areas can be achieved by assisting the re-establishment of damaged or uprooted plantations. However, priorities should be given to small holders and home-stage gardens.

Upland zone

The areas were used for rubber, mixed fruit crops and oil palm plantations. There were relatively small areas of oil palms and rubber plantations damaged at a high level; the initial high soil salinity was naturally flushed from the topsoil by seasonal monsoon rain.

Lowland zone

The area consists mainly of paddy, some natural forage crops and small areas of vegetable. Roughly equal areas of paddy field (966 and 1 104 rai) were damaged at a low and high damage level, respectively. The main damaged area (65 percent) was in Ranong province and about 21 percent and 14 percent was in Trang and Satun provinces, respectively. Most of the area that was highly damaged, the damage was due to the initial crop losses and the relatively low soil fertility levels of the soils. There were only a few locations which still had relatively high salinity levels due to the high salinity of silt/clay sediment that were deposited.

Concluding remarks

The findings of this study indicated that most of the tsunami affected areas affected by salinity have decreased considerably compared to the initial assessment made immediately after the event. Given that the damaged sites are extremely dispersed, the approach in reclamation the soil affected by salinity is to involve local expertise in strengthening the capability of the local staff to deal with the diagnosis and remediation of the damaged area.

2.14. ACIAR's post-tsunami assistance in agriculture15

John Skerritt, Deputy Director, ACIAR, Canberra Australia

The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) was established in 1982 and together with AusAID, ACIAR forms part of the Australian Government Aid Programme. The mission of the centre is "To achieve more productive and sustainable agricultural systems, for the benefit of Developing Countries and Australia, through international agricultural research partnerships". ACIAR facilitates and funds collaborative research and development and training projects, but does not carry out the projects directly. The total annual budget for the centre is USD $45 million/year with its activities having a strong Asia-Pacific focus.

The livelihoods of communities in the fisheries and agriculture sectors were the hardest hit as a result of the devastating tsunami in December 2004. The need to re-establish food production and livelihoods remains an urgent priority as initial as food and other aid is withdrawn form affected areas. Many issues require technical inputs or training. In this respect ACIAR's mandate effectively means that it has a greater role to play now rather than in the immediate phase after the event.

The post-tsunami assistance programme of ACIAR only covers Indonesia. The basis for this decision was as follows:

The dominant form of damage affecting agricultural coastal area was identified to be:

ACIAR's post-tsunami response

The post-tsunami response consisted of four overlapping phases, namely in-country training activities (in fisheries, soil management and crop production); short scoping studies, to provide and identify specific needs/technical information to underpin agriculture and fisheries reconstruction; collaborative applied 2-3 year R&D projects between Australian and Indonesian partners addressing these needs; and technical input to activities managed by AusAID and by international agencies in areas relevant to ACIAR's expertise.

Training activities

Training activities were provided at the requested by Indonesian Agriculture and Fisheries Ministries for staff from tsunami affected areas to rebuild confidence and build collaborations. These trainings included jointly-delivered short-courses for extension and research staff in Bahasa Indonesia and English (i.e. laboratory and field techniques, train-the-trainer approach). The participation by both Australians and Indonesians in these trainings facilitated the design of project activities so that the training was undertaken in a sustainable context.

Key findings from an ACIAR-funded missions in 2006 were: 

Eastern Aceh

Rice yields were generally described as being reasonable on soils affected by the tsunami. Proposed strategies to reduce crop losses in tsunami affected land include:

Western Aceh

Although the area was more affected by the tsunami, soil salinity in many places is dropping faster in Western than in Eastern Aceh because of higher rainfall and coarser soil texture. There is a need to restore agricultural production to provide livelihood options and to food supplies, particularly when external food aid is reduced. Plantation (tree) crops are dominant in many areas, but they provide cash rather than immediate food needs. Donors are providing basic inputs such as fertilisers, seeds, and hand tractors, and plans are being developed for the rehabilitation/provision of drainage and other engineering works. Significant mapping activities with relevance to agriculture are already underway, but this information is not readily available to agricultural agencies.

There is also a need for soundly-based advice for farmers to enable the low-risk re-establishment of crops in land affected by the tsunami, and to make more effective use of agricultural inputs provided through NGOs. Local agricultural agencies require provision of specific information, equipment and training to deal with these unique soil constraints. Restoration approaches for damage due to salinity and disturbance of the nutrient balance of soils are required both for farming lands that have been drained of soluble salt and where drainage is very slow and needs engineering works.

Three linked ACIAR projects

As a consequence of missions sent immediately after the tsunami, three linked projects have been initiated that address key soil and cropping constraints. These involve international partners (NSW Department of Primary Industry; University of NSW, Curtin University, CSIRO Land and Water, Asian Vegetable R&D Center) and several key Indonesian partners (Assessment Institutes for Agricultural Technology for Aceh and North Sumatra, Indonesian Soils Research Institute, Universities and provincial and district-level Dinas organizations).

These have the following aims:

In these projects we adopt a pragmatic approach - aiming to build a "better" agriculture rather than a "different" agriculture. Expectations of real adoption of very different practices by farmers need to be realistic in traumatised societies. However, in agriculture, fisheries and more broadly the (fragile) peace in Aceh does open up opportunities for economic integration. For example we can use the opportunities provided by changed demographics and construction of new roads to markets and make agriculture more robust and more market-linked.

Each of the three projects is discussed briefly below:

LWR/2005/004 Management of soil fertility for restoring cropping in tsunami affected soils areas of Aceh (6/05-5/07, $0.5 m)

The focus of the project is on Pidie, Bireuen, and Aceh Utara districts on east coast with the following components:

Research, development and extension activities include:

  1. Restoration of agricultural technical capacity
  1. Assess constraints to re-establishment of crop production
  1. Action research for re-establishment of rain-fed rice cropping and dry season field crop production

LWR/2005/118 Restoration of annual cropping in tsunami affected areas of Aceh province, Indonesia (9/06-8/08, $1 m)

Elements of continuation and expansion of the first project are present in this project with plans for working in four districts of East (Bireuen, Pidie) and West (Aceh Barat and Aceh Jaya) coasts. The project has a greater focus on developing district level extension capacity (compared with province level adaptive research capacity) and addressing emerging nutrient disorders.

The three components to the project are:

  1. Rebuild soil-crop management capacity of district-level (Kabupaten) agricultural agencies and farmers
  1. Develop and demonstrate soil management practices to restore the productivity of annual crops
  1. Communicate findings to government and non-government groups

CP/2005/075 Development and promotion of vegetable integrated crop management in the tsunami zone of Aceh ($0.5 m/3 years)

Shallot, chili, tomato, cucumber and amaranth are most important vegetables in Aceh. Significant problems post-tsunami include lack of a skill base in vegetable production compared with field crops among applied research and extension services; poor seed quality; effects of marine deposits causing nutritional disorders; wilting due to diseases and high fluctuations in market prices. The project aims to address all these constraints.

What has worked for ACIAR in our post-tsunami response?

In the process of effecting the restoration of agriculture in tsunami affected areas a number of factors that have enabled significant progresss to occur. They include:

Salinity is still important in many places

Objective identification of areas that can be planted with crops in the short term proved feasible in several areas on the eastern Aceh coast. The EM38 instrument that provides rapid assessment of salinity in the surface layer of soils, is proving very effective in identifying land that can be cropped immediately and that which is too saline. The project teams built upon FAO's initial assessment of salinity and extended this analysis to include fertility, sodicity and acid sulfate aspects of soils affected by seawater and sediment deposits. However, salinity is just one of a number of constraints in the recovery of land for annual cropping. Soil fertility and other chemical and physical changes in tsunami affected soils have manifested in poor yields in rice and "empty pods" in peanuts.

Major challenges remain for donors and government

Many of these challenges are common to other post-crisis situations. These include:

Constraints to collaboration

Limited use of technical information

Challenges to sustainability of technical improvements to agriculture include:

2.15. Coordination and information management in programme management16

Merkur Beqiri, Regional Information Management and Coordination

Introduction

A fundamental prerequisite in programme management is the establishment of a functional and effective coordination mechanism. This may take the form of an individual organization whose role it to coordinate the activities of a number of actors as has been demonstrated with the formation of such structures post-tsunami. A key element in this process of coordination is the utilization and generation of information that can be used to the benefit of all parties. The article presents an argument for the need for a coordination mechanism and discusses some of the attributes associated with a functional coordination programme with particular emphasis on information.

What is coordination?

When discussing programme management, coordination can be defined as the planned collaboration of two or more individuals, departments, programmes, or organizations who are concerned with achieving a common goal. In this respect with effective coordination, each party can focus on its areas of strength leaving other parties to tackle other matters. Through this cooperation with all interested parties once can provide timely, effective and sufficient service/assistance.

Why is coordination important?

There are several reasons why coordination is important. The more parties involved in an operation, the more important it becomes to coordinate their programmes and activities. Coordination is deemed to be such an important component that in several countries organizations have been created and institutionalized whose principal role and mission is to ensure coordination. Examples include RADA preceded by TAFREN in Sri Lanka, the newly established BRR in Indonesia and the Disaster Management Center in the Maldives. It is clearly evident from past experience that the benefits of successful coordination outweigh the difficulties that are often incurred in establishing effective coordination mechanisms. Coordination makes the most efficient and effective use of:

A fundamental advantage of improved coordination this that improves service delivery. This can be achieved through an allocation exercises that initially determined who is doing what and where. In this respect with such coordination, organizations can:

Through improved services coordination;

Why can coordination be difficult?

One can pose the question that if in theory, coordination is necessary and desirable and frequently leads to many positive outcomes, why is it so difficult to put into practice? There are several potential problems/issues that may influence or affect coordination. These include:

Coordinating activities within an organization

Once a decision is made to implement a coordination programme within an organization, the first steps to effective programme coordination specifically targets a managers role in overall coordination. This includes the following:

As indicated above, fundamental and integral to effective coordination is the utilization of information. Hence, there are several questions that one needs to ask in order to determine how and with whom information that is received or produced should be shared with.

Key questions that can be asked are:

Internal coordination comes first

An organization or department should make sure that its own activities are well coordinated before launching a major external effort. Internal coordination is easier to carry out than coordination between organizations, due to the presence of a single formal authority structure. All too often, however, organizations become fragmented. Each person or unit focuses on one activity or set of activities, and loses sight of what others are doing. The bigger and busier the organization is, the greater the risk of fragmentation. Unless mechanisms are put into place to assure internal coordination, this pattern of isolated activity can become institutionalized and lead to organizational inefficiencies. It is important that people and units see the "big picture" of the organization, in order to relate with the external environment in a realistic and successful way.

Internal coordination and communication can be achieved by

Coordinating the activities of different departments

It is important for all managers, no matter what their roles and responsibilities in the organization, to see the "big picture" and understand how all the organization's components interact.

When many organizations are involved in providing services, you may want to sort out which organization is doing what, and whether any one organization is duplicating work of the others, by developing a chart that shows the functional allocation of responsibilities.

Improving coordination among organizations

Factors influencing the implementation of a successful coordination programme

Successful coordination with in an organization improves when:

Conclusions

In summary,

2.16. Assessment of tsunami damage to coastal vegetation and the development of guidelines for integrated coastal area management17

Hemanthi Ranasinghe, Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

Background

Sumatra - Tsunami, the Killer Wave swept over nearly two thirds of the coast of Sri Lanka on 26 December 2004. In total more than 250000 people died in Asia, with Sri Lanka contributing an estimated 40000 to this total. Around 500000 people in Sri Lanka were displaced and more than 119000 houses destroyed or damaged.

The coastal zone was the recipient of this devastation with 75 percent of its area being affected. Thirteen coastal districts were directly affected with the north and the east suffering the greatest degree of devastation accounting for about 2/3 of deaths and 60 percent of all displacements. In terms of ecological aspects, the killer wave was responsible for debris on the coastline stemming from damaged structures, uprooted trees, eroded soil, garbage both solid and liquid, dead and decaying organic matter etc. Major cities were destroyed, their sewer lines and garbage disposal sites damaged, shops selling hazardous chemicals such as inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, paints etc. were destroyed resulting in organic and inorganic contamination of water sources. Apart from a few trees most of the vegetation was damaged either completely or partially due to the energy of the waves as well as the salt water that was brought inland. Most of the estuaries, lagoons, coral reefs, salt marshes, sea grass beds and mangroves were damaged to varying levels. Lagoons and estuaries had a surge of salt water which disturbed the balance which in turn affected the fauna and flora within them. Most of the fringing mangroves and coral reefs were damaged. However, deeper off-shore reefs were able to sustain the damage to a certain extent. There was extensive scouring of the beach caused by the back wash. This impact was greater in the eastern part of Sri Lanka which experienced the full force of the wave when compared to the western part of the island. Coastal vegetation such as mangroves, coastal shelterbelts and community vegetations along with a combination of factors such as coastal sand dunes, and creeks have played a role in mitigating to some extent the impact of the tsunami on these coastal communities.

In an immediate response to the tsunami catastrophe several organizations including government and non-government, carried out environmental assessments in affected areas. Out of these the Rapid Assessment by the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MENR) in close cooperation with the Central Environmental Authority (CEA) and with the assistance and support of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is of note. It consisted of two parts, focusing on the 'green' environment (ecosystems, biodiversit, protected areas and farmlands) and the 'brown' environment (pollution, debris and impacts on human settlements and infrastructure). One year after the devastating tsunami, a study was commissioned by the FAO with the objective of scientifically assessing the nature of the damage of tsunami to coastal vegetation and to understand the way nature had reacted to the devastation. The mitigating functions of natural ecosystems were also assessed. Guidelines were developed for integrated coastal management with special reference to the establishment of a 'Green Belt' - coastal shelterbelts that would add protection against future natural coastal disasters i.e. tsunamis, cyclones.

According to the findings from community and key informant surveys, except for a few trees, the entire area including ground vegetation, trees/shrubs were devastated from the tsunami. This was due to the force of the wave as well as the high salt levels that were deposited inland. After several months i.e. 3-4 months vegetation started gradually to establish in these devastated areas. A significant observation that has been made is that leaf vegetables such as Sarana (Triamthema decandra), Kankun (Ipomea aquatica), Thampala (Nothosaerva brachiata), Mukunuwanna (Alternanthera sessilis) etc. and plants of the family Cucurbitaceae i.e. Seeni kekiri (Cucumis sativus) Wal kekiri, Watakka (Cucurbita mixima) etc. have proliferated almost all the home gardens especially on the western coast. They had yielded high for some months and thereafter declined with time. Papaw trees were growing in bunches in many places and according to the information from communities they are yielding even better than pre-tsunami conditions. Banana suckers that had been uprooted or damaged by tsunami had not recovered well. The following trees were significantly affected by the tsunami; Coconut (Cocos nucifera), Kottamba (Terminalia catappa), Mudilla (Barringtonia spp.). Gan suriya (Thespesia spp.). The trees that were significantly affected by tsunami damage were Del (Artocarpus nobilis), Palmyrah (Borassus flabellifer) Araliya (Plumeria acuminata), Puwak (Areca catechu), Banana (Musa spp.), Kitul (Caryota urens), Guava (Psidium guajava), Avacardo pears (Persea gratissima), trees of the citrus family i.e. Oranges, Lemon, Lime (Citrus spp.) Alstonia, Teak (Tectona grandis) etc. According to the results of the study, Ipomea pescaprae, Spinifex spp. were abundant in the ground layer while Calotropis gigantean, Ricinus communis, Dichapetalum gelonioides, Morinda citrifolia, Crinum asiaticum, Solanum violaceum were dominant in the shrub layer. In the tree layer the dominant species were Pandanus spp., Terminalia catappa, Barringtonia spp., Thespesia spp. and Cocos nucifera. On the eastern coast the vegetation was somewhat different from that of the west. Spinifex spp., Dichapetalum gelonioides, Eclipta prostrate, Cucumis spp. dominated the ground layer while Calotropis spp., Agaves spp., Cassia auriculata, Memecylon angustifoloium were abundant in the shrub layer. In the tree layer Cocos nucifera, Casuarina equisetifolia, Thespesia, Manilkara hexandra, Azadirachta indicam Crateva spp., Woodfordia fruticosa and Syzygium assimile were abundant.

Rehabilitation of the Coastal Environment

The rapid assessments of tsunami affected coastal areas recommended many interventions. The following are the most important interventions mentioned; relocating settlements, redesigning new construction, building artificial breakwaters, establishing/stabilizing sand dunes, establishing a Coastal Green Belt and rehabilitating mangroves on damaged sites, establishing artificial coral reefs and restoration of coral reefs and establishing marine protected areas. Using suitable strategic interventions to facilitate the participation of NGOs, local communities and other responsible elements to rehabilitate damaged ecosystems with priority to Special Area Management (SAM) sites was stressed. The Coast Conservation Department has commenced work on setting up revetments as artificial barriers in vulnerable areas in the coast. It is also presently working on preparing policy guidelines for the establishment of the Coastal Green Belt with the active participation of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Urban Development Authority (UDA), university academics and other relevant bodies.

Establishment of the Green Belt

The Green Belt concept has emerged with the association of many state and other agencies after the Government declared zoning in the coastal zone; 100 m on the west coast and 200 m on the east coast based on the extent of the damage. After much discussion, limits have now been revised and are in line with those declared in the Revised Coastal Zone Management Plan of 1997. These limits vary with the particular site and are based on the coastal bathymetry and other factors of vulnerability.

The aim of establishing the Green Belt is to achieve the best possible balance between human use and nature conservation needs while ensuring the following;

  1. The resulting landscape is aesthetically pleasing and varied in character from place to place, increasing scenic value, providing shade where necessary, and enhancing coastal tourism, recreation and other activities.
  2. There is better protection of the shoreline against erosion; (vegetation cover stabilizes the soil increasing resistance to wave action and it disburses wave energy, decreasing possible damage).
  3. Dense vegetation cover is established wherever possible, to disburse wave energy to the extent of reducing potential damage to human lives and properties from natural hazards such as tsunamis and cyclone storm surge.
  4. The socio-economic conditions of local coastal communities are improved through green belt vegetation contributing to their livelihoods directly (e.g. through sale of agricultural produce) or indirectly (e.g. by providing shade, coolness, shelter, visual enhancement, etc.) for other revenue generating activities.

Concept of Bioshield and Biovillage in the establishment of the Green Belt

A bioshield is a band of vegetation facing the sea which provides protection against coastal storms and tsunami and will confer multiple benefits to local communities as well as to the country as a whole. The Biovillage which conceptually is the adjoining area to the bioshield, facilitates sustainable use of natural resources and the introduction of market-driven, farm and non-farm livelihood options. Value adding to primary products produced in the biovillage is promoted. It involves a paradigm shift from unskilled to skilled work, resulting in the addition of economic value to time and labour of coastal communities. According to the tsunami damage assessments, most of the lives lost were within 100 m of the sea. This shows the vulnerability of the proximal areas to natural calamities including tsunami and cyclones. Therefore, the bioshield or the green belt which is situated closer to the sea should comprise of trees which have shown their resistance to the disaster especially the recent tsunami. This can be taken from the species which had shown highest relative abundance within the 100 m along the coastal zone. Scientific knowledge on the properties of these species can be supplemented by local knowledge.

In the coastal zone, there are many deed holders having land very close to the sea. According to the Revised Coastal Zone Management Plan of 1997, reservations are being set and erection of any permanent or temporary buildings are not permitted on them. This land could be counted as part of the Green Belt programme and the selection of plants can be mutually agreed to provide protection and also economic benefits to the owner.

The following criteria can be used in selecting plants to be grown in these lands:

In any form of planting adherence to the following is very important:

Approach to establishment of the Green Belt

The coastal area could be broadly divided into natural, rural and urban landscapes although there are obviously areas of transition and overlap among them. It is essential to firstly study the area and identify whether it is urban, rural, natural or transitional. Wherever natural maritime vegetation communities exist, even as small remnants, the basic principle should be to conserve them and integrate them into the design.

Arrangement of the Tree Belt

In the areas where the natural coastal tree belt had prevailed, care should be taken to mimic its original condition. The arrangement of the belt should be as follows where the design includes ground vegetation, shrubs and then trees. With respect to mangrove areas, care should be taken to reinstate the mangroves with species which were present prior to the tsunami.

In Natural locations

The natural terrain should be restored as far as possible and the natural vegetation should be restored or enhanced. In certain places its growth/regeneration may be merely facilitated, e.g. by temporary fencing to a specific design.

There should be careful identification of character/use areas and the necessary links or barriers between them. Footpaths through mangrove forests and over sand dunes should preferably be raised board walks to ensure minimum disturbance to the mangroves or dune stabilization.

In Rural locations

At least a 15 to 20 m wide strip of natural littoral woodland and strand vegetation should be planted on the seaward side of agricultural crops. Any patches of natural vegetation should not be removed but integrated. Agricultural crops, not confined to native and endemic species, should be selected to suit the specific location.

In Urban locations

Patches of natural vegetation should be integrated as far as possible with whatever is the most suitable concept for a particular area. There could be open grassed/sandy/paved parks or playgrounds or sports grounds of various sizes, provided there is a substantial belt of trees on the seaward side, and in cyclone prone areas, wind shelter belts on all sides. Plant species could be endemic/native/or introduced, as long as they are adapted to the coastal location. There could be many alternative styles, materials, finishes and colours for structures and surfaces and they should be strong enough to tolerate intensive use. Formal geometrical layouts and regular planting will often be most suitable. There should be sufficiently wide beach stabilizing vegetation strips between seaside retaining walls and the open beach. Vehicle access and parking should not appropriately done not to stand out with the general aesthetics of the area. Finally, sea walls, piers, quays, street furniture, kiosks, picnic/rest shelters, infrastructure facilities and other minimal permitted structures should be located and detailed with care, to ensure an attractive townscape.

In cyclone prone areas, whether rural or urban

Along the north and east coasts in particular, wind shelter belts should be planted around crops and settlements. In this respect, the trees and shrubs used could be introduced species as well as indigenous/native (found naturally in Sri Lanka) and endemic (found naturally only in Sri Lanka) species. Large open areas such as sports areas should be subdivided with windbreaks as much as possible. In general, wind shelterbelt planting is better in the form of collective shelterbelts, noting that an effective belt affords 20 percent wind speed reduction on its leeward side for a proportionate leeward area if it is smooth-surfaced and 50 percent if it is rough-surfaced. In the case of flat terrain, there is significant shelter for a distance ten times the height of the belt on the windward side, and thirty times the height of the belt on the leeward side. Within this protected distance, there is highly significant shelter for a distance of five times the height on the windward side and twenty times the height on the leeward side. Medium canopy, long-rooted trees and thick-foliaged shrubs should be combined to provide reasonably dense windbreaks while still allowing the wind to filter through.

Conceptual Layout of the Green Belt for the southeastern and eastern coasts

Conceptual Layout of the Green Belt for the western coast

Implementation

The situation with regard to land rights in the coastal zone

Many people owned land along the coast prior to the tsunami. However, after the event, the Government declared that 100 m and 200 m from the high water line on the west coast and east coast respectively should be declared a no build zone. With time it was reduced and finally it is adhering to the setback levels declared in the 1997 Coastal Zone Management Plan. A setback area is a geographical strip or band within the coastal zone or within which certain development activities are prohibited or significantly restricted. It comprises of the Reservation Area and the Restricted Area lying between the Seaward Reference Line and the Landward Reference Line. The Reservation Area is nearest to the shoreline, is a no build zone in which only uses that are absolutely essential are allowed. The Restricted Area can be used for low impact activities such as small dwelling units. The width of the Reservation Area and the Restricted Area will vary in accordance with vulnerability to erosion of the coastal segment in which it is located.

Modalities of implementation of the Green Belt

The main objective of the above programme is to reduce the vulnerability of the coastal communities to natural hazards. Therefore the wider concepts of coastal management, including the engagement of local communities in the decision-making and implementation process, is encouraged. This is also substantiated by the Cairo Principles for post-tsunami rehabilitation and reconstruction. In order to maximize the participation, the Special Area Management (SAM) Strategy can be adopted. Key aspects of this strategy are;

For the effective implementation of the Green Belt programme the following steps should be taken;

Organizational procedures

The Coast Conservation Department is presently preparing policy guidelines for tree planting in coastal zones. Stakeholder organizations both government and non-government and private are engaged in either direct planting or strike up collaborations with ground level partner organizations (NGOs and CBOs) - for carrying out planting and looking after the plants. Hotels, schools can be identified and encouraged to monitor the planting.

Increase the awareness of the communities and others in the concept of Green Belts, emphasizing the importance of them to their lives. As an extension to this, the concept of Biovillage where sustainable utilization of the natural resources are encouraged that provide both economic and ecological benefits.

Plant nurseries established close to the sea would facilitate the provision of plants. These nurseries should be established preferably by communities and the benefit of the sale of plants should accrue to them. Community groups should be mobilized with adequate awareness and knowledge in nursery operations and planting in each division. Partnerships could be formed with government, non government and private sector organizations with communities effecting the work. An example of such an approach is the fisheries society in Kottukal, Pottuvil in Ampara district. In this respect, the Forest Department formed a partnership with them in providing polybags and also technical guidance. The society maintains nurseries and also plant the seedlings in the field for which they get Rs.25/plant from the Department.

Cash for work to encourage the full participation of communities. Suitable incentive schemes should be prepared so that the affected communities would be actively involved in maintaining the plants. For example people having land on the beach should be involved in the establishment of the green belt. For the plants in the Bioshield, they should be involved in the planting for which they would be paid a suitable sum/plant. Every year, an incentive could be paid if over 80 percent of the plants survive. This can be continued for about 3 years until the plants become established.

Provide multipurpose plants free of charge to the landowners having land on the coastal zone within the reservation area. Financial benefits may be required at the initial stages as most of them are tsunami victims. When selecting the plants, multipurpose species having the potential for protection as well as production should be a priority.

Local government should be involved in the maintenance of the Green Belt. They should be given the responsibility of watering the plants and putting guards around them at the initial stages. Adequate funds should be allocated for this in their budget.

Monitoring

Coordinating committees will be formed at both district/divisional and Grama Niladhari (GN) level to facilitate and monitor the progress. At the District Level, the District Secretary will chair the meetings with the participation of representatives of CCD, FD, DWLC and other relevant line agencies plus representatives of the NGO/CBOs involved in the process. At the Divisional level, the Divisional Secretary would be the chairman while representatives of the RAD A, CCD, FD, DWLC, NGOs and CBOs will participate. The representative of the CCD in the Divisional Secretariat could take a greater responsibility. The GN will chair the meeting with the participation of the representatives of the NGOs and CBOs and representatives of other stakeholder organizations as the case may be.

We are not in a position to stop natural disasters, but we can learn lessons from them and rebuild our nation even better than what it was prior to the catastrophe. This should be our ultimate goal.

2.17. Impacts of tsunami on soil properties in Aceh18

Achmad Rachman, Indonesian Soil Research Institute, Bogor, Indonesia

Background

The Indonesian Soil Research Institute with the support of the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) has embarked on a research programme to assess the extent of damage associated with tsunami as it pertains to soil properties and monitor progress with respect to the rehabilitation process due to natural leaching and flushing of salts. In addition, the project has evaluated different crops for their ability to tolerate elevated saline conditions and develop practical guidelines for farmers as they return to farming. The report brief discusses the outcomes of current and ongoing research activities.

Characterization of ‘mud' deposited by the tsunami

A consequence of the tsunami was the deposition of sediments (mud) that were of marine origin on land that had previously been used for agriculture. These sediments varied in thickness and in chemical and physical attributes (Table 17.1).

Table 17.1. Selected chemical and physical characteristics of deposited sediments of marine origin collected from affected agricultural field in January 2005

Village

Mud Depth (cm)

Sand (percent)

Clay (percent)

ECe dS/cm

C (percent)

Exchangeable cations (cmol /kg)

Ca2+

Mg2+

K+

Na+

Lamcot

10-20

52.8

7.8

60.9

2.9

24.7

6.9

0.5

13.6

Keuneune

15-25

26.2

42.8

84.9

4.1

20.1

24.5

2.2

59.7

Pineung

15-25

12.3

42.3

80.1

2.3

18.6

26.2

2.9

56.9

Tanjung

<5

47.2

24.8

38.9

2.0

8.6

10.8

0.8

18.9

Miuree

<10

6.2

41.9

19.8

2.8

18.9

19.7

2.4

13.8

These sediments varied in their sand and clay composition and were all high in organic carbon (Table 17.1). The EC of these materials was high along with the concentration of exchangeable Na+ and Mg2+ which is predictable shortly after the event. If is also of note that these materials contained significant quantities of acid generating iron (pyritic materials) which when exposed to oxidizing conditions in the presence of large amounts of carbon, produce significant amounts of acid. This is a potential problem in the rehabilitation of affected fields as there will be a requirement for lime to neutralize the acid generated due to oxidation.

The rehabilitation of affected fields necessitate the remove of large quantities of debris and the installation/restoration of an effective drainage system to removed impounded water and the facilitation of the leaching process. In addition, lands needed to be protected from tidal ingress in order to prevent continued saline water intrusion.

Mapping the extent of saline affected soils

In the post-tsunami rehabilitation programme, significant effort has been placed on mapping lands affected by salinity. This has allowed the delineation spatially of all agricultural land affected by saline water intrusion and quantified the degree of salinization that has occurred. This is of importance in the rehabilitation process as it allows for classification of lands into different levels of salinity and therefore allows target rehabilitation activities to be initiated. In addition the baseline data collected in this mapping exercise can be used to monitor the degree of leaching and flushing of salts that is achieved through natural rainfall events.

The rapid mapping of soils affected by salinity was achieved using an electromagnetic induction meter, EM38, along with a GPS. The maps produced for the different affected areas have been published and are being used in the rehabilitation effort(Fig. 17.1.)

Figure 17.1. Map of salt-affected agricultural fields in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam produced using EM38 salinity meters and GPS

A calibration curve has been produced relating the EC measured using the EM38 and laboratory determined EC that can be used to convert field based readings of electrical conductivity to standarized EC measure made under control laboratory conditions (Figure 17.2). This has assisted in rapidly assessing the degree to which soils are recovering from salt water intrusion.

Figure 17.2. Relationship between ECa as measured in the field using an EM38 meter and ECe as measured on soil samples in the laboratory.

Monitoring the degree of rehabilitation

Permanent monitoring sites have been established throughout affected areas to assess the degree of leaching/flushing of salts from the effective root zone that has occurred due to natural rainfall events. Soil samples are collected from depth on a routine basis and subjected to comprehensive chemical analysis that includes key indicator ions of salinity and EC. Examples of exchangeable Na+ to a depth of 80 cm are presented for selected sites (Figure 17.3). It is clearly evident that dramatic changes have occurred in the exchangeable Na+ over a relatively short period of time, clearly indicating the positive benefits associated with natural flushing and leaching under these tropical environments. It is however of note that in some cases i.e. Panteraja Pidie the degree of leaching/ flushing of Na+ is not as great due to lower rainfall in the area (Figure 17.3).

It is important to note that the long-term impacts of saline water intrusion on these soils are still not fully understood. Indeed there is evidence to suggest the development of soils exhibiting sodic characteristics after significant leaching of salts and problems associated with nutritional imbalances i.e. the lack of seed formation in groundnut pods. These issues need to be monitored and assessed as and when they occur and intervention options for farmers developed and distributed.

Introduction of new salt tolerant varieties and recommendations to farmers

Field demonstration trials have been established to introduce new varieties of crops that would tolerate elevated levels of salinity. These include soybean, rice and groundnut varieties. Substantial yields of rice have been achieved on lands that have undergone leaching and flushing of salts with yields of rice varieties Gilirang, Banyuasin and Krueng Aceh exceeding 9.3, 6.2 and 7.1 t/ha. Added to this there is a concerted effort to diversify cropping systems in an effort to increase the viability and profitability of farming enterprises.

Figure 17.3. Monitoring of exchangeable Na+ from permanent monitoring sites established at a) Cot Lheu Rheng, Pidie; b) Panteraja, Pidie; c) Lhok Nga, Aceh Besar; and d) Pineuna, Aceh Besar over the period September 2005 and December 2005.

In addition, recommendations have been made to farmers that would allow them to reduce crop losses on tsunami affected soils. This includes the following:

  1. Avoid planting land that is still saline: The identification of such lands cane be based on farmer knowledge associated with flooding events and seawater intrusion; soil and plant indicators; and soil testing that can be laboratory (ECe) or field (EM38) based.
  2. Enhance the leaching of salt-affected lands: This can be achieved by preventing tidal entry into affected lands; the restoration of drainage infrastructure and irrigation; allow the through flow of water in rice bays; and use beds to establish crops along with mulches.
  3. Build soil fertility: Through the use of inorganic fertilizers and organic matter the chemical, physical and biological attributes of a soil can be enhanced. This is an important step in the recovery process as it will allow the full potential of the soils to be achieved.
  4. Crop type: Volunteer forage grasses can be used in the rehabilitation phase as they are tolerant to prevailing conditions and provide a source of nutrition to livestock; rice should be used as a crop during the leaching phase in the rehabilitation of soils along with the growing of more tolerant crop species.

In building the fertility status of tsunami affected soils under irrigated or wet season production systems, rice can be grown on the flats whilst onions and chilies can be established on raised beds. Combinations of inorganic fertilizers; organic matter from crop residues and manures; and the use of

lime on acid soils and gypsum on clay soil will all assist in improving the nutrient and water holding capacity of soils; improve soil structure to allow effective root development for non-rice crops and reduce the risk of soil borne diseases.

Conclusions

Progress has been made in the overall rehabilitation of the agricultural sector in most affected areas in Indonesia. Through a combination of mapping, monitoring and studies to identify and understand best bet options for farmers in rehabilitating their lands, attempts are being made to rebuild the agricultural sector and the livelihoods of affected communities. There is considerable work still be undertaken and the challenges ahead include the long-term impact of salinity on the chemical and physical attributes of a soil as the leaching process proceeds. These impacts will continue to be monitored and assessed through the establishment of permanent monitoring site.

1 This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

2This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

3This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

4 This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

5 Ref. 1003/10/3/BRR6MonthInfoSheet, Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi (BRR).

6This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

7 This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

8 This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

9 This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

10 This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

11 This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

12 This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

13 This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

14 This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

15 This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

16 This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

17This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

18 This country report has not been formally edited and the designations and terminology used are those of the author.

Previous Page Top of Page Next Page