FAO GLOBAL INFORMATION AND EARLY WARNING SYSTEM ON FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME

SPECIAL REPORT

FAO/WFP CROP AND FOOD SUPPLY ASSESSMENT MISSION TO ANGOLA

12 July 2006

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Mission Highlights

  • Rainfall was the main determinant for Angola’s crop production in 2005/06, with much of the country experiencing excessive rains and/or longer dry spells than usual.
  • With the recent re-settlement trend in former agricultural areas, there was a small increase in land under cultivation compared with 2004/05, but crop yields were generally lower as a result of poor rainfall distribution.
  • Production of 2006 maize, the dominant cereal crop, is estimated at 579 000 tonnes, a reduction of over 20 percent from the previous year’s record harvest. Total cereal production is estimated at 742 000 tonnes, down 15.5 percent on last year but up 7 percent on the average of the previous five years. A drop of about one-third in cereal production is estimated in the most affected central provinces of the country.
  • It is expected that there will be a cereal import requirement of about 843 000 tonnes for marketing year 2006/07 (April/March), including about 217 000 tonnes of maize. Accounting for commercial imports estimated at 776 000 tonnes, there remains a net cereal deficit of about 67 000 tonnes.
  • The supply of cassava in the north of the country is plentiful. Cassava flour is generally available in most local markets; however, it is not widely traded throughout the country.
  • Livestock condition is good; pasture and access to water were problems in the areas where dry spells were experienced (in the south and centre), but became satisfactory following heavy rains in March and April.
  • Despite much progress made over the past few years, some households of refugees and IDPs have not established food security. They add to the number of vulnerable groups, including some female-headed households, and the sick and elderly.
  • Approximately 800 000 persons will require some assistance - food and non-food - until the next harvest in May 2007. This is about 71 percent of those determined to require assistance in 2004 and 42 percent of the number for 2003.

1. OVERVIEW

At the invitation of the Government, an FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission (CFSAM) visited Angola from 1 to 21 May 2006. The Mission’s primary objective was to assess the country’s production of staple crops for the 2005/06 cropping season and estimate its import requirements, including food aid if necessary, for the marketing year 2006/07 (April/March).

In Luanda, the Mission was briefed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MINADER, including the Food Security Unit (GSA) and the Research Veterinary Institute (IIV)), the Ministry of Social Assistance and Reintegration (MINARS), the Ministry of Commerce, resident UN agencies, including FAO, WFP, UNHCR, UNDP and UNICEF, the EU and NGOs, including World Vision International, Africare and Save the Children/UK.

The Mission then divided into two teams to visit the selected eight of the country’s 18 provinces. One team went to northern areas to Uige, Malange and Kwanza Sul, while the other, which was accompanied by an observer from FEWSNet, went to southern and central areas, including Benguela, Huambo, Namibe, Huila and Cunene. In the field, the teams had meetings with relevant provincial officials, MINADER and MINARS staff, and a number of NGOs, including Catholic Relief Services (CRS), AADC, ADRA, CISARD, OADEC,

IRSEM, OIKOS, CARITAS, World Vision International and Concern International. They also observed standing crops, interviewed farmers, merchants and traders, visited rural markets and evaluated the condition of livestock. Satellite imagery was studied to gain an indication of weather and cropping conditions and especially was critical for those provinces not visited by the Mission, while MINADER’s Food Security Unit, WFP and NGOs with knowledge of those provinces provided further supporting information.

There was a slight expansion of cropped area this year compared with last year, reflecting both the increase in rural population following the return of more refugees and the greater security attributable to the continuing clearance of landmines. However, although the rains started normally in most parts of the country, the expansion in cropped area did not translate into increased crop production this year. Rainfall was excessive in parts of the centre and north in late November, and this was followed by an often protracted dry spell earlier than usual, especially in the central provinces. Unless planted on time, first-season crops in several parts of the centre of the country, tended to suffer both from heavy rains in November and the early cessation of the rains in December. As is not unusual, effective rains in some parts of the south did not arrive until February or March. The late start to the second season, as well as excessive rains and flooding in March in the south, has jeopardized the satisfactory yields for late-planted cereals that had still not reached the grain-filling stage by mid-May.

The Mission forecasts cereal production (maize, sorghum, millet and milled rice) for 2005/06 at approximately 742 000 tonnes. This is down on last year’s record production of about 878 000 tonnes by about 15.5 percent, but up on the previous year’s (2003/04) by 3.9 percent. Based on last year’s apparent consumption figures, the country’s cereal shortfall for the coming year, in terms of domestic production, is estimated at 843 000 tonnes, of which it has been assumed that 776 000 tonnes will be imported commercially. This leaves a cereal shortfall of 67 000 tonnes. However, the good production of roots and tubers this year (with a significant increase in production of Irish potatoes) should reduce the gap.

The Mission established that approximately 800 000 persons would be food insecure and will require a mix of food and non-food assistance until the next harvest in May 2007. This compares to the estimate during the previous CFSAM of 1.1 million persons in 2004 and 1.9 million in 2003. The lower number reflects a significant fall in the number of refugees and IDPs returning to places of origin over the past two years and a general improvement in living conditions of the majority who have resettled. The number of people requiring assistance is expected to fall further after the next harvest.

2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT

According to the 2005 Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Programme (based on 2003 data), Angola is ranked 160th out of 177 countries in the human development index, with indicators for health, education and nutrition among the worst in Africa. This is in spite of the fact that Angola’s per capita income is one of the highest among the Low Human Development countries with US$2 344 per capita (based on the purchasing power parity measure of income in 2003) and about double the average of this group. However, there is evidence of an acute inequality in income and consumption distribution, with the richest decile of the population accounting for more than 42 percent of household expenditures, while the poorest just above 4 percent. In 2001, about 68 percent of the population was living below the poverty line (defined in Angola as less than US$1.68 per day) and 15 percent of households were living in extreme poverty (with less than US$0.75 per day). On the health side, unlike the rest of the countries in southern Africa, HIV/AIDS prevalence is very low and it is estimated to be about 4 percent of the adult population aged from 15 to 49 years. However, outbreak of cholera this year seems to have attained an epidemic proportion as the World Health Organization (WHO) reported recently that a total of 36 721 cumulative cases and 1 335 deaths in 11 out of 18 provinces (IRIN, 19 May 2006).

The capital-intensive oil sector dominates the Angolan economy, accounting for about 50 percent of GDP and for 80 percent of Government fiscal revenue. Angola is currently sub-Saharan Africa’s second biggest oil exporter after Nigeria and oil output is expected to rise from 1.4 million barrels/day (b/d) in 2005 to 2.0 million b/d in 2007 and a projected 2.7 million b/d in 2010 as new oilfields will be opened. In 2005, GDP growth has been estimated at about 19 percent, mainly because of the higher oil export revenues (increasing domestic production and international prices) and is expected to range between 15 and 17 percent in 2006 and 2007. In addition to oil, Angola is well-endowed with other natural resources, such as extensive reserves of gas and valuable minerals, particularly diamonds. The agriculture and forestry sectors also represent a vast and still untapped potential for the local economy.

The average annual inflation rate in 2005 has been estimated at 18.5 percent, the lowest level on record and in contrast with the past long periods of hyperinflation (average of 977 percent over the 1990s decade). This has been achieved essentially through a heavy intervention in the foreign exchange market to support the kwanza, the national currency, which has appreciated some 40 percent over the past two years. However, the strong kwanza has made imports cheaper and this in turn, combined with high transportation costs due to the poor status of the road network, is severely damaging the development of domestic non-oil sectors, such as manufacturing and agriculture.

Angola has consistently run a large trade surplus due to the growing sales of crude oil (which accounts for about 90 percent of total export earnings) and diamonds. From 2001 to 2005, oil export revenue increased five times as a consequence of rising international oil prices. A substantial part of trade earnings is used to support the kwanza exchange rate. In addition, in 2005, foreign exchange reserves increased for the third consecutive year, reaching US$3.25 billions, the highest level in Angola’s history. Currently, the import cover is estimated at 2.2 months and it is expected to reach three months by 2007 thus improving national import capacity at public and private levels in the country.

Although agriculture accounts only for about 8 percent of Angola’s GDP, it is the main source of employment in the country. Prior to independence (1975), food production was high and the country was a major exporter of maize and coffee. During the years of conflict, agriculture fell to an almost subsistence level in many areas, with little or no marketable surpluses and very limited trade activity. Consequently, the country has for many years relied on food imports (commercial imports of wheat and rice) and food aid, mostly in the form of maize and beans. In particular, commercial imports of wheat and rice have constantly increased since independence, reaching in 2005 the record levels of about 460 000 tonnes and 200 000 tonnes respectively. With the cease-fire in April 2002 and an improved mobility of people and products throughout the country, local markets have started to resume their activities despite the appalling condition of the road network.

3. AGRICULTURE IN 2005/06

3.1. General

Angola has a total area of 1.25 million square km, with 1 600 km of coastline. The narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau with a highest point, Morro do Moco, at 2.620 m. The country is divided in three main agricultural zones which correspond to the main climatic and geographical features of the country: the humid north; the semi-arid south; and the central highlands (Planalto Central), with a sub-humid climate, which forms a transition zone between the north and the south. A generalized seasonal crop harvest calendar for the three zones is given below.

The country’s cropping patterns are varied. In the north (Cabinda, Uige, Kwanza Norte, Zaire, Malange) and the northeast (Lundas area), the principal crops are cassava, beans, groundnuts and maize. In the Planalto Central, maize and beans dominate, and the area of root crops is considerably smaller than in the north. In the south, agro-pastoral systems assume increasing importance; maize quickly gives way to sorghum and millet, complemented by cowpeas and cassava. The south is home to about 95 percent of the country’s livestock, with about one-third of the country’s cattle being found in Cunene Province alone.

SUB-NATIONAL Crop HARVEST Calendar in Angola

In most rural areas in Angola, except in the south where livestock predominates, crop production is the main source of livelihood. In times of inadequate production, the most vulnerable survive by collecting fuel-wood, producing charcoal, and hunting and fishing in inland waters and streams; these are also the main sources of income or food during the lean period. Marine fishing is an important source of income along the coast. Where available, casual labour may be a means of livelihood. Working on sugar and coffee plantations used to be a major source of income during the colonial period, however, it is no longer a significant option because of the abandoned condition of most of the plantations.

Crop production is based on a rainfed main growing season from September to May (planting may vary from September to February). In the north and centre however, rainfall shows a distinct bimodality with a dry spell between mid-December and mid-January, thus giving it two effective planting seasons. The period between September and May accounts for about 95 percent of the total production of cereals and pulses, which are also the major food crops: maize, sorghum, millet, rice, beans, groundnuts, cassava, sweet potatoes and Irish potatoes. A subsidiary growing season occurs between June and August when low-lying wetland areas (‘nacas’ or ‘baixas’) are planted mainly with vegetables such as cabbages, tomatoes, lettuce, onions, peppers, carrots, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, cereals and pulses. This season usually accounts for about 5 percent of the country’s production of cereals and pulses.

For a country that is well served with rivers, Angola’s irrigation potential is seriously under-exploited. Many farmers living close to streams do make some use of these water sources for supplementary irrigation, and in certain areas use is also made of residual moisture following flooding. However, there is a great shortage of structured irrigation works in locations where they would be most appropriate. The Government cites the development of irrigation as one of its immediate agricultural priorities.

Agriculture in Angola is predominately a family-labour activity for smallholder subsistence peasants who plant an average of 1.4 ha per family on two or more plots; the area planted has been increasing slightly over the past four years and depends primarily on the availability of family labour for land preparation. Most farmers use hand tools for land preparation and weeding. Land preparation using oxen used to be more common in many parts of the agriculturally important Planalto Central and parts of Huila and Benguela Provinces, but a great number of animals were lost during the war. This situation is gradually being reversed with the presence of increasing numbers of oxen, especially following MINADER’s distribution last year of 31 000 animals. Land preparation by tractor-drawn implements is limited to relatively few producers and to small areas where MINADER provides this service.

Fertilizer use is low, as is the use of improved maize varieties such as SAM 3 and Branco Redondo, as farmers mainly rely on local seeds held over from the previous harvest. Intercropping is the usual agricultural practice, with maize, beans, groundnuts and cassava the most extensively used combination. Vegetable crops are planted mainly as single crops in the low-lying areas.

3.2. Rainfall 2005/06

In the north, rainfall is normally bimodal, with a dry spell occurring between mid- to late December and mid- to late January. This year the rains started as usual in September but stopped slightly earlier than expected near the beginning of December. In most of the north, the rains started again in January within a week or so of the expected date but generally stopped slightly earlier than usual. The north of the country may therefore be considered to have had a relatively normal rainfall pattern this year. Since data on the ground level rainfall estimates was not available to the Mission, estimated rainfall pattern for the season as compared to the long-term average is shown in Figure1.

The situation was rather different in the centre. Although the rains started normally in September and October, many parts suffered from excessive rainfall at the beginning of November. In December, the rains stopped earlier than usual and an unusually long dry spell ensued. Some areas waited till March for the next effective rains while others faced a rather erratic distribution of relatively small amounts. Heavy rains then fell in March, and in many places the season came to an end prematurely in April.

In parts of the south it was commented by farmers that the rainfall pattern that is generally considered as normal (i.e. rains starting in September or October and continuing through to April or May) has not in fact been experienced during several past years. This year followed that trend with very poor rains before January, especially on the coast. Rains were good, especially in the more southerly parts, during January, but then tailed away again until March. Towards the end of March, the south experienced some very heavy rains, which often led to extensive flooding.

Figure 1: Estimated rainfall in three selected provinces in North, Centre and South parts of Angola

Source: Interpolated Estimated Rainfall (IER) analysis by GIEWS based on images
distributed by FAO/ARTEMIS and based on the Decadal Rainfall Estimates generated
by the Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) of the U.S. National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

3.3. Area planted

MINADER’s Food Security Unit (GSA) estimates the area planted to crops in the country on the basis of a model developed in 1999 with FAO support, Support to the Food Security Unit of MINADER. This model, which applies the reported numbers of families in the different municipalities to standardized average land-holding sizes in those municipalities, was suitable for the situation that prevailed during the war when it was developed. Now that situation has changed, it could probably benefit from some modification and more direct field recordings and establishment of proper statistical data collection. The following summary is based on GSA’s estimates.

Angola’s cropped area increased slightly in 2005/06 compared with the previous year (see Table A1). Much of the increase was attributable to the expansion of the area under maize (an extra 20 000 ha), sorghum and millet (an extra 16 000 ha) and beans (an extra 18 000 ha). The extra area under beans was mostly in the south where an increase of 23 000 ha was registered (offsetting a reduction of about 6 000 elsewhere in the country). The area under roots and tubers showed little change on last year except that an 8 000 ha increase in the area under cassava was matched by an 8 000 ha reduction in the area under Irish potatoes. The reduction in the potato area probably reflects both a shortage of good seed potato and the marketing difficulties (chiefly poor roads) that act as a disincentive to increased production.

One of the major constraints to farming area expansion still remains the presence of land mines in the fields. Angola is one of the most heavily mined countries in the world. Mine-clearance NGOs are working with the Government to bring back large productive areas back in to cultivation (IRIN, 6 June 2006).

3.4. Factors affecting yields

Rainfall was the over-riding factor determining crop yields during 2005/06. In the north, where deviation from the normal rainfall pattern was slight, yields were normal.

The areas most affected by poor rainfall distribution were in the central zone. Approximately, these were in a widening band extending from near Huambo town, through the west and south-west of Huambo Province, into the centre of Benguela Province and the northern parts of Huila Province, and north to the coast in Kwanza Sul.

The incidence of crop pests and diseases was normal and low. Stemborer is sometimes found in maize, Erwinia and late blight in potatoes, cucumber beetle in vegetables, and pod-sucking beetles in beans.

Weed control is generally poor in smallholder fields, and the effect of this on the availability of soil moisture to the crop can often be very evident.

3.5. Cereal and pulse production forecast

Angola’s total production of cereals, pulses and groundnuts for 2005/06 is estimated at 912 000 tonnes (see Table A3), a reduction of about 14 percent on the previous year. Of this, cereals (milled basis) alone account for approximately 742 000 tonnes compared with 878 000 tonnes in 2004/05, a reduction of 15.5 percent. The most substantial reduction in cereal production occurred in the central zone where a difference of 111 000 tonnes between this year and last represents a drop of almost 22 percent. Significantly for this year of poor rainfall distribution, sorghum and millet production showed a small increase on last year.

3.6. Other crops

Angola is a potentially rich country agriculturally. In the north there is a surplus of cassava which, in its processed form, could, if road conditions were improved, serve as a food-security buffer for other parts of the country in years of poor rainfall. The estimate of potential cassava production of 8.8 million tonnes in fresh weight or about 2.8 million tonnes in cereal equivalent seems too high. This level of production would translate into average annual consumption of 175 kg/person in cereal equivalent giving daily calories of about 1 600 from cassava alone. It should be noted that the yield levels of cassava seem to be reasonable in comparison with the levels in other countries in the region. Therefore the problems are likely to be related to the inaccuracies in the area estimates provided to the Mission by the Ministry of Agriculture. A thorough survey work is needed.

Sweet potato does well in many areas, and the production of vegetables and Irish potato is inhibited principally by poor marketing conditions. Bananas have done well this year even in some areas where there has been very poor maize production. Fruits such as mangoes, baobab and guava are plentiful in their respective zones, and sugarcane is grown extensively. Citrus is grown on a small scale in many areas up to about 2 000 metres above the sea level, and there are old stands of olives and oil palms on the coast dating from colonial days. Other important cash crops successfully produced in the past include coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco and sisal.

3.7. Livestock

In the south of the country, in areas where transhumance (seasonal migration of herders and livestock for grazing) is practised, the process started earlier than usual as a result of the poor rains at the beginning of the season. For instance, in Namibe Province where the rains were especially poor in October and November, cattle began moving to Huila Province in search of pasture as early as December. However, the heavy rains in much of the south in March and April, though often detrimental to field crops, were very beneficial for pasture. Livestock condition in the south is currently very good, as are the pastures and the availability of water.

Large numbers of cattle are brought north from the southern provinces for sale in the centre of the country at markets such as Caala in Huambo Province. There is now an increasing demand for cattle and draught oxen as farmers attempt to build up their herds again after the losses sustained during the years of conflict. Cattle prices normally fluctuate during the year, with prices dipping in January and February in response to uncertainty about the length of the dry spell and the expected quality of pasture. In May 2006 a large steer in good condition was fetching about Kz 35 000 at Caala market while the same animal in February would have been sold for only Kz 28 000.

MINADER’s Veterinary Service (IIV) estimates that there are currently about 3 million cattle, 1.8 million small ruminants, 0.8 million pigs and 10 million poultry in the country. These figures show a substantial increase on those reported for 2004 (2.5 million cattle, 1.5 million small ruminants, 0.4 million pigs and 6 million poultry)1. The majority of the country’s cattle are in Huila and Cunene Provinces. In 2005, livestock products entering the market amounted to 8 000 tonnes of beef, 13 000 tonnes of pork, 5 400 tonnes of mutton and goat meat, 630 tonnes of poultry, 121 000 eggs and 800 000 litres of milk2. There is obviously a very real opportunity for expansion in the poultry industry as is indicated by the importation of more than US$34 million worth of chicken meat from the United States in 2005.

4. FOOD SUPPLY SITUATION

4.1. Agricultural markets and prices

Although the marketing and market situation in rural Angola has improved over the last four years since the war ended, there are still serious infrastructural impediments to its proper functioning, chiefly the condition of the roads and transportation. For example, it is possible to obtain good yields of potatoes on the Planalto Central, but the incentive to do so is limited by the fact that, by the time the produce has been brought to Luanda, it cannot compete in terms of price with potatoes imported from Brazil.

At Santa Clara border post in Cunene Province, imports of maize meal from Namibia were reported as being much lower for the first three months of 2006 than for the same period in 2005. About 245 000 bags were brought in between January and March 2005, but only 82 000 between January and March in 2006. Less maize grain comes across the border than maize meal, but this too is down on last year. The estimated imports of wheat, rice and maize into Angola in 2005/06 have been placed at about 400 000, 200 000 and 42 000 tonnes, respectively. Most of these imports, except for about 30 000 tonnes of maize which came in as food aid, were on commercial basis. Generally speaking, over time wheat and rice imports have been increasing while those of maize are on the decline due to improvements in domestic maize production.

Cereal and flour prices generally showed an increase from north to south by May of this year, with the highest relative local prices and the steepest rises being found in areas that had had poorly distributed rainfall (see Appendix B Crop Production Situation in Provinces Visited by the Mission).

4.2. Cereal supply-demand balance for 2006/07

The Mission’s estimate of Angola’s cereal supply/demand balance for the marketing year 2006/07 (April/March), based on the current crop production forecast, is shown in Table 1. The following assumptions have been made:

Table 1. Angola: Cereal balance sheet for marketing year 2006/07 (‘000 tonnes)

    Sorghum Rice   Total
  Maize and Millet (milled) 1/ Wheat cereals
Domestic availability 585 159 8 5 757
Production 2005/06 579 157 6   742
Stock drawdown 6 2 2 5 15
Domestic utilisation 802 159 272 367 1 600
Food use 686 128 271 367 1 452
Other uses and losses 116 31 0.6   148
Import requirements 217 0 264 362 843
Commercial imports 150 0 264 362 776
Net deficit 67 0 0 0 67
- of which food aid received or in pipeline 2/ 10 0 0 0 10
1/ Using 65 percent of paddy.
2/ Planned assistance under WFP PRRO 10433.0 for the provinces covered (see Appendix E).

As Table 1 shows, the country’s import requirement of 843 000 tonnes of cereals is greater than its domestic availability of 757 000 tonnes. The commercial sector, which is not unduly hampered by import restrictions or government price controls, is expected to satisfy most of this import requirement, but it is estimated that there will still be a gap of some 67 000 tonnes in aggregate at the national level.

4.3. General recommendations

The following general recommendations are based on the observations of the Mission and discussions with key stakeholders in the country.

  1. The Mission believes that a satisfactory road network is crucial to achieve full agricultural potential in Angola. Roads provide the means of delivering reasonably priced inputs as well as the means of marketing agricultural produce without transport losses and prohibitive transport costs. Similarly Angola’s irrigation potential is also very high. Irrigation can be means of both ensuring food security for the population and of increasing opportunity for prosperity in rural areas. Therefore the Mission recommends a detailed investigation on the feasibility and ways and means of achieving the urgent development road and irrigation networks.

  2. Angola’s current system of collection of agricultural production data was developed with the assistance of FAO at a time when the country was in a state of war and access to many areas was difficult or impossible. The system is based on

    This system suited the wartime situation as it allowed estimates to be made for areas that could not be safely visited. Now that this situation has changed, it should be possible to take a less formulaic approach and instead to carry out more extensive direct field observations and measurements. Thus the Mission recommends establishment of proper statistical system and further training of the sufficient number of staff to make its effective use in the country.

  3. The system of rainfall recording also deserves extra investment in order to build up a reliable picture of weather patterns over a network of locations throughout the country. At present it appears to function very inadequately in terms both of data collection and of record-keeping.

  4. Given that there exists a vast capacity to produce cassava in the north and potentially other parts of the country, wide scale processing of cassava into flour and its marketing and utilization should be considered in the country’s food security strategy.

5. HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

5.1. Food Security and nutrition background

5.1.1 Food security

The past four years have been characterised by improvements in the food security situation in Angola. This has largely been the outcome of the cease-fire agreement between UNITA and the Government in April 2002 that heralded the era of peace and stability and in turn the return of over four million Angolans displaced by 27 years of war. The internally displaced have practically all returned to their places of origin or of their choice. Meanwhile, about 80 percent of an estimated half a million Angolan refugees in neighbouring countries have since returned home through UNHCR Repatriation Programmes or spontaneously (UNHCR 2006). The improvement in agricultural production and food security situation is the result of increased labour and associated expansion of area cultivated. It has been established that over 90 percent of returnees are engaged in agriculture as their main source of livelihoods (WFP 2005).

But there have and continue to be major challenges to raising aggregate national production and overall food availability to ensure adequate household food access and nutrition. These include the issue of land mines that have restricted access to some agricultural lands; the poor state of infrastructure and services (roads, irrigation, research and extension services, among others) that restrict the pace of growth of household food production, access to markets and pursuance of other livelihood opportunities through markets. Progress in restoring infrastructure and services is tortuously slow. The agricultural sector in Angola is predominantly subsistence, soil conditions are poor and use of modern inputs is low, resulting in very low productivity. Production is dependent to a large extent on rainfall that is periodically erratic or can lead to drought and crop failure, mainly in the cereal (maize) producing areas in the centre and south; and/or floods in the cassava-growing north and in some parts of the south.

5.1.2 Nutrition and health

According to the Nutritional Council of Angola, child malnutrition remains very high, which in infants has been partly attributed to poor breast-feeding practices (and early weaning in urban areas)4. The Vulnerability Assessment and Mapping (VAM) assessment in the Planalto in January 2005 described the situation of chronic malnutrition and underweight as ‘critical’ and of acute malnutrition as ‘serious’, which was attributed to high incidence of diarrhoea (in two months prior to the survey) and the effect of the hungry season during which the survey was carried out. A Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Assessment (CFSVA) in July 2005 in the central and southern provinces found out that the highest level of malnutrition was in Bié Province followed by Kuando Kubango, Huila and Moxico; Namibe Province had the lowest prevalence.5

The Government’s strategy for maternal and child health for 2004-2008 notes that many poor women cannot meet their additional food needs during pregnancy and nursing and the recommended levels of the intake of micronutrients. Maternal mortality in Angola stands at 185 per 10 000 live births, attributed to high fertility rate (7.1 children per woman), low use of the health system (63 percent), low number of births delivered through the health care structure (25 percent) and STDs (8.9 percent). Qualified health personnel only assist in half of all deliveries, and only one-third of all women consult qualified health personnel during pregnancy. Infant mortality and under five mortality rates in Angola are amongst the highest in the world at 150 and 250 per 1 000 live births, respectively. The main causes include malaria (76 percent), diarrhoeal disease (7 percent), acute respiratory infections (7 percent), and other vaccine preventable diseases, particularly measles. Malnutrition is also a factor in half of these deaths. These poor nutrition and health indicators reflect a generally poor state of health facilities and very few qualified health personnel especially in rural areas.6

Malaria, diarrhoea, acute respiratory infection and periodic outbreaks of cholera are some of the common diseases. Sleeping sickness and tuberculosis are important diseases in northern region. These diseases impact directly on household food security when its members contribute to their income. The high prevalence of these diseases suggests their impacts are significant.

5.1.3 HIV/AIDS situation and links with food security & nutrition

Information on HIV/AIDS prevalence in Angola is generally limited. It is believed Angola has the lowest prevalence rates in the region - at 2.8 percent compared with Mozambique (16.2 percent), South Africa (21.5percent) and Namibia (21.3 percent).7 The screening that was carried out in 2004 (covering all provinces) also reveals that the Provinces of Bié, Kwanza Sul and Benguela had low rates of less than 1 percent. The rest of the provinces had rates of 1 percent-4.8 percent with the exception of Cunene that had 9.1 percent.8 According to provincial authorities in Cunene, Ombandja municipality bordering Namibia was most affected.

However, it is believed that overall rate in Angola is likely to be much higher. For example, HIV/AIDS prevalence rates among women attending pre-natal clinics in Luanda increased from 3.4 percent in 1999 to 8.6 percent in 2001 (WFP 2005). ‘HIV/AIDS Profile: Angola’ (USAID 2004) quotes the findings of seroprevalence screening, that shows prevalence rates among pregnant women in Luanda rose from 1 percent in 1986 to 3 percent in 1999 and in Cabinda Province from 6 percent to 9 percent between 1992 and 1999. The outcome of the screening of blood donors in Cabinda revealed a similar increase (6 percent to 7 percent) between 1991 and 1995. The levels were significantly higher (19 percent) among prostitutes tested in Luanda in 1999.9

HIV/AIDS impacts negatively on household food security through reduction of labour for productive activities related to ill health of breadwinners. Indirect effects include extended ill health of family members that lead to increasing health care costs and time taken out from livelihoods activities to care for the sick. There is direct nutritional effect on the infected. Although the effects were not widely reported, it is clearly a cause for concern.

5.1.4 Background to current food crisis (from June to next harvest)

To complement this assessment, recent pre-crisis assessments have been used. These include two substantive assessments conducted by WFP and partners (in 2005)10, collectively cover all provinces in the centre and south of the country, and a livelihoods study conducted by Concern International and partners in Ekunha Municipality (Huambo Province).11 These ‘pre-crisis’ assessments provide profiles of the livelihoods and food security situation, household vulnerability profiles, and coping strategies in nine provinces of the regions that were of interest to the CFSAM.12 In a situation where reliable data is lacking, these reports were useful for crosschecking the validity of information during the Mission (details presented in Appendix C).

The overall picture that emerged was that the food security and livelihoods of the average household in these regions is fragile and can deteriorate rapidly during a shock. Households predominantly depend on agriculture as their main source of livelihood and cash income; coping mechanisms are limited and generally poor nutrition and health conditions prevail. Categories of households susceptible to shocks include recent returnees (IDPs and refugees), female-headed households, the sick and elderly. The state of infrastructure in the regions (road, services and markets) is poor but there are notable exceptions. On the other hand, most of the areas have two cropping seasons and there is abundance of water resources, that if well utilised can improve the situation of the average household.

5.1.5 Government policies and actions

There are various government initiatives at national and provincial levels in response to the effects of the dry spell. The government body responsible (MINARS) and provincial authorities have prepared programmes to assist the populations affected. In the short-term the assistance has included the provision of planting materials (vegetable seeds, sweet potato vines, Irish potato seedlings) and with ploughing their fields. Some food assistance is being implemented or planned, as in Cunene Province. The Council of Ministers recently approved a budget of nearly 2 billion kwanzas (approximately US$25 million) for assistance programmes. This is expected to cover food aid and non-food programmes including rehabilitation of irrigation channels, ploughing their fields and supply of vegetable seeds among others.13

Provincial authorities in Huila referred to supplying of planting materials (e.g. potato vines) to farmers. In Namibe, government assistance to households affected by floods included provision of seeds (e.g. potatoes and maize) and with ploughing their fields. However, there was no indication if food assistance would be provided. Meanwhile in Cunene Province food assistance was being given to cover the needs of an estimated 78 447 vulnerable persons consisting of the sick and disabled, orphaned and elderly, returnees and ex-soldiers for a period of 3 months. It should be noted that some of the assistance started ahead of the 2006 harvest which in most places starts in June.

5.1.6 Previous emergency assistance

In the past few years, United Nations agencies (FAO, WFP & UNHCR) and NGOs have provided assistance related to food insecurity. These have included the supply of inputs (vegetable seeds, tools, etc). Food assistance has been provided by WFP under different programmes including food for work and food for assets, among others. Much of the assistance programmes over the past four years or so focused on resettling returnees where WFP has within the WFP–UNHCR Agreement provided food assistance up to the first harvest. The number returnees have declined in recent years and with that, the declining scale of assistance. WFP emergency operations closed down this year and the focus of its current PRRO programmes has shifted to non-emergency assistance. UNHCR operations have also declined significantly and its repatriation programme for Angolans will be phased out by 31 December 2006.

5.1.7 Lessons from previous CFSAM

The previous CFSAM in 2004 had a wider coverage beyond assessing the impact of a shock on short-term food insecurity. It included recommendations to revitalise the agricultural sector in the short-run, such as distributing agricultural inputs, promoting local seed production and supporting production in the nacas. There were also recommendations for wide ranging long-term measures including increasing national budget to agriculture, measures to support development of markets and reducing bottlenecks, disseminating best agricultural practices, creating functional extension service, capacity building in the Ministry of Agriculture, and reforming the land tenure system, etc. Other recommendations included promoting fertiliser utilisation, use of animal traction, making and using composts, distributing inputs to the newly returned and organising trade fairs and seed storage. While there is evidence that some of these are being implemented (e.g. input distribution), most are likely to take more time. With respect to the food production and vulnerability critical assumptions are ascertained and continuity is maintained where applicable. Per capita, cereal consumption rates, for example are adjusted to the more current information on total supplies including imports.

5.2. Methodology of vulnerability assessment

5.2.1 Assessment approach

The CFSAM to Angola is essentially a verification Mission within a limited time period that precludes generating primary data. With respect to assessing food insecurity, the Mission first reviewed information in recent food security and vulnerability assessments (described earlier) to provide a broad basis for vetting data/information from official and other sources. Further secondary information (data) was gathered through meetings with key informants in the capital as outlined at the beginning of the report. Field level visits were undertaken and this provided the main opportunity to crosscheck and establish the validity of the findings of the inter-agency assessment. It also provided the opportunity to gather additional information to fill any gaps in information. Field activities entailed meetings/discussions with relevant government institutions, interviews with farmers, households and traders, and importantly observations and visits to local markets.

Key issues for the verification included establishing how many people were affected14, what actions have been taken, existing coping mechanisms and the extent to which these are used (now compared with normal years). Other issues in the verification included establishing government’s responses, whether this was sufficient or whether external assistance would be required, and determine the kind/nature of assistance (if any required), its timing and level of such assistance. Secondary information from the reports reviewed formed a basis for making judgement on the changes in the household food and nutrition situation.

Field level interviews held with household heads and key informants in their communities focused on how households access their food needs, how long own production this season would last (and comparing with normal year), when the hunger period normally sets in and when this will be expected this season, ways they meet their food gap (i.e. coping strategies) during this period and in normal years. Others include household food consumption: the kinds of food, diversity of food, number of meals, intra-household food distribution, and establishing any changes in these patterns from normal.

5.2.2 Limitations and constraints

Some of the limitations and constraints encountered during the Mission included the following. There was a general lack of credible data, which created difficulties for the verification. Most members of the Mission participated at short notice and this resulted in limited preparations such as gathering and reviewing secondary information prior to the Mission. There were some difficulties in arranging meetings both in the capital (Luanda) and in the field due to the absence of key officials and travel related delays. In the field, poor road conditions led to very long journeys, in one instance in the south it took 13-14 hours to travel from one location to the next. These reduced the time for meetings, interviews and key observations. Some international members of the team lacked knowledge of the Portuguese Language, resulting in additional time taken for translation and possible distortions of information. Determining the extent of household food security shock due to the dry spell and floods posed a major challenge, as it is not easy to separate this effect from structural food insecurity that households sometimes experience even in ‘normal’ years.

5.3. Current food insecurity status

5.3.1 Findings of Multi-sectoral Mission in March 2006

A multi-sectoral Mission led by the Vice Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development (MINADER)15 assessed the effect of the dry spells in five central and southern provinces of Kwanza Sul, Benguela, Huila, Namibe and Cunene in March 2006. This was preceded by provincial level evaluations by MINADER technical teams in February. The Multi-sectoral Mission established that the provinces visited experience prolonged dry spells (and flooding in some places) that led to crop losses, affecting a large number of people.

In Kwanza Sul Province, the municipalities of Porto Amboim, Amboim, Seles and Sumbe were found to be the most affected. It was estimated that 6 000 households in Porto Amboim and 10 000 in Amboim were affected. In Benguela Province, the municipalities of Bocoio, Caimbambo and Cubal were visited and it was estimated that over 70 000 persons were affected in the three municipalities. In the latter municipality 18 persons reportedly died of anthrax between October 2005 and January 2006. In Huila Province crop losses were estimated to be 70 percent, which affected 600 000 persons. The municipalities of Quipungo and Matala that the team visited were described by provincial authorities as representative. Namibe Province is a semi-arid region characterised by chronic drought with an estimated 10 000 persons in a state of ‘severe vulnerability’. In Cunene Province the team visited agricultural fields in Kwanhama Municipality where it was estimated that 267,000 persons would experience hunger.

5.3.2 The CFSAM verification in May 2006

The CFSAM confirmed that dry spells affected most of the provinces visited and this resulted in some crop losses. The Mission also established that the rainfall pattern varied, believed that this was not as widespread and as was initially reported. The broad verdict was that crop losses were less severe than initially suggested and livestock conditions were generally good in all the provinces visited. Detailed analysis of the crop and livestock was carried out and reported in the first part of the report. This section highlights the implications of the shock to household food security and nutrition with details according to province presented in Appendix D.

Overall, food insecurity and vulnerability showed regional variations. In the northern provinces where the rainfall was more or less normal, the level of food insecure is considerably lower than in the central and southern provinces. Important factors in the food insecurity variations were established to be the rainfall pattern, the number of refugees and IDPs resettled and availability/ scope of coping mechanisms available to households. On all these counts the north fared much better than the centre and the south. But there have been some variations within the centre and the south. For example, household that were predominantly involved in livestock production had more favourable food security situation compared with those cultivating food crops. It was also established that household that produced sorghum or millet had better crops and food security situation than those involved in maize production within the same area.

5.3.3 Crisis impact on food security and livelihoods

The effect of the dry spell (and floods) on the food security and livelihoods of households have primarily been through the reduction of food production. Crop failure that varied widely had a direct impact on household level food access. Own production was the primary means of food for majority of the households in these affected areas. Also associated with this is the decline or collapse of the main income source for most households, that is, the sale of cereals and pulses.

Other effects will be through reduced food availability on local markets in affected areas and likely price increases. In view of the fact that most households purchase some of their food needs, the price increases could make food purchases less affordable. However, this was not evident at the time of the field visits. Price levels between markets over large areas appeared to be generally uniform. Most of the sellers were farmers whose cash requirements to purchase their non-food needs was the most dominant factor behind food sales at this stage, and on markets later. Moreover, households tend to rely on own-production at the early stages of the harvest season. But the situation also appears to reflect the fact that markets are not functioning well due to structural factors including the poor state of roads and transport. However, the Mission anticipates the situation will change during the hungry season, but this is expected to vary between locations and between households reflecting their vulnerabilities and coping mechanisms.

5.3.4 Impact on nutrition and health

The impact on nutrition and health was not immediately clear. There was little hard evidence of high levels of malnutrition observed among children. Evidence in some of the documents reviewed suggests that this could become more visible later in the consumption year, i.e. from September. As shown in other parts of this report, food deficits are expected to set in from July, August or September (depending on location and household vulnerability). Other health-related factors (diseases such as diarrhoea) will become more prevalent during the last months of the calendar year.

5.3.5 Coping strategies

In most provinces there are coping strategies that households use to meet all or part of their ‘seasonal’ or ‘crisis induced’ food shortages or gaps. They include hunting, fishing, sale of charcoal and firewood, occasional labour, sale of local beverage, gathering and sale of wild food (such as honey, caterpillar, game meat, mushrooms, etc.). The options (or their combinations) vary across provinces as well as household socio-economic groups. These are summarized below with details also presented as in Appendix F.

In North-Central Provinces (Malanje, Uige and Kwanza-Sul)

This is the region where food production was not significantly affected (except some municipalities of Kwanza-Sul). It is also the region with the greatest livelihoods options, although these may not be put to extensive use. The strategies available are mainly agriculture and trade-based. In Malanje and Uige the options include market activities, occasional labour, agricultural, charcoal and hunting, animal rearing and wild products. Illegal diamond mining/ trade takes place in Malange that often lead to farmers abandoning their fields during normal years, but constitute a key coping mechanism during bad years. In the case of Kwanza Sul, market activities, animal raising, fishing, occasional labour and charcoal sales were cited.

South-Central Provinces (Benguela, Huambo, Huila, Namibe & Cunene)

Coping strategies vary between and within these provinces, but generally fewer than in the northern provinces. In Benguela, market activities, occasional labour, charcoal and fire wood sales, rearing animals, and wild foods (caterpillar) were listed as the main options. In Huambo, market activities, animal rearing, charcoal, firewood and casual labour, as well as wild products (fruits, caterpillars) were important. Consuming banana flour and reduction of the number of meals (to one a day) was mentioned by farmers in Tchinjenje. In Huila they included market activities, sale of livestock, occasional labour, sale of charcoal & firewood, and growing vegetable and potatoes in low lands. For Namibe they include the sale of charcoal and woods in the northern part, sale of livestock in the south, sale of vegetables, petty trade and fishing. In Cunene sale of charcoal and woods, brewing and sale of local beer, sale of livestock, petty trade, labour on other’s farms, limited use of wild foods and reducing the quantity of food intake and number of meals were reported.

5.3.6 Market analysis – household food access

It was broadly established that most households purchase some or all of their food requirements and this is largely the case for households that are predominantly non-agricultural. In this category are urban settings and livestock holders. But significant numbers of households purchase food during lean periods. Price changes determine the extent to which they will be affected. The situation during the field visit was that prices were fairly uniform in a large geographic area. This situation was reported for both the north and southern parts of the country. For example, the price of maize meal in the local markets retailed at 50 kwanzas (Kz)per tin in Lubango, Namibe and Cunene.

In Malanje, the majority of roads (inter-municipalities and main roads toward the neighbouring provinces) were observed to be in bad condition and constitute a major constraint to movement of commodities from production areas to main markets. Prices of beans, groundnuts, maize and cassava were low and affordable for majority of the households. A tin of maize retailed at Kz 25.00, cassava flour at Kz 30.00–35.00, beans at Kz 75.00–80.00, and groundnuts at Kz 80.00–100.00 per tin. In Huila the price of imported maize meal (from Namibia) sold on local markets was K50 per tin, which was higher than in Huambo (Kz 32.00) and Cunene (Kz 45.00).

It was reported that households tend to sell most of their products (cereals and pulses) due to high post-harvest losses associated with poor or inadequate storage facilities. They opt to keep their savings in the form of cash to meet their food and non-food needs through markets until the next harvest. The implication is they end up buying back food at much higher prices. It was also reported that some farmers hire transport to take their products to major markets where they can fetch higher prices, but this practice would appear to be limited. Vegetable production undertaken on riverbeds during the dry season is an important additional source of income for households, which is likely to be expanded.

An important observation during the field visits was the abundance of processed foods (maize meals and rice), which in the south was mainly from Namibia. It gave an indication that some market networks do exist within and between municipalities/provinces that facilitate exchange of goods between rural and urban areas. These may contribute towards the movement of cereals and pulses from surplus to affected areas in the coming months, but it is expected that the quantities involved will be limited.

6. EMERGENCY AND RECOVERY ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS

6.1. Population in need of assistance

6.1.1 Categories of the food insecure

The food insecure comprise of households that experienced crop losses due to the dry spells or floods.16 They are also largely households that had high vulnerability during normal years and who were therefore tipped into food insecurity status by the shock. Those in this category include refugees and IDPs that have resettled in the past 1-2 years, households headed by females, the elderly and children; and others comprising asset-poor households, the sick and elderly.

Analysis of UNHCR data on the repatriation of refugees shows that 40 percent of refugees returned between 2004 and 2005 and majority of them resettled in the provinces affected. The Mission estimates that between 100 000 and 140 000 would have difficulties in establishing household food security. It is also projected that a further 35 000-50 000 will return home in 2006, most of them expected to resettle in the central and southern provinces.17 Meanwhile the number IDPs who have resettled in the affected provinces in the past 2 years have been estimated to be about 10 percent of the estimated 4 million now believe to be resettled, with 300 000-400 000 believed to be food insecure. It should be noted that most IDPs received no assistance to resettle and their situation compares unfavourably with those of refugees assisted by UNHCR.

Another category of the food insecure was established to be female-headed households. The Mission was informed that 25-35 percent of households in the areas visited in the centre and the south were female-headed, many of them widows. Although they are not inherently worse off than male-headed households, they tend to be less able to meet their food requirements during a shock. Key informants attributed this to limited coping mechanisms they command in comparison with their male counterparts. The Mission estimates between 150 000-200 000 persons fall in this category. Other categories include child-headed and elderly-headed households; households with chronically ill members and ex-soldiers recently resettled that collectively number 75 000-100 000.

6.1.2 Numbers of the food insecure

The estimates were based on synthesis of information gathered at all levels. Importantly, alternative information on vulnerable, food-insecure, or affected households from various assessments were crosschecked and discussed. In summary, the approach combined information on household vulnerabilities in the areas visited, municipalities affected and information from relevant government authorities and development partners on absolute numbers, proportion or percentages of persons affected or likely to be affected. This was used to derive the percentage of population judged to be food insecure and applied to the 2006/07 mid-consumption-year populations for each province. Meanwhile the extent of the shock and coping strategies that is available to the average household until the next harvest in May/ June 2007 informed the categorisation as moderately food insecure (food gap of 1-5 months) or severely food insecure (food gap of 3-9 months).

Table 2. Angola: Number of people severely food insecure and moderately food insecure, 2006/07

Province Severely Food-Insecure Moderately Food-Insecure Total Food-Insecure
Bengo - - -
Benguela 77 000 67 300 144 300
Bié - - -
Cabinda - - -
Cunene 13 600 11 900 25 500
Kuanza Norte - - -
Kuanza Sul 38 000 33 300 71 300
Kuando Kubango - - -
Huila 102 300 89 500 191 800
Huambo 185 400 162 200 347 600
Lunda Norte - - -
Lunda Sul - - -
Luanda - - -
Malanje - - -
Moxico - - -
Namibe 8 200 7 200 15 400
Uige - - -
Zaire - - -
TOTAL 424 500 371 400 800 0001/
Source: CFSAM Analysis based on mid-consumption year population of 15.9 million.
- = Not available.
1/ Rounded to nearest thousand.

Table 2 shows that approximately 800 000 persons are expected to become food insecure. The Mission estimates that 424 500 will fall into the ‘severely food-insecure’ category and 371 400 as moderately food insecure. These estimates are lower (or about 70 percent) of those established during the previous CFSAM in 2004, where the combined ‘food-insecure’ and ‘highly vulnerable’ was estimated at approximately 1.1 million persons. Estimates during the CFSAM in 2003 were significantly higher 1.9 million.

6.2. Assistance requirements for the food-insecure

6.2.1 Non-food and food requirements

The kind of assistance required to meet the needs of food-insecure households was derived from synthesis of information on household profiles in relation to the extent of the shock, seasonal and harvest calendars, availability of coping mechanisms and the extent to which these can be extended (also see section 3.1 and Appendix F). The Mission therefore believes that a combination of food and non-food assistance will be required. The CFSAM focused on cereals and the analysis on food assistance requirements was consequently carried out for cereals.

Non-food assistance: Many of the affected households will require support to enhance some of the coping mechanisms. This includes assistance with planting materials such as vegetable seeds, sweet potato vines, Irish potato seedlings and other inputs such as fertilizers, and with ploughing their fields. These forms of assistance will contribute to improvements in household food insecurity of the affected and eliminate or significantly reduce the period in which food assistance would otherwise be needed. Many of the affected provinces and municipalities have abundant water supply through the vast network of permanent rivers that offer vast opportunities for irrigation. The Mission believed assistance in the form of setting up small irrigation schemes or rehabilitating broken-down irrigation schemes will make very significant contribution to the food security of the affected households in both the short-run and the long-run.

Food assistance: Most of the households will require food assistance sooner or later in the consumption year. The Mission contends this would best be in the form of food-for-work (FFW) and food-for-assets (FFA) programmes for a large proportion of the households, who the Mission believes will be able to work for it. These programmes have the advantage of contributing to the creation of community assets such as school, heath and tertiary road infrastructure and enhancing household food security in both the short- and longer-term. ‘Free’ food distribution should therefore be on a limited scale and should target special cases such as TB and HIV/AIDS patients receiving treatment and households unable to work.

The Mission also considered a range of other options including vouchers (food or cash) and cash transfers as substitute to food distribution in the light of prevailing production and market conditions. These options were also discussed extensively during the field visits. Based on the limited food availability, poor market infrastructure reflecting the general inaccessibility due to poor road and transport infrastructure, these were judged not feasible in the current situation.

The amount of food (cereal equivalent) required for food assistance is presented as Table 3. The quantities were derived using the duration of food assistance for individuals in each food insecurity category. The Mission estimated that the severely food-insecure would require food assistance for 3-9 month while this will be 2-5 months for the moderately food-insecure. A ration of 500 grams of cereal per day was applied to the number of persons requiring assistance for the durations range indicated. The outcome is a range of cereal assistance requirements and averages for each category and for the overall.

Table 3. Angola: Cereal requirements for food assistance by category of food insecurity, 2006/07

Classification Severely Food
Insecure
Moderately Food
Insecure
Aggregate1/
Number persons 424 500 371 400 800 000
Months of assistance 3-9 1-5 1- 9
Requirement (lower limit) tonnes 19 200 11 200 30 000
Requirement (upper limit) tonnes 57 300 27 800 85 000
Average requirement tonnes 1/ 38 000 20 000 58 000
Source: Mission analysis.
1/ Rounded to nearest thousand.

It was estimated that a total average cereal requirement of approximately 58 000 tonnes would be required to meet food assistance requirements for the 800 000 food insecure. This comprises 38 000 tonnes that will be required for 424 500 persons who fall in the ‘severely food insecure’ category and 20 000 tonnes for about 371 400 persons estimated to be moderately food-insecure.

Non-cereal requirement as part of food assistance has not been discussed here. However, it is expected that these will be included in food assistance programmes to complement the cereal rations and to raise nutritional value to recommended levels. WFP programmes in Angola typically include daily rations of 33-50g of pulses, 25-45g of oil and 5g of salt. Additional commodities are also provided for special categories – such as 150g of CSB and 15g of sugar for nutritional and medical programmes. Based on above WFP ration, the equivalent quantities of these commodities for meeting the needs of all assessed to be food insecure will be 3 530 tonnes of pulses, 4 200 tonnes vegetable oil and 860 tonnes of salt. This brings total food assistance, including cereals, to 66 400 tonnes.

Cereal requirement for food assistance in CFSAM 2004 was estimated at 178 000 tonnes which is about three times the current estimate of 56 400 tonnes. The pattern is similar or higher for non-cereal estimates where the 2004 CFSAM established a requirement of 18 700 tonnes for pulses, 11 300 tonnes for vegetable oil and 2 013 tonnes for salt.

6.2.2 National food deficit versus house-level deficits

The national overall cereal deficit presented in Table 1 is 67 000 tonnes. This gives the aggregate shortfall of food availability required to cover total domestic requirements for all uses in the country. That estimate differs from the estimate of 58 000 tonnes required to meet food needs of food insecure persons presented above, in Table 3. This implies that in addition to the estimated 58 000 tonnes of food aid, some 11 000 tonnes18 of cereals would need to be imported in order to raise aggregate cereal availability in balance with normal cereal consumption levels of the population as a whole and meet the needs of the food insecure population.

This difference in the estimates is due to a number of factors. A key one is the fact that the CFSAM estimate food assistance was for six of the provinces verified by the Mission. It excluded other parts of the country where possible food insecurities expect to exist, including the provinces of Bie, Moxico and Kuando Kubango. Although the rainfall in these provinces was believed to be normal, it was shown earlier that they are host to a large number of IDPs and refugees who have resettled there over the past few years.

6.2.3 Markets-related considerations

It was noted that most households meet part of their food needs through the market. Measures to ensure markets function well would support access food secure and food insecure households alike. Some of the measures would require longer-term considerations such as improving roads and market infrastructure that government will need to look into. In the short-term, providing support to ensure food availability on local markets would safeguard against significant price increases that could jeopardise food access for the already food insecure households. It would be prudent for Government to take measures to ensure food availability in local markets, for instance through support to traders where there signs of impending scarcity.

The lack of adequate supplies of food on most local markets and poor functioning of these markets were the basis for ruling out vouchers (food or cash) and cash transfers. But it is an established fact that food aid that is not well targeted or provided in areas of abundant local supply will have negative effects on local markets and create disincentives to traders and local producers. However, it is the judgement of the Mission that in the current state of food markets and production, and the relatively small amount of food assistance recommended, the food assistance recommended will not generate adverse effects in any significant way.

6.2.4 Special needs of the HIV/AIDS affected

HIV/AIDS infected persons and affected households fall in a special category of food need. It has been established that persons suffering from the disease and receive anti-retroviral treatments do require adequate nutrition for the treatment to be effective. The Mission recommends that assistance to this category should take this point into account. The food security of households with AIDS patients is often severely affected when a breadwinner is affected. It is therefore crucial that assistance programmes also take this into consideration.

6.2.5 Current WFP programs and implications

WFP assistance programmes in Angola have been scaled down significantly over the past two years. From a peak in 2004 where it had operations in all provinces (excluding Cabinda), WFP has scaled down to five provinces in the centre and the south - Benguela, Bié, Huambo, Kuando Kubango and Moxico. Under the new PRRO that runs from April 2006-March 2009, assistance programmes now focus on five main categories:

Monthly food requirements for April-December 2006 is estimated at 3 372 tonnes of cereals, 206 tonnes of pulses, 245 tonnes of vegetable oil and 50 tonnes of salt; others include 476 tonnes of CSB, 112 tonnes of Sugar and 44 tonnes of meat. The total monthly requirement is 5 505 tonnes and a shortfall of 23 758 tonnes. (US$19 million) is projected for this period. The implication of the current WFP food assistance programme is that it could cover some of the food insecure persons established by CFSAM (see Appendix E). There is an overlap between WFP planned operations and recommended CFSAM assistance in the provinces of Benguela and Huambo.19 The total cereal food assistance for WFP operations is estimated at 18 218 tonnes till December 2006, but approximately 10 000 tonnes will only be available for these two provinces. As this planned WFP operation remains under-resourced by about US$19 million, the scope for emergency operation will be very limited. Consequently raising funds to fill the funding gap would be crucial as would be the need to raise additional funding from the period between December and the next harvest in May/June 2007.

As the main food aid agency in the country with strong logistical capacity, WFP’s shift away from emergency operations will have serious implications for the food-based assistance recommended by the CFSAM. It was also established that most NGO have also shifted their operational focus towards livelihoods support and away from emergency responses. These developments means the capacity to implement the recommendations is fairly limited. It is crucial that these operational positions are reviewed in the light of the CFSAM findings. It was noted that Government has made some financial commitments (US$25 million) towards assistance programmes. However, this amount and the capacities of relevant government institutions to deliver assistance on ground to fully meet the recommended assistance are doubtful. It is therefore crucial that both Government and donors urgently consider providing additional funds for these assistance programmes.

6.2.6 Scope for local purchases

The poor state of food production in central and southern provinces gives no scope for local cereal food purchases to support food assistance programmes. Although most households do purchase some of their food requirements, it was observed that a large proportion of the food (mainly maize meal and rice) comes from neighbouring Namibia. While some parts of the north might have limited surplus maize (cassava is mainly consumed), local purchases from these areas are not feasible. Among other factors, this is due to the poor road conditions and high transportation cost this would entail. In addition, there is little evidence that commercial traders would be interested to participate in this scheme. But there is abundant scope for local purchase of salt as was in the past with WFP assistance programmes.

6.3. Logistics capacity and constraints

WFP operations are now concentrated in the centre and south of the country. This has also translated into very significant reduction in its logistical operations from 2-4 years ago. However, WFP still maintains imports through the main seaports of Luanda and Lobito, where Lobito still remains the logistical base. Most commodities come through these ports, except salt that continues to be locally purchased. Warehouses capacities have also been scaled down including the closure of the warehouse in Lubango, but some capacity have been maintained in both Luanda and Lobito.

From a security standpoint, all parts of the country have been accessible since the hostilities in 2002. Most provincial capitals can be accessed by road, but the conditions of these roads are very poor. This will cause a major challenge to road transport to areas where assistance will be provided. Access by road will become more difficult during the rainy season. This calls for an early planning and pre-positioning of assistance in advance of the onset of the rainy season, particularly in known difficult areas.

6.4. Follow-up steps

The CFSAM focused on the eight provinces and did not include provinces such as Bie, Moxico and Kuando Kubango that potential food security problems. It is recommended that the situation in these provinces (and other) be monitored for signs of food insecurity and malnutrition. This should also be applied to the municipalities in assisted provinces, but not considered for assistance such as those in Huambo and Huila. The Mission believes that failure in coping mechanisms could lead to a rapid deterioration of food security and nutrition situation.

The Mission also recommends monitoring of nutrition and household food security situation in provinces where assistance will be provided. Key aspects to monitor would include household access to food, changes in consumption patterns and nutrition conditions. This could be based on a simple classification of household consumption as poor, borderline or acceptable.

APPENDIX A

Tables A1 to A6 show the areas, yields and production for Angola’s main crops in 2005/06 with the corresponding figures for 2004/05. These are based on the Food Security Unit’s (GSA) figures with some modifications (for 2005/06 only) made by the Mission in light of observations in the field and discussions with farmers and officials.

Table A1. Angola: Areas planted in cereals, beans and groundnuts (‘000 ha), 2004/05 and 2005/06

  Maize Sorghum and
Millet
Rice Total
cereals
Beans Ground-nut
  04/05 05/06 04/05 05/06 04/05 05/06 04/05 05/06 04/05 05/06 04/05 05/06
Total (only peasant sector) 1 090 1 110 353 369 12 13 1 455 1 491 352 370 182 181
NORTH 121 122     5 5 126 127 116 117 98 99
Cabinda 2 2         2 2 4 4 4 4
Zaire 1 1         1 1 2 3 2 3
Uige 19 20     4 4 23 24 39 40 58 60
Bengo 8 8         8 8 9 9 4 4
Luanda 2 2         2 2 0.3 0.4    
Kwanza Norte 17 16         17 16 11 10 5 5
Malange 65 66     0.4 0.4 66 66 39 40 19 19
Lunda Norte 3 3     1 1 3 3 2 2 2 2
Lunda Sul 4 4     0.1 0.1 4 4 8 9 3 3
CENTRE 707 717 49 59 7 8 764 784 158 153 60 57
Kwanza Sul 80 76         80 76 22 22 9 15
Benguela 52 64 21 31     73 95 17 11 1 2
Huambo 362 369 20 21     382 389 54 55 24 15
Bié 200 197 7 7 0.1 0.1 207 204 53 53 13 12
Moxico 13 10 1 1 7 8 21 19 12 12 13 13
SOUTH 262 271 303 310     566 581 77 100 24 25
Namibe 5 5 5 5     10 10 1 1    
Huila 213 222 85 89     298 310 62 84 21 22
Cunene 10 10 145 148     155 158 3 3    
Cuando Cubango 35 35 68 68     102 103 11 11 3 3
Note: Totals computed from unrounded data.

Table A2. Angola: Yields of cereals, beans and groundnuts (t/ha), 2004/05 and 2005/06

  Maize Sorghum
and Millet
Paddy Rice Beans Groundnut
  2004/
05
2005/
06
2004/
05
2005/
06
2004/
05
2005/
06
2004/
05
2005/
06
2004/
05
2005/
06
NORTH                    
Cabinda 0.5 0.5         0.3 0.3 0.5 0.3
Zaire 1.0 1.0         0.5 0.3 0.5 0.3
Uige 0.5 0.5     0.7 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4
Bengo 0.5 0.5         0.3 0.3 0.5 0.3
Luanda 0.5 0.5         0.3 0.3    
Kwanza Norte 0.5 0.5         0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4
Malange 0.5 0.5     0.7 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5
Lunda Norte 0.3 0.3     0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Lunda Sul 0.5 0.5     0.3 1.0 0.01 0.3 0.0 0.3
CENTRE                    
Kwanza Sul 0.7 0.5         0.3 0.2 0.0 0.4
Benguela 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.4     0.3 0.1 0.4 0.1
Huambo 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.5     0.3 0.4 0.3 0.6
Bié 0.7 0.7 0.3 0.4 1.0 1.0 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3
Moxico 0.5 0.4 0.4 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
SOUTH                    
Namibe 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4     0.4 1.0    
Huila 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.4     0.4 0.1 0.3 0.1
Cunene 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4     0.3 0.3    
Cuando Cubango 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5     0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3
Note: Totals computed from unrounded data.

Table A3. Angola: Production of cereals, beans and groundnuts (‘000 t), 2004/05 and 2005/06

  Maize Sorghum and Millet Paddy Rice Total cereals Beans Groundnut
  2004/ 05 2005/ 06 2004/ 05 2005/ 06 2004/ 05 2005/ 06 2004/ 05 2005/ 06 2004/ 05 2005/ 06 2004/ 05 2005/ 06
TOTAL
(peasant sector
and irrigated areas)
734 579 138 157 9 9 881 745 109 100 66 67
Total peasant sector 720 565 138 157 9 9 867 731 108 100 66 67
NORTH 60 61     3 4 64 65 33 35 38 41
Cabinda 1 1         1 1 1 1 2 1
Zaire 1 1         1 1 1 1 1 1
Uige 10 10     3 3 13 13 12 12 23 24
Bengo 4 4         4 4 3 3 2 1
Luanda 1 1         1 1 0.1 0.1    
Kwanza Norte 9 8         9 8 4 3 2 2
Malange 33 33     0.3 0.3 33 33 12 12 8 10
Lunda Norte 1 1     0.4 0.4 1 1 1 1 1 1
Lunda Sul 2 2     0.03 0.1 2 2 0.1 3 0.01 1
CENTRE 492 372 17 26 5 5 514 403 48 51 21 24
Kwanza Sul 56 38         56 38 6 4 4 6
Benguela 37 26 7 12     44 38 5 1 1 0.2
Huambo 253 166 7 10     260 176 16 19 7 9
Bié 140 138 2 3 0.1 0.1 142 141 16 21 4 4
Moxico 6 4 0.4 1 5 5 11 10 4 5 5 5
SOUTH 168 133 121 131     289 264 27 14 7 3
Namibe 3 2 2 2     5 4 0.4 1    
Huila 149 111 34 35     183 146 22 8 6 2
Cunene 3 3 54 59     57 62 1 1    
Cuando Cubango 14 17 30 34     44 51 4 3 1 1
Note: Totals computed from unrounded data.

Table A4. Angola: Areas planted in roots and tubers (‘000 ha), 2004/05 and 2005/06

  Total Cassava Sweet potato Irish potato
  2004/ 05 2005/ 06 2004/ 05 2005/ 06 2004/ 05 2005/ 06 2004/ 05 2005/ 06
Total (only peasant sector) 1 016 1 013 749 757 144 141 124 116
NORTH 654 662 601 609 51 52 2 2
Cabinda 15 14 15 14 0.1 0.1    
Zaire 16 18 15 17 1 1    
Uige 247 254 225 231 20 21 2 2
Bengo 49 49 43 44 5 5 0.2 0.2
Luanda 3 5 3 5 0.1 0.2    
Kwanza Norte 53 49 49 45 4 3 0.1 0.1
Malange 173 175 160 162 13 13    
Lunda Norte 46 47 44 45 2 2    
Lunda Sul 50 51 45 46 5 5    
CENTRE 298 285 137 137 66 61 96 86
Kwanza Sul 59 46 39 40 5 2 14 4
Benguela 8 5 3 2 4 2 1 1
Huambo 106 108 19 19 30 31 57 58
Bié 52 52 16 15 13 13 23 23
Moxico 73 74 60 61 13 13 0.4 0.4
SOUTH 64 66 11 11 27 28 26 27
Namibe 1 1     1 1 0.1 0.1
Huila 45 47 2 2 18 18 26 27
Cunene                
Cuando Cubango 17 18 9 9 8 8 0.2 0.2
Note: Totals computed from unrounded data.

Table A5. Angola: Yields of roots and tubers (t/ha), 2004/05 and 2005/06

  Cassava Sweet potato Irish potato
  2004/05 2005/06 2004/05 2005/06 2004/05 2005/06
NORTH            
Cabinda 12 12 3 3    
Zaire 12 12 5 5    
Uige 12 12 5 5 1.5 1.5
Bengo 12 12 5 5 2.5 2.5
Luanda 10 10 4 5    
Kwanza Norte 12 12 5 5 1.5 1.5
Malange 12 13 5 6    
Lunda Norte 12 12 4 4    
Lunda Sul 12 12 4 4    
CENTRE            
Kwanza Sul 12 12 4 4 2.5 6
Benguela 10 4 4 3.5 2.5 2.5
Huambo 8 8 6 6 2.5 5
Bié 8 8 4 5 2.5 6
Moxico 12 8 4 5 2.5 2.5
SOUTH            
Namibe     3 3 3.0 10
Huila 9 6 4 3 2.5 5
Cunene            
Cuando Cubango 10 10 2 4 1.5 1.5
Note: Totals computed from unrounded data.

Table A6. Angola: Production of roots and tubers, as fresh weight (‘000 t), 2004/05 and 2005/06

  Total Cassava Sweet potato Irish potato
  2004/05 2005/06 2004/05 2005/06 2004/05 2005/06 2004/05 2005/06
TOTAL
(peasant sector
and irrigated
areas
9 788 10 102 8 815 8 817 664 690 309 595
Total peasant
sector
9 773 10 087 8 807 8 809 659 685 307 593
NORTH 7 451 7 721 7 202 7 455 246 263 3 3
Cabinda 185 169 185 169 0.3 0.3    
Zaire 188 210 183 204 5 5    
Uige 2 809 2 880 2 705 2 774 101 104 3 3
Bengo 548 553 520 525 27 27 0.5 0.5
Luanda 33 48 32 47 0.4 1    
Kwanza Norte 609 563 590 545 19 17 0.1 0.1
Malange 1 980 2 180 1 915 2 101 65 79    
Lunda Norte 539 546 530 537 9 9    
Lunda Sul 561 573 541 553 20 20    
CENTRE 2 059 2 038 1 496 1 252 323 331 239 456
Kwanza Sul 529 510 472 480 21 9 35 22
Benguela 51 19 31 8 17 8 3 3
Huambo 473 628 149 152 181 184 143 292
Bié 237 327 125 123 53 66 58 138
Moxico 769 554 718 488 51 65 1 1
SOUTH 263 327 109 103 90 91 65 134
Namibe 4 3     3 3 0.3 1
Huila 153 200 19 12 70 55 64 133
Cunene                
Cuando Cubango 107 124 90 90 17 33 0.3 0.3
Note: Totals computed from unrounded data.

APPENDIX B

CROP PRODUCTION SITUATION IN PROVINCES VISITED BY THE MISSION

1.  Northern Region

Uige

The rains started normally in September but stopped slightly earlier than usual in the first half of December. The intensity of rainfall at the end of this first planting season was high. The dry spell was slightly longer than usual with the rains starting again at the end of January. Rainfall during this season was often heavy and it stopped in March instead of April.

Crops planted in the first season did well and the harvest of maize, beans and groundnuts was considered satisfactory. Crops planted in the second season were set back, though not abnormally so, by both the high intensity of the rainfall and its early cessation. Beans and groundnuts were most affected.

Uige is well provided with cassava.

Prices of beans, groundnuts, maize and cassava (flour, fresh or semi-processed) are currently low and affordable for the majority of the households. In mid-May cassava flour was selling for Kz 30 - 35 per kg, beans at Kz 75 - 80, groundnuts at Kz 80 - 100, and maize at Kz 25. The very poor condition of most roads is a severe constraint to the movement of agricultural commodities.

Malange

The rains started on time in September in Malange but stopped earlier than usual before mid-December. They resumed on time in mid-January but again stopped early, about the beginning of April. Rainfall intensity was high in December and again in March.

Maize, beans and groundnuts planted in the first season did well, but crops planted during the second season, especially beans and groundnuts, were adversely affected by the heavy rains in March and the early cessation of rains in April.

Cassava is readily available.

Prices of beans (Kz75-80/kg), groundnuts (Kz80-100/kg), maize (Kz25/kg) and cassava (flour, fresh or semi-processed) (Kz30-35/kg) are currently low and affordable for the majority of households.

Beans, sweet potato and vegetables will be planted in the low-lying lands (‘nacas’) in the period May - August.

2. Central Region

Kwanza Sul

In coastal and transition zones of Kwanza Sul province (covering the municipalities of Sumbe and parts of Seles, Porto Amboim, Conda and Amboim, the rains of the first planting season were very poor and crop production was limited to the second rainy season. This pattern of poor rains during the first planting season is not unusual for this part of the country. Elsewhere in the province the first rains were satisfactory.

The second planting season was characterized by a slightly late start, heavy rains and otherwise poor rainfall distribution in February and March, and a slightly early stop in April. The adverse effects of this weather pattern were evident on the maize, beans and groundnuts.

With a virtually non-existent first season and a poor second season, crop production in the west of the province will be lower than usual this year.

The condition of some of the roads (inter-municipalities and main roads toward the neighbouring provinces) is satisfactory, and this has been the driving force for the acceptable movement of commodities from the production areas to the main markets. The prices of maize (Kz25/kg), beans (Kz75-100), groundnuts (Kz80-100) and cassava (flour, fresh or semi-processed) (Kz35-40/kg), are currently low and affordable for the majority of households.

Huambo

The rains in Huambo Province started satisfactorily, but heavy rains in November and an early start to the dry spell had an adverse impact on crops over much of the province. The effect was most evident in the west and southwest, and much less significant in the north. The heavy rains - and in some places hailstorms - often had a devastating effect on the bean crop, while the early arrival of the dry spell hit any maize that was planted slightly late at a vulnerable growth stage. Maize that was planted early with the first rains was generally less affected. The situation was exacerbated in the west and southwest by an often protracted dry spell, sometimes extending into March, by which time it was too late to expect any satisfactory production from late-planted maize. Many farmers did, however, plant at this late stage but by mid-May the rains were already coming to a close and there was little hope of much yield. On the other hand, stands of sorghum, which is not the staple of the area, were often quite satisfactory.

The less-than-ideal growing conditions this year in the worst-affected parts Huambo are not altogether unusual and some farmers reported that this year was in fact marginally better than last. One of the problems with growing maize in this part of the country is the poor availability of short-cycle varieties such as the 120-day CIMMYT release ‘ZM521’, which would be better equipped to cope with unreliable rainfall patterns. Of the named varieties grown, the main ones are ‘SAM3’ and ‘Branco Redondo’, both of which have a 5-month maturation period.

It appears that food security could be enhanced in areas of low maize production by a greater emphasis on sorghum, cassava and sweet potato, all of which were performing satisfactorily albeit on relatively small areas. Farmers complain, however, of a shortage of planting material for root crops.

The province has been, and continues to be, the destination for a significant number of returning refugees. 5 000 arrived last year and a further 4 000 are expected this year.

Farmers in Huambo have traditionally used oxen for land preparation. This went into severe decline in the war years but is now reviving, especially following last year’s intervention by MINADER.

Huambo, which was particularly badly affected by the war, still has some agricultural areas such as Bimbi which have not been entirely cleared of landmines. This obviously imposes a constraint on the expansion of cropped land.

Market prices within the province appeared to reflect harvest expectations in different localities. In Huambo town, maize grain (mixed yellow and white) was selling for Kz20/kg, while in Ucuma in the west the price had risen from Kz30 in April to Kz35/kg in May.

Benguela

The first planting season in Benguela started normally but heavy downpours and an early cessation of the rains had an impact on those crops that were not planted sufficiently early or had no access to supplementary irrigation.

Normally the province expects to produce about 75 percent of its crops from the first planting season and about 25 percent from the second. In some areas, however, the compensation of the second planting season was lost as the rains came again only after a longer-than-usual dry spell and were then poorly distributed. Worst affected was the central area roughly defined by Bocoio, Monte Belo and Cubal.

Apparently a considerable number of farmers have access to supplementary irrigation from rivers. These sources are also used for vegetable production at other times during the year. The provincial government intends to give high priority to the rehabilitation of existing formal schemes and to developing new ones.

Benguela has a tradition of using oxen for cultivating the land which is now being revived. Last year FAO provided 5 000 oxen for traction, and 2 500 ox-ploughs. A credit fund of US$390 000 has also been established for medium-scale farmers.

Benguela is home to about 3 000 returned refugees and more than 16 000 demobilised soldiers, all of whom put an extra demand on the province’s food resources until they become fully settled and productive.

3. Southern Region

Huila

The October rains started normally this year in the northern part of Huila. There was some heavy rain in November, and December was unusually dry. In the centre of the province, rainfall in October and November was poor, though this was less marked in the east. The south normally gets poor rainfall at this time of year, but this year it was worse than usual. However, this is mainly an agro-pastoral area with sorghum and millet as the staples.

March and April were characterised by very heavy rainfall over much of the province, and some areas were still receiving rain in mid-May.

MINADER estimates that about 30 percent of the province’s farmers have some sort of access to supplementary irrigation.

About 30 percent of Angola’s cattle are found in Huila. By mid-May, following the heavy rains of March and April, the condition of livestock and pasture was very good, as was access to water.

The price of imported maize meal (from Namibia) in local markets was usually about Kz50/kg, which is higher than in both Huambo and Cunene.

Namibe

Crop production in Namibe is much less important than fishing and livestock. Namibe usually expects some rain in October and November but this year there was no significant rainfall before February. Those farmers in the north of the province who planted in October and November, in the hope that what little rain had fallen might develop, were disappointed and lost their crops. When the rains did come they were heavy, and extensive flooding followed in March.

There is a significant amount of small-scale commercial riverside cultivation in the province, producing potatoes, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, onions and other vegetables for both Namibe and Lubango markets. (Marketing is considerably facilitated by some of the best roads in the country.) Much of the February and early-March planting of these cash crops was lost to the floods of March; some was swept away and some was simply inundated. Although the loss to individuals was often considerable, the flooding will nevertheless allow a greater area of cropping on residual moisture in the coming months than would normally be the case. Such flooding is said to occur more frequently now than in the past. For instance, a similar level of flooding was experienced in 2002. A number of affected farmers on the Curoca River consider that the problem is exacerbated by the fact that the central channel of the river is no longer regularly dredged as it was in colonial times, with the result that the river is getting wider and shallower with each year’s deposit of sediment.

The dry conditions at the beginning of the year prompted the early beginning of transhumance to Huila. If the rains come in October and November, cattle generally remain in Namibe, but this year they began to move out in December. Following the heavy rains in March, livestock condition is now good.

Cunene

Livestock is very important in Cunene Province, especially in the south. It is estimated that 60-70 percent of households are principally involved in livestock rearing and 30-40 percent principally in crop production; however, most agriculturists also have some livestock, with an estimated livestock ownership of up to 94 percent of the province’s rural households.

The rains came on time in the north of the province, and October-planted millet and sorghum look set to give satisfactory yields by June. Further south, the rains started later, and there were often several false starts which obliged farmers to re-plant. However, the south, where crop production is disappointing, is much more livestock-oriented than the north, where crop production is generally good.

There were some very heavy rains in March and April which led to extensive flooding in parts. However, they contributed to excellent livestock and pasture conditions and will provide adequate livestock watering for several months.

Imported maize meal in the main market near the Namibia border at Santa Clara was being sols at Kz45/kg.

Appendix C

Review of recent food security & vulnerability assessments

A: Food Security and Livelihoods Survey in the Central Highlands of Rural Angola’ by WFP VAM in collaboration with Tulane University (USA) and World Vision USA in early 2005 (covered the Central Plateau (planoalto) region – Huambo, western parts of Bié (33 percent), northern Huila (14 percent), eastern Benguela (12 percent) and southern Kuanza Sul (8 percent).

B: Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) (covering Bié, northern part of Huila, Moxico, Namibe, Cunene and Kuando Kubango):

Appendix D

Summary of food insecurity by region and province

North (Kwanza Sul, Malanje & Uige):

One of the teams covered the north-central provinces of Kwanza Sul, Malanje and Uige, which is largely a cassava consuming area. Cassava is a drought-tolerant crop and the effect of the mild dry spell experienced in this region was not believed to be of much significance. Most households had cassava fields from previous years that are available for harvest this year. The number of persons affected was therefore not significant. However, some parts of Kwanza Sul Province including northwest, west and southwest of Sumbe, Porto Amboim, Seles, Amboim and Conda municipalities suffered some crop losses, with estimated 10 000-12 000 households (50 000–60 000 persons) affected. But livestock conditions were generally good and the number of animals (cattle, goats, sheep and poultry), were believed to be increasing.

Central-South (Benguela, Huambo, Huila, Namibe & Cunene):

This is predominantly a cereal-growing region. In the five provinces visited by the Mission, the situation was found to be worse than in the north. However, there were important variations in severity of the impact of the shocks.

Benguela Province: the main affected areas were the municipalities of Chongoroi, Caimbambo, Bocoio (Ganda, Cubal) and Balombo. About 3 000 returnees and 16 000 ex-soldiers have been resettled in the province. Several NGOs including KWATOKO-AID, CRS, OKUTIUKA, AADC, IRSEH, OHPA, OFDP/FDC, ODCA were found to be implementing various assistance programme in the province. WFP was implementing school feeling programme covering about 74 000 children. Household food shortages expect to set in from September/ October until April/May 2007. It is expected that some 253 900 persons will be affected.

Huambo Province: This is one of the most affected provinces, where crop failure of 35-75 percent for maize (up to 95 percent for beans) was reported. The southern western parts of the province were more severely affected than the northern parts; these included the municipalities of Caala, Ekunha, Longonjo, Ukuma and Tchindjenje. About 12 000 returnees (approximately 3.3 percent of total) have resettled in the province since 2002 and more are expected this year. Most of the returnees are in the municipalities of Huambo, Bailundo, Tchichala-Tcholohanga and Catchihungo. A large number of female-headed households are also found in the Province. Concern International estimated the number in Ekunha at approximately 30-35 percent. With household coping strategies that include sale of charcoal, sale of livestock, petty trade and reducing food intake and of number of meals, wild foods (including fruits and caterpillars) households will face food shortages from September to March. However, households with animal traction will have some food until January but these represent a small percentage of the total in this province.

Huila Province: the Mission observation in northern Huila Province revealed characteristics similar to those in southern parts of Huambo province with regards to the season. Huila is the transition zone between maize production in north and millet/ sorghum production in the south. Most municipalities most affected were those that predominantly produced maize – Kaluquembe, Caconda, Cacula, Quilengues, and Chipindo – that are productive agricultural areas. The situation was about normal in the southern municipality of Gambos that is predominantly livestock area and in Jamba where provincial officials pointed out that rainfall was normal. Other municipalities in the central (mixed farming) zone were believed to have a mixed picture. Government estimates of affected persons was 600 000 in sharp contract to 62 300 persons established to be vulnerable by the CFSVA and 32 000 by CFSAM 2004. Food insecurity is expected to set in from July/ August in the most affected but otherwise at a later period on October/November to March/April 2007.

Namibe Province: this is an arid province that experienced a three-month interruption in the rainy season (November to January) that led to crop failure. It was also affected by floods along River Croca that washed away the first set of crops and submerged farming downstream that the Mission verified. However, livestock conditions were good, although water shortage led to an earlier migration of cattle to Huila in the north. The most affected municipalities were identified to include Tombwa, Bibala and Kamacuio. The Mission believes that areas affected by floods will recover when the floods recede and residual moisture from the submerge land becomes available. Most households own some livestock so that the impact of crop failure will be offset through the sale of livestock. Severely affected households will start to experience difficulties from June/July, with others following from August/September until March/April 2007.

Cunene Province: Observation revealed good crop stand (mainly millet and sorghum) in the northern parts of Cunene. In the south where the rainfall was more erratic, the situation was different. However, livestock conditions were good and there was adequate water and pasture for livestock. Overall, the Mission believes that households that will face food insecurity will be those affected by crop failure due the drought – and these will mainly be in the south - but also in the north where households have limited livestock. About 60-70 percent of households rear livestock as their main source of livelihood (mainly in the south) and 30-40 percent are engaged in agriculture (mainly in the north). Livestock ownership is also widespread with up to 94 percent of households owning livestock. Since livestock conditions were satisfactory, it follows that households that experience crop failure – and have limited livestock - will the ones facing food insecurity. This is expected to set in from August and September in the south of the province and from November and December in the northern part20. Municipalities affected include Namacunde, Ombandja and Curoca.

Other provinces & municipalities: The CFSAM verification Mission focused on eight provinces and a limited number of municipalities – mainly those covered by the Inter-sectoral Assessment Mission. However, the Mission also gathered information on other municipalities and provinces, especially in the centre and south. This was largely through documents that were reviewed. Additional information was gathered through interviews with key informants, especially during consultations in Luanda and through asking key informants in the field for their opinion about the situation in neighbouring municipality or province. It was therefore possible to establish a reasonable picture about the food security situation in other municipalities in the provinces visited. Some general impressions were gathered on the situation in other provinces. For example, it was established that about 51 percent refugees returned to Moxico Province (mostly to Alto Zambeze, Luau, Lumbala N’Guimbo and Luena) and a further 12.3 percent went to Kuando Kubango, with most going to Menongue, Cuangar and Calai Municipalities (UNHCR 2005). About 40 percent of them returned between 2004 and 2005, and their chances of establishing full household food security would be doubtful.

Appendix E

planned Number of persons under World Food Programme PRRO 10433.0 in Angola

April-December 2006 compared with cfsam 2006 estimates

Programme/ Province Benguela Bié Huambo K-Kubango Moxico Total
Emergency food distribution - - - - - -
Vulnerable group feeding 5 662 6 322 8 100 2 608 1 680 24 372
FFW/FFA for resettlement 118 615 109 506 90 793 35 285 30 438 384 637
Return and resettlement 2 317 10 742 7 910 38 626 18 362 77 957
School feeding 74 247 46 509 88 040 15 000 23 403 247 199
WFP Total Coverage1/ 126 594 126 570 106 803 76 519 50 480 486 966
CFSAM 2006 Figures 144 300 - 347 600 - - 491 900
Source: WFP-Luanda Documents supplied to the Mission.
1/ Excludes school feeding.

Appendix F

Summary of key food security characteristics by province

Province Normal Hunger Period Hunger Period 2006/07 Affected Municipalities Category of Vulnerable Coping strategies
Bengo Nov-Dec N/A N/A  N/A  N/A
Benguela Litoral Nort : Jan-June Interior: Jan-Mar May 2006- May 2007 (Ganda and Cubal) Chongoroi, Caimbambo, Bocoio (Ganda, Cubal), Balombe Ex-Soldiers (16,000) - 12 percent receiving support, Returnees in Bocoio and Balombe Markets activities, occasional labour, charcoal and fire wood, animal raising, caterpillar
Bié Aug-Feb N/A N/A  N/A  N/A
Cabinda Feb-Oct N/A N/A  N/A  N/A 
Cunene Dec-May From Sep/Oct in south; Nov/Dec in north Namacunde, Ombandja, Curoca, (Kuanhama, Cahama) HH involved in arable agric.; returnees (60 percent arrived 2005) Charcoal, labour, livestock, local brew, petty trade
Kuanza Norte Out-Jan N/A N/A N/A N/A
Kuanza Sul Nov-Jan See Group Mission report Sumbe, Porto Ambion, Ambion, Seles, Conda   Markets activities, animal raising, fishing, occasional labour and charcoal
Kuando Kubango Oct-Feb N/A N/A  N/A  N/A
Huila Jan-Mar Aug 06-May 07 (North of Huila) Agriculturally productive parts in the north: Kaluquembe, Caconda, Cacula, Quilenguew, Chipindo (Chibia) HH involved in arable agric. Markets activities, livestock, occasional labour and charcoal & woods, vegetable and potatoes in low lands
Huambo Aug.-Jan Aug 06-May 07 (from Sept) Southern municipalities most affected: Longonjo, Caala, Ukuma, Ekunha, Tchinjenje, T. Tcholohanga Returnees (400 exp. 2006);Female headed HH Markets activities products, animal raising, charcoal, fire wood and casual labour, wild products (including fruits, caterpillars), Naca (reduction in number of meals - farmers in Chinjenje - 1 meal a day; eating banana flour)
Lunda Norte Sept-Dec N/A N/A  N/A  N/A 
Lunda Sul Sept-Dec N/A N/A  N/A  N/A 
Luanda Set-Nov N/A N/A  N/A  N/A
Malanje Nov-Mar N/A N/A N/A  N/A
Moxico Jan-Mar N/A N/A  N/A  N/A
Namibe Sept-Jan May-August (famine - March-May) Tombwa, Bibala, Kamacuio  N/A  Livestock, fishing, markets activities (pop in Curoca village mainly grow vegetables for sale)
Uige NA N/A N/A  N/A  N/A
Zaire Feb-Mar N/A N/A  N/A  N/A 
Source: CFSAM analysis based on various reports and interviews

Appendix G

Selected References

Report on the Multi-sectoral Mission ‘United Against Hunger’ (1-20 March 2006)

Angola: VAM Atlas (Draft), WFP Angola, June 2004

Country Report: Angola, Economist, Economist Intelligence Unit, March 2006

Special Report: FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission to Angola, 6 August 2004

Special Report: FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission to Angola, 25 July 2003

Plano Estrategico para a Reduccao Acelerada da Mortalitade Materno Infantil em Angola 2004 – 2008, Ministerio da Saude

Household Vulnerability and Emergency Food Security Needs Assessment, Draft (WFP Section in CFSAM Guidelines), March 2006.

Voluntary Repatriation Operation – Angola (2002-2005), UNHCR Angola, 2005

WFP Assistance in Angola, PRRO 10433.0: Food Requirements and Shortfalls, April – December 2006.

Monitoria da Campanha Agricola 2004/05: Avaliacao da Producao Agro-Alimentar, Ministero da Agricultura do Desenvolvimento Rural, Junho de 2005.

Estudo de Seroprevalencia de VIH, Sifilis, e Hepatite B, mulheres gravidas em consulta prenatal, Angola 2004.

International Programs Centre, Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data Base, June 2000.

Food Security and Livelihoods Survey in the Central Highlands of Rural Angola (WFP, 2005);

Angola: Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA), (WFP 2005).

Livelihood Assessment Report for Ekunha Municipality in the Huambo Province of Angola, February 2006.

FEWS-Net & WFP Angola Food Security Update (various - August 2003, December 2003 – January 2004, April 2004)

Special Report on Crop and Food Supply Situation in Huambo, Angola, June-July 2005.

FEWS-Net & WFP, Prices and Market Situation Report (September 2004 and March 2005 issues)

Relatorio da Comitiva Multi-Sectorial “UNIDOS NO COMPATE A FOME” – 01- A 18.03.2006.

Programa Operativo de Minimizacao dos Efeitos da Estiagem Prolongata na Regiao Sul, Ministero da Agricultura do Desenvolvimento Rural, Abril 2006.

This report has been prepared by Swithun Goodbody, Mario Zappacosta, Simon Dradri, Kisan Gunjal and Domingos Cunha under the responsibility of the FAO and WFP Secretariats with information from official and other sources. Since conditions may change rapidly, please contact the undersigned for further information if required.

Henri Josserand
Chief, GIEWS, FAO
Fax: 0039-06-5705-4495
E-mail: giews1@fao.org
Mike Sackett
Regional Director, ODJ, WFP
Fax:  0027-11-5171642
E-mail: Mike.Sackett@wfp.org

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1. The figures of 4.5 million cattle, 4.7 million small ruminants, 2.5 million pigs and 16 million poultry reported in MINADER’s 2005 crop assessment (Monitoria da Campanha Agricola 2004/05) represent an anomaly which illustrates the uncertainty of agriculture statistics within the country.

2. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service GAIN Report no. AO6001, 2006

3. Instituto Nacional de Estatistica, as quoted in MINADER Monitoria da Campanha Agricola 2004/05

4. Breast-feeding generally lasts 2-3 years in rural areas and the main problem there would be poor feeding.

5. However, the survey found low levels of clinical micronutrient deficiencies (goitre, pellagra, pallor) among women. It should also be noted that the survey was carried out during the harvest season where food was generally abundant.

6. The health care system in Angolan consists of hospitals, heath centers, health posts and health units, with expertise for deliveries available only at hospital level and some health centres.

7. The war in Angola had "protective effect" by limiting travels across borders and within the country.

8. Estudo de Seroprevalencia de VIH, Sifilis, e Hepatite B, mulheres gravidas em consulta prenatal, Angola 2004.

9. Source of data: International Programs Center, Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data Base, June 2000.

10. Food Security and Livelihoods Survey in the Central Highlands of Rural Angola (WFP, 2005); Angola: Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA), (WFP 2005).

11. Livelihood Assessment Report for Ekunha Municipality in the Huambo Province of Angola, February 2006. Other documents that provided useful information are referenced in Appendix G.

12. The provinces include Kuandu Sul, Bié, Huambo, Benguela & Moxico in the centre; and Huila Namibe, Cunene & Kuando Kubango in the south.

13. According to Angop- Angola Press of 22 May 2006, this is based on government estimates 1 634 889 people are affected by drought in the provinces of Benguela, Kuanza-Sul, Cunene, Huila and Namibe aimed to provide food assistance for the next three months.

14. Establishing the number of people affected and the kinds and magnitudes of assistance required entailed making critical judgements based on information gathered from the difference sources. The specific approaches used are further explained under the different sections of this report.

15. The mission included the Director of National Director of Agriculture, Livestock and Forestry; Director of GSA; and three Department Chiefs including IDA and IIA. The Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Reinsertion & Social Action, Ministries of Territorial Administration and Ministry of Commerce were also represented by directors or department chiefs. The National Cooperative Union and the Food and agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) was represented by the Representative in Angola.

16. Based on EFSA classification of food security status as ‘food insecure’ and ‘vulnerable’. According to this classification, the ‘food insecure’ comprises the ‘severely food insecure’ mainly those experiencing chronic food insecurity and the ‘moderately food insecure’ mainly those affected by shock (i.e. the dry spells and floods in some locations).

17. The number of Angolan in Zambia was reported to be 78 580 in May 2006, consisting of 29 496 in refugee camps and the rest who are self-settled – and most expect to return this year.

18. The difference is 10 060 tonnes, but in fact falls within the upper estimate of cereal assistance of 83 200 tonnes.

19. Excluding school feeding WFP assistance covers 126 594 persons Benguela compared with 144 300 recommended by CFSAM; equivalent comparison in Huambo are 106 806 and 347 600, respectively.

20. This is based on the harvest period starting in June and households indicating that harvests will last for 2-3 months in the south and 5-6 months in the northern parts.