Previous PageTable Of ContentsNext Page

Annex 3: Glossary

Definitions marked with an asterisk (*) have been taken from the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 (FRA 2005) ( These, in turn, may have been taken from primary sources such as the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) or the Convention on Biological Diversity, and these sources are indicated.


Establishment of forest plantations on land that, until then, was not classified as forest.

Implies a transformation from non-forest to forest.

Biodiversity* (also Biological diversity)

The variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems (from the Convention on Biological Diversity, art 2:

Carbon sequestration

The uptake and storage of carbon. Forests, trees and plants absorb carbon dioxide, release the oxygen and store the carbon.

Carbon sink

Forest and other ecosystems that absorb carbon, thereby removing it from the atmosphere and offsetting CO2 emissions. The Kyoto Protocol allows certain human-induced sink activities undertaken since 1990 to be counted towards Annex I Parties' emission targets.

Clean Development Mechanism

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol designed to make it easier and cheaper for industrialized countries to meet the greenhouse gas emission reduction targets that they agreed to under the protocol. Under the CDM, an industrialized country with a greenhouse gas reduction target can invest in a project in a developing country without a target and claim credit for the emissions that the project achieves.


The conversion of forest to another land use or the long-term reduction of the tree canopy cover below the minimum 10 percent threshold.

Disturbances* affecting forest health and vitality

A disturbance is defined as an environmental fluctuation and destructive event that disturbs forest health, structure and/or change resources or physical environment at any given spatial or temporal scale. Disturbances that affect health and vitality include biotic agents such as insects and diseases and abiotic agents such as fire, pollution and extreme weather conditions (White and Pickett, 1985; Lindgren and Lewis, 1997, also available at


Any type of work performed or services rendered under a contract of hire, written or oral, in exchange for wage or salary, in cash or in kind. (Based on definitions by ILO and the Employment Security Commission.) Employment may be related to the primary production of goods, or to the provision of services.

ILO Core Labour Standards include the following conventions:


A process by which bodies of water become highly charged with nutrients, leading to massive growth in primary productivity, which may result in the growth of algae (‘algal blooms’), leading to reductions in dissolved oxygen and the death of fish and other acquatic life.


Land spanning more than 0.5 hectares (ha) with trees higher than 5 metres (m) and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use.

Forest certification

A procedure to assess the quality of forest management in relation to a forest management standard. Forest certification is designed to send a market signal to buyers that the products they purchase are derived from forests managed to particular environmental and social standards.

Forest management*

The processes of planning and implementing practices for the stewardship and use of forests and other wooded land aimed at achieving specific environmental, economic, social and /or cultural objectives. Includes management at all scales such as normative, strategic, tactical and operational level management.

Forest resources*

For the purposes of the global forest resources assessments, forest resources include those found in forests and other wooded land and as trees outside forests.


The designated function refers to the purpose assigned to a piece of land, either by legal prescriptions or by decision of the landowner/manager. It applies to land classified as ‘Forest’ and as ‘Other wooded land’.

Introduced species* – see Species

Managed forest/other wooded land*

Forest and other wooded land that is managed in accordance with a formal or informal plan applied regularly over a sufficiently long period (five years or more).

Native species* – see Species

Natural forest*

A forest composed of indigenous trees and not classified as a forest plantation.

Modified natural forest/other wooded land*

Primary forest/other wooded land*

Semi-natural forest/other wooded land*

Non-wood forest product (NWFP)*

A product of biological origin other than wood derived from forests, other wooded land and trees outside forests (FAO NWFP Web site: ).

Other wooded land*

Land not classified as ‘Forest’, spanning more than 0.5 ha; with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of 5–10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ; or with a combined cover of shrubs, bushes and trees above 10 percent. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use.

Plantation forest or forest plantation/other wooded land*

Forest/other wooded land of introduced species and in some cases native species, established through planting or seeding.

Planted forest/other wooded land*

Forest/other wooded land in which trees have been established through planting or seeding. Includes all stands established through planting or seeding of both native and introduced species.



Establishment of forest plantations on temporarily unstocked lands that are considered as forest.


Secondary forest*

Forest regenerated largely through natural processes after significant human or natural disturbance of the original forest vegetation.



The art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health and quality of forest and woodlands to meet the targeted diverse needs and values of landowners and society on a sustainable basis (see the Web site of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations:


A woody perennial with a single main stem or, in the case of coppice, with several stems, having a more or less definite crown. Includes bamboos, palms and other woody plants meeting the above criteria.

Trees outside forests

Trees outside forests include all trees found outside forests and outside other wooded lands:

Web site:

Previous PageTop Of PageNext Page