Cover
Training Manual for
TESTSE CONTROL PERSONNEL
Volume 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS


Tsetse biology, systematics and distribution; techniques

Edited by
J.N. Pollock, M.Sc. Ph.D.

Reprinted 1992

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.



All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copy right owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Special thanks are due to principal contributors:

Mr. D.A.T. Baldry, Dr. P.F.L. Boreham, Dr. A. Challier, Dr. J.Van Etten, Dr. J.W. Everts, Dr. J. Gravel, Dr. A.M. Jordan, Prof. J.H. Koeman, Mr. J.G. Le Roux, Dr. D.J. Rogers, Dr. A.R. Stiles, Dr. Y. Tazé, Dr. T. Tibayrenc, Dr. A. Van der Vlcet, Dr. M. Vandekar, Dr. R.H. de Vos.

Additional material and advice has been obtained from Dr. G.A. Matthews, Mr. J.D. Parker, Mr. C.W. Lee and Dr. D.M. Minter. Corrections and additions to an earlier draft have been suggested by various experts too numerous to mention individually. Many of these suggestions have been incorporated into the present text. A most valuable service has been rendered by Mr. Howell Davies and Dr. A.M. Jordan who have read Volume I of the Manual in manuscript and have made many useful suggestions.

PREFACE

The African trypanosomiases of man and animals constitute not only a human health hazard but impose a major constraint on livestock production and general agricultural development over an estimated 10 million square kilometres of the African continent. Much of this land is potentially highly productive but its full economic development is being denied because of the impact of this group of diseases on man and his livestock.

Technological advances resulting from research over the past few decades have broadened the frontiers of our knowledge of both tsetse and trypanosomiasis control. This has enabled us to look to the future with some optimism for bringing major portions of Africa into productive use and for thus improving the quality of life of the human population.

Against this background, FAO has launched a large-scale activity entitled the Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Belated Development. As its title implies, the Programme's objective is not limited to the control of the disease or its vector; it also embodies a major drive toward implementation of sound land use programmes and general rural development.

In its preparatory phase from 1975 to 1979 the Programme has laid emphasis on training, applied research, pilot control projects, the environmental impact of control procedures, the rearing of trypanotolerant cattle, the mobilization of resources and services, and the establishment of the necessary coordination and management structures. These were the prerequisites for the expanded field activities which are to be undertaken. And here acknowledgement must be made of the active support of international organizations, research institutes, bilateral donor governments and agencies, as well as the affected countries, towards the fulfilment of the basic requirements of the Programme.

Training activities, so far, have been mainly in the form of seminars, and relatively short, intensive training courses aimed at the leadership component for tsetse and trypanosomiasis control. It has become increasingly apparent that there is a need for more training of control personnel at field level in order to satisfy manpower requirements for the implementation of control projects in the foreseeable future. With this in mind, FAO has undertaken the compilation of a document on tsetse control that is more comprehensive in scope than existing literature, being designed for use throughout Africa in the training of tsetse control personnel, especially in the more practical aspects of their work.

The Training Manual for Tsetse Control Personnel is published in three volumes in both English and French. Volume I covers tsetse biology, systematics and distribution; Volume II deals with behaviour and ecological requirements of tsetse on a species by species basis, with the length of text on the various species being in proportion to their relative economic importance; and Volume III is devoted to an account of control methods.

We do not claim that this edition is perfect. We trust that constructive criticism will be forthcoming for improvement of subsequent editions.

Special thanks are due to the Editorial Board and to the numerous contributors for the preparation of material and to the Editor, Dr. J.N. Pollock, for the excellent presentation of the contributions.

R.B. Griffiths
Director
Animal Production and Health Division FAO, Rome

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, © FAO 1992


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This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software. FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 - EXTERNAL ANATOMY OF GLOSSINA.

1.1   Cuticle

1.2   External appearance

1.3   Head

1.4   Thorax

1.5   Abdomen

CHAPTER 2 - INTERNAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

2.1   Digestive system

2.2   How the food is used

2.3   Nervous system

2.4   Endocrine system

2.5   Reproductive system

CHAPTER 3 - LIFE CYCLE

3.1   Mating

3.2   Egg stage

3.3   Larval stages

3.4   Larviposition (birth of the larva).

3.5   Pupa

3.6   Adult fly

3.7   Rate of reproduction

CHAPTER 4 - GLOSSINA SYSTEMATICS

4.1   Species and subspecies

4.2   Genus and species names

4.3   How a species gets its name

4.4   Family name.

4.5   Species groups

4.6   List ofGlossina species and subspecies, with international symbols and colour references.

CHAPTER 5 - DISTRIBUTION OF GLOSSINA.

5.1   General notes

5.2   Distribution ofmorsitans group species .

5.3   Distribution of paipalis group species in Africa

5.4   Distribution of fusca group species in Africa

5.5   Glossina species/country table.

5.6   Factors limiting distribution

CHAPTER 6 - HOSTS OF GLOSSINA AND TRANSMISSION

6.1   Main hosts .

6.2   Trypanosomes

6.3   Diseases

6.4   Source (reservoir) of infection.

6.5   Transmission of trypanosomes to new hosts

CHAPTER 7 - BASIC TECHNIQUES FOR THE STUDY OF GLOSSINA IN THE FIELD

7.1   Collecting and studying pupae

7.2   Collection of tsetse flies by hand nets and by traps

7.3   Sex determination

7.4   Msthods of studying resting flies

7.5   Recognition of teneral and ncn-teneral flies.

7.6   Hunger staging

7.7   Marking flies for release and recapture studies .

7.8   Fly-rounds .

7.9   Stationary catches by a catching party (picket).

7.10   Composition and interpretation of tsetse fly samples

CHAPTER 8 - BASIC TECHNIQUES FOR THE STUDY OF GLDSSINA IN THE LABORATORY.

8.1   Maintenance of live pupae .

8.2   Handling, storage and transportation of living flies

8.3   Preservation of dead material

8.4   Insemination rate and pregnancy rate determination.

8.5   Age determination

8.6   Blood meal identification

8.7   Trypanosome infection rate determination

8.8   Measuring the size of Glossina

CHAPTER 9 - DESCRIPTION AND KEYS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF GLOSSINA SPECIES

9.1   Introduction .

9.2   Care and use of hand lens

9.3   Characters useful in the identification Of Glossina species

9.4   Regional keys

9.5   Description of the more important species

9.6   Identification of pupae

CHAPTER 10 - MISCELLANEOUS TECHNIQUES

10.1 Microscopy

10.2 Meteorology

10.3 Preparation of reports

10.4 Maps, map making and illustrations .

10.5 Aerial surveys and photography as aids in tsetse survey