Marine mammals of the world

FAO SPECIES IDENTIFICATION GUIDE

Marine mammals of the world


prepared by
Thomas A. Jefferson
Marine Mammal Research Program
c/o Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences
210 Nagle Hall, Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77843-2258
Stephen Leatherwood
IUCN/SSC Cetacean Specialist Group
Ocean Park Conservation Foundation
Ocean Park Corporation
Aberdeen, Hong Kong
and
Marc A. Webber
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Pacific/Remote Islands NWR Complex
P.O. Box 50167, Honolulu, HI 96850


UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

Rome, 1993

Table of Contents


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-103292-0

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing and Multimedia Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by email to copyright@fao.org

© FAO and UNEP 1994

Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood, and M.A. Webber
FAO species identification guide. Marine mammals of the world.
Rome, FAO. 1993. 320 p. 587 figs.

Abstract

This is a worldwide guide for the identification of marine mammals and those cetaceans, seals, and sirenians also found in freshwater. The 119 species include a variety of taxa: baleen whales, toothed whales, dolphins, porpoises, seals, sea lions, sirenians, marine otters, and the polar bear. There is an introduction with notes on marine mammal distribution in regard to oceanography and marine mammal identification, a glossary of technical terms, illustrated keys to species, illustrated family keys for skulls, species sheets, and a table of species by major marine fishing areas. Every species sheet includes scientific and official FAO names, diagnostic features, notes on similar species, size, distribution, biology, habitat, behaviour, exploitation, and IUCN (World Conservation Union, formerly International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) status.
The work is fully indexed and includes a list of referentes and sources for further reading.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


FAO SPECIES IDENTIFICATION GUIDEpdf

PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT
CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL REMARKSpdf

Oceanography and Marine Mammal Distribution
Marine Mammal Identification and How to Use This Guide
The FAO Species Codes Included in the Guide
Illustrated Glossary of Technical Terms

ORDER CETACEA - Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoisespdf

Key to Identification of Cetaceans of the World
Key to Identification of Skulls of Cetacean Families
SUBORDER MYSTICETI - Baleen Whales
Guide to Families of Baleen Whales
BALAENIDAE Right and bowhead whales
Eubalaena glacialis
Eubalaena australis
Balaena mysticetus
NEOBALAENIDAE Pygmy right whale
Caperea marginata
BALAENOPTERIDAE Rorquals
Balaenoptera musculus
Balaenoptera physalus
Balaenoptera borealis
Balaenoptera edeni

Balaenoptera acutorostrata
ESCHRICHTIIDAE Gray whale
Megaptera novaeangliae
Eschrichtius robustus
SUBORDER ODONTOCETI - Toothed Whales
Guide to Families of Toothed Whales
PHYSETERIDAE Sperm Whale
Physeter catodon
KOGIIDAE Pygmy and Dwarf Sperm Whales
Kogia breviceps
Kogia simus
MONODONTIDAE Narwhal and White Whale
Monodon monoceros
Delphinapterus leucas
ZIPHIIDAE Beaked Whales
Berardius bairdii
Berardius arnuxii

Ziphius cavirostris
Hyperoodon ampullatus

Hyperoodon planifrons
Hyperoodon
sp.
Tasmacetus shepherdi

Mesoplodon densirostris
Mesoplodon grayi
Mesoplodon ginkgodens
Mesoplodon hectori

Mesoplodon carlhubbsi
Mesoplodon peruvianus
Mesoplodon bidens
Mesoplodon europaeus

Mesoplodon mirus
Mesoplodon layardii
Mesoplodon bowdoini
Mesoplodon pacificus
Mesoplodon stejnegeri
Mesoplodon
sp.
DELPHINIDAE Ocean Dolphins
Orcaella brevirostris
Orcinus orca
Globicephala melas

Globicephala macrorhynchus
Pseudorca crassidens
Feresa attenuata

Peponocephala electra
Sotalia fluviatilis

Sousa chinensis
Sousa teuszii
Steno bredanensis

Lagenorhynchus obliquidens
Lagenorhynchus obscurus
Lagenorhynchus albirostris
Lagenorhynchus acutus
Lagenorhynchus cruciger

Lagenorhynchus australis
Grampus griseus
Tursiops truncatus

Stenella attenuata
Stenella frontalis
Stenella longirostris

Stenella clymene
Stenella coeruleoalba
Delphinus delphis
Lagenodelphis hosei

Lissodelphis borealis
Lissodelphis peronii

Cephalorhynchus commersonii
Cephalorhynchus heavisidii

Cephalorhynchus hectori
Cephalorhynchus eutropia
PHOCOENIDAE Porpoises
Phocoenoides dalli
Australophocaena dioptrica

Phocoena phocoena
Phocoena spinipinnis
Phocoena sinus

Neophocaena phocaenoides
PLATANISTIDAE Ganges and Indus River Dolphins
Platanista gangetica
Platanista minor
INIIDAE Boto
Inia geoffrensis
PONTOPORIIDAE Baiji and Franciscana
Lipotes vexillifer
Pontoporia blainvillei

ORDER SIRENIA - Manatees and Dugongspdf

Key to Identification of Sirenians of the World
Guide to Families of Sirenians
TRICHECHIDAE Manatees
Trichechus manatus
Trichechus inunguis
Trichechus senegalensis
DUGONGIDAE Dugong
Dugong dugon

ORDER CARNIVORA - Pinnipeds and Other Marine Carnivorespdf

SUBORDER PINNIPEDIA - Seals, Sea lions, and Walruses
Key to Identification of Pinnipeds of the World
Key to Identification of Skulls of Pinniped Families
Guide to Families of Pinnipeds
OTARIIDAE Eared seals
Eumetopias jubatus
Zalophus culfornianus
Otaria byronia
Neophoca cinerea

Phocarctos hookeri
Callorhinus ursinus
Arctocephalus townsendi
Arctocephalus phillippii

Arctocephalus galapagoensis
Arctocephalus australis
Arctocephalus forsteri
Arctocephalus tropicalis

Arctocephalus gazella
Arctocephalus pusillus
ODOBENIDAE Walrus
Odobenus rosmarus
PHOCIDAE True seals
Phoca vitulina
Phoca largha
Phoca hispida
Phoca sibirica
Phoca caspica
Phoca groenlandica

Phoca fasciata
Halichoerus grypus
Erignathus barbatus

Cystophora cristata
Monachus monachus
Monachus tropicalis

Monachus schauinslandi
Mirounga angustirostris
Mirounga leonina

Lobodon carcinophagus
Ommatophoca rossii
Hydrurga leptonyx
Leptonychotes weddellii
OTHER MARINE CARNIVORES
Guide to Families of Marine Carnivores
MUSTELIDAE Otters
Enhydra lutris
Lutra felina
URSIDAE Bears
Ursus maritimus

LIST OF SPECIES BY MAJOR FISHING AREASpdf

REFERENCES AND SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATIONpdf

INDEXpdf