PROCEEDINGS OF THE VALIDATION FORUM ON THE GLOBAL CASSAVA DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

Rome, 26–28 April 2000

Cover
A review of cassava in Asia with country case studies on Thailand and Viet Nam
CONTENTS


Volume 3

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations or the International Fund for Agricultural Development concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing and Multimedia Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to copyright@fao.org

FOREWORD

In Asia's largely rice-based food systems, cassava is emerging as a fully commercial crop and entering a diversified market. The capacity of cassava to adapt to soils of marginal fertility and uncertain rainfall, as well as its capacity to provide income and thereby alleviate poverty, are the principal attributes that allow this crop to play a catalytic role for rural development in Asia. The factors that tend to further reinforce this key role are the domestic industry demand for starch and animal feed, the market opportunities for processed food products, the export potential for pellets and starch, and the competitive costs of production.

Today, Asia produces about 28% of the world's cassava. On the basis of current projections, it is expected that by 2020, the production of cassava in the region will remain important in terms of quantity and will become increasingly significant from a global perspective. Increased demand is expected for cassava for processed food, specialized starch products and for fodder. The competitiveness of these products, and the resulting benefits to low-income households should be assured by the continued reduction of production costs through the adoption of soil fertility and erosion management practices and the uptake of higher-yielding varieties with higher quality traits. However, increased population, the poor soils on which cassava is grown, the limited options for other crops due to environmental constraints, and pollution are still major concerns. In particular, technologies that respect the environment will be increasingly important in Asia, and a major challenge will be to overcome the environmental constraints associated with waste and waste-water management from cassava processing plants.

Generous financial assistance from IFAD, the World Bank, Swiss Development Cooperation and IDRC supported the preparation of the Asia Regional Review on Cassava, the Country Case Studies for Thailand and Vietnam, and the Report of the Asia Regional Consultation on the Global Cassava Development Strategy. These documents form the basis of the Global Cassava Development Strategy presented to the International Validation Forum that was jointly organized by FAO and IFAD at FAO Headquarters in Rome, from 26 to 28 April 2001. The Forum officially endorsed the Strategy and adopted an implementation plan, which outlines a sequence of follow-up actions for its realization.

The Plant Production and Protection Division of FAO has compiled the documents prepared during the process of building the strategy on the cassava sub-sector in Asia and which were presented at the Forum in Rome. The Division is now pleased to publish the Proceedings in order to disseminate the information to stakeholders, cassava producers and their organizations, governments and policy makers, donors, technical and research institutions and their networks, NGOs and their networks, the private sector - as well as to scholars, experts and interested individuals.

We trust this information will help to sustain cassava production in Asia and to guide research and development efforts towards a particular regard for the environmental considerations relative to the sector.

Mahmud Duwayri
Director-Plant Production and Protection Division
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
INTERNATIONAL FUND FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
Rome, © FAO and IFAD 2001


Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software. FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


CONTENTS

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

CASSAVA IN ASIA:
Expanding the Competitive Edge in Diversified Markets

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Cassava as a Catalyst for Development

Trends in Production, Trade, and Utilization

Constraints and Opportunities for System Improvement

Priorities and Strategies for Meeting Development Goals

CASSAVA AS A CATALYST FOR DEVELOPMENT

Overview

Development Goals

TRENDS IN PRODUCTION, TRADE AND UTILIZATION

Country briefs

Production trends

Production systems

Products and markets.

Projections

CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT

Impact of the external environment

Institutional resources

The resource base and production technology

Post-harvest

PRIORITIES AND STRATEGIES FOR MEETING DEVELOPMENT GOALS: THE WAY AHEAD

Market development: stimulating higher demand for cassava products

Process and product development: adding post-harvest value

Improved production systems: increasing efficiency and profitability for farmers

Institutional support

Integrating the system: supply and demand in dynamic balance

Information management and communications technology

LESSONS FROM ASIA FOR CASSAVA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

From the larger social, political and economic environments

From R&D institutional and methodology experiences

From experiences with production practices, technology development, and

technology transfer

From post-harvest research

REFERENCES

STATUS OF CASSAVA IN THAILAND: Implications for future Research and Development

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

ABSTRACT

1.   INTRODUCTION

2.   CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN THAILAND.

2.1   Climate, Topography and Soils

2.2   Varieties and Production Practices

2.3   Socio-economic Conditions

2.4   Constraints in Cassava Production

2.4.1   Low soil fertility

2.4.2   Low yield

2.4.3   Weeds

2.4.4   Shortage of labour

2.4.5   Shortage of planting material,

3.   CASSAVA UTILIZATION IN THAILAND

3.1   Main Uses

4.   PROCESSING.

4.1   Chips

4.2   Pellets

4.3   Starch,

5.   MARKETING

5.1   Fresh Cassava Roots

5.2   Dry Cassava Chips and Pellets

5.3   Starch and its Derivatives

6.   RECENT PROGRESS IN CASSAVA RESEARCH

6.1   Germplasm Collection, Evaluation and Improvement

6.1.1   Germplasm collection and evaluation..,

6.1.2   Germplasm improvement

6.2   Agronomic Research

6.3   Processing Research.

7.   GOVERNMENT POLICIES CONCERNING CASSAVA

7.1   Production Policies

7.2   Marketing Policies

8.   FULFILMENT OF OBJECTIVES AND SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES

8.1 Varietal Improvement

8.2   Improvement of Cropping Systems with Cassava

8.3   Improvement of Cassava Harvest and Post-harvest Handling Techniques

9.   LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST EXPERIENCES AND FUTURE STRATEGIES

9.1   Labour....

9.2   Role of Women in Cassava Production.

CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

STATUS OF CASSAVA IN VIET NAM:
Implications for future Research and Development.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.   INTRODUCTION

2.   CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN VIET NAM

2.1   Soils, Topography and Climate

2.2   Cassava Growing Areas

2.3   Cassava Cultural Practices

2.4   Socio-economic Conditions

3.   CASSAVA PROCESSING AND MARKETING

3.1   On-farm Cassava Processing and Sale

3.2   Cassava Fresh Roots, Dry Chips and Starch

3.3   Cassava Starch-based Products and Consumption

4.   MAIN PROBLEMS IN CASSAVA PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

4.1   Price Fluctuations and Instability of the Market

4.2   Crop Competition

4.3   Low Yield Potential and Low Genetic Variability

4.4   Soil Fertility Degradation and Erosion

4.5   High Labour Requirements

4.6   Constraints to Cassava Technology Transfer

5.   RECENT PROGRESS IN CASSAVA RESEARCH AND EXTENSION

5.1   Cassava varietal improvement

5.2   Agronomic research

5.3   Farmer Participatory Research in Soil Management and Varietal Dissemination

5.4   Root Storage and Processing

5.5   Economic and Marketing Research

6.   LESSONS LEARNED FROM CASSAVA DEVELOPMENT IN VIET NAM

6.1   Establishment of a National Cassava Research and Extension Network

6.2   Establishment of Demonstration Fields and FPR

6.3   Ten Mutual Link-up Extension Activities (10Ts)

6.4   Six Essential Conditions (6Ms) for a Successful Cassava R&D Program

7.   IMPLICATIONS FOR CASSAVA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

7.1   Direction for the Future

7.2   Recommendations

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS,

REFERENCES

REPORT OF THE ASIA REGIONAL CONSULTATION ON THE GLOBAL CASSAVA DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

Program

Executive summary

1.   Background

2.   Forum for the regional consultation

3.   Plenary presentations.   

4.   Working groups

5.   Summary and conclusions

Annex 1.   List of participants

Annex 2.   Identification and evaluation of new cassava opportunities

Annex 3.   Working documents on project development

APPENDIX Organizing Committee of the Validation Forum