Preparing for
Highly Pathogenic
Avian Influenza

FAO Animal Production
and Health Manul
No. 3

CLICK FOR REVISED VERSION

Download full PDF
(1 MB - pp. 62)




Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) represents a threat to poultry industries worldwide and to people’s livelihoods, and a potential threat to human health. The international community has a vested interest in minimizing the spread of this disease. Countries may be under threat of introduction of avian influenza through exposure of poultry to wild birds, especially waterfowl. They may also be at risk from introduction of infected or contaminated poultry, poultry products or fomites.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health have prepared this manual to help national animal health authorities and other stakeholders prepare for a possible incursion of HPAI, detect disease as soon as possible and respond as rapidly as possible to contain the disease.

The manual offers practical advice on disease identification, pathology and diagnosis; detection, response and control strategies; and biosecurity measures to prevent outbreaks. It is an invaluable source of useful information for anyone involved in poultry-keeping and animal health practices.




      Table of contents



      1. Introduction -

      2. Avian influenza and the virus that causes it -

        2.1 Clinical signs
        2.2 Gross pathology
        2.3 Differential diagnosis

      3. The risk of introduction and dissemination of avian influenza -

        3.1 Risk of introduction by migrating birds
        3.2 Risk of importation
        3.3 Risk of spread from infected poultry
        3.4 Virus survival in the environment

      4. Preparing for an outbreak -

        4.1 Early detection
        4.2 Rapid response
        4.3 Avian influenza control strategies
        4.4 Management of disease control
        4.5 Laboratory diagnosis

      5. Prevention and biosecurity -

        5.1 Restricted access means keeping the disease out
        5.2 Clean areas mean healthy chickens, geese and ducks
        5.3 Buy healthy: keep healthy
        5.4 Use of clean equipment – keeping disease out
        5.5 Report early signs of a problem that could be devastating
        5.6 A period of rest
        5.7 Vaccination against avian influenza or other diseases
        5.8 Compartmentalisation

      Annexes -

        1. Selected references for further information
        2. Sample - Tender document for inactivated avian influenza vaccines
        3. OIE/FAO reference laboratories and experts for avian influenza
        4. Information for shipping international diagnostic specimens
        5. Criteria for defining infected areas and disease control zones
        6. Leaflet example
        7. Avian influenza vaccine producers and suppliers



The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Electronic Publishing Policy and Support Branch, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to copyright@fao.org

© FAO 2007