FAO Fisheries Circular No. 1021

FAO Fisheries Circular No. 1021


FIIT/C1021 (En)

LIVELIHOOD AND MICRO-ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT
OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN IN COASTAL FISHING
COMMUNITIES IN INDIA

Case studies of Orissa and Maharashtra

by
U. Tietze
FAO Consultant

S. Siar
Fishing Technology Service
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department

Suchitra M. Upare
FAO Consultant

M.A. Upare
FAO Consultant


FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2007

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ISBN 978-92-5-105745-2
ISSN 0429-9329

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Tietze, U., Siar, S., Upare, S. M. & Upare, M.A. 2007..
Livelihood and micro-enterprise development opportunities for women in coastal fishing communities in India Case studies of Orissa and Maharashtra. FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 1021. Rome, FAO. 2007. 69 p.

ABSTRACT

The studies on livelihood and micro-enterprise development opportunities for women in coastal fishing communities in India are a follow-up to the national workshop on best practices in microfinance programmes for women in coastal fishing communities in India, held in Panaji, Goa, India, from 1 to 4 July 2003. The proceedings and outcomes of the workshop are reported in FAO Fisheries Report No. 724.

The studies found that poverty has remained a serious problem in fishing communities in Orissa and Maharashtra, made even more severe by the widespread absence of rural infrastructure and services such as safe drinking water, electricity, waste and sewage disposal facilities, health care and educational services and facilities, all-weather link roads as well as a lack of adequate housing facilities. Over the last two decades, fishing effort and the cost of fishing have considerably increased. Over the same period, a diversification of livelihoods of fisherfolk households has taken place, and many household members, particularly women, are now working part-time as unskilled agricultural labourers or construction workers.

In recent years, through the efforts of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the marine wing of the Fisheries Department of Orissa and the initiative of other government departments, many women self-help groups (SHGs) and cooperatives have been formed and training has been provided to their members in the field of fish processing and marketing. Only a minority of the SHGs and cooperatives in Maharashtra and Orissa though, which have been formed in fishing communities, have so far been linked to financial institutions and there is a severe lack of rural fish storage and processing infrastructure and facilities.

The findings of the studies suggest that through actively promoting self-help groups and cooperatives among women in coastal fishing communities and through linking these associations with financial institutions, investment and working capital needs of their members can be met. To make the best use of capital inputs, SHGs and their federations need vocational and enterprise development training from NGOs and from fisheries training and research institutions as well as assistance for establishing links to new market outlets for their products, both domestically and for export. The state-level workshops in Orissa and Maharashtra made specific recommendations as to what kind of assistance is needed so that poverty in coastal fishing communities can be reduced and livelihoods improved and diversified through micro-enterprise development and microfinance and training support.

©FAO 2007


Contents

Preparation of this document
Abstract
Acronyms and abbreviations

1  Introduction

2  Opportunities for livelihood diversification and poverty alleviation
    through empowerment, micro-enterprise development, microfinance
    support and better market access


2.1  Role of women in coastal fishing communities
2.2  Status of fisheries sector, infrastructure and services
2.3  Opportunities for improving and diversifying livelihoods in coastal
       fishing communities
3  Findings and recommendations of the study on livelihood opportunities and
    microfinance support for women in coastal fishing communities in Orissa
3.1  Objectives and method of study
3.2  Status of fisheries sector in Orissa
3.3  Self-help group movement and microfinance services
3.4  Assessment of livelihood opportunities for women in coastal fishing
       communities
3.5  Proceedings and recommendations of state-level workshop
4  Findings and recommendations of the study on access of women in coastal
    Maharashtra to markets, credit and livelihood opportunities
4.1  Objectives and method of study
4.2  Coastal fisheries development scenario in Maharashtra
4.3  Marketing patterns and microfinance services
4.4  Opportunities for livelihood diversification and poverty alleviation
4.5  Proceedings and recommendations of state-level workshop
Annexes
I.    List of participants of state-level workshop in Orissa
II.   Programme of state-level workshop in Orissa
III.  Action plan for empowerment of fisherwomen in Orissa
IV.  List of participants of state-level workshop in Maharashtra
V.   Programme of state-level workshop in Maharashtra
VI.  Action plan for capacity building and empowerment of fisherwomen and their
      communities in Maharashtra
VII.  Features and standard economics of fisheries related micro-enterprise
      opportunities for women in coastal fishing communities of Orissa and
      Maharashtra

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