FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 498

FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 498

Cage aquaculture

Regional reviews and global overview


Edited by

Matthias Halwart
Fishery Resources Officer (Aquaculture)
Aquaculture Management and Conservation Service
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Rome, Italy

Doris Soto
Senior Fishery Resources Officer
 (Aquatic Resource Management)
Aquaculture Management and Conservation Service
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Rome, Italy

and

J. Richard Arthur
FAO Consultant
Barriere
British Columbia, Canada



FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2007

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Contents


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ISBN 978-92-5-105801-5

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© FAO 2007

Halwart, M.; Soto, D.; Arthur, J.R. (eds.)
Cage aquaculture Regional reviews and global overview.
FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 498. Rome, FAO. 2007. 241pp.

Abstract

Cage aquaculture has grown rapidly during the past decades and is presently undergoing swift changes in response to pressures from globalization and an escalating worldwide global demand for aquatic products. There has been a move toward clustering existing cages as well as toward the development and use of more intensive cage-farming systems. In particular, the need for suitable sites has resulted in cage aquaculture accessing and expanding into new untapped open-water culture areas such as lakes, reservoirs, rivers and coastal brackish and marine offshore waters.
This report aims to assess the current situation and the future prospects of cage aquaculture around the globe. It is organized into nine chapters including a global overview and eight reviews covering China, Asia (excluding China), northern Europe, the Mediterranean, sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, North America and Oceania. The report recognizes the tremendous importance of cage aquaculture today and its key role for the future growth of the aquaculture sector. Each review, by geographic region, informs about the history and origin of cage aquaculture; provides detailed information on the current situation; outlines the major regional issues and challenges; and highlights specific technical, environmental, socio-economic and marketing issues that cage aquaculture faces and/or needs to address in the future. The global overview discusses trends in cage aquaculture based on the most recent and complete data available; summarizes the information on cultured species, culture systems and culture environments; and explores the way forward for cage aquaculture, which offers especially promising options for multitrophic integration of current coastal aquaculture systems as well as expansion and further intensification at increasingly offshore sites.


Contents


Preparation of this document  (Download pdf 164 kb)
Abstract
Contributors
Foreword

Cage aquaculture: a global overview  (Download pdf 607 kb)
   Albert G.J. Tacon and Matthias Halwart
Introduction
Lack of statistical information
Major cultured species, cage culture systems and culture
   environments
Perceived issues and challenges to cage culture development
The way forward
Concluding remarks
Acknowledgements
References
A review of cage aquaculture: Asia (excluding China)  (Download pdf 818 kb)
   Sena S. De Silva and Michael J. Phillips
Introduction
Inland cage farming
Brackishwater and marine cage farming
Country profiles
Constraints and challenges to brackishwater and marine cage
  culture development in Asia
The way forward
Acknowledgements
References
A review of cage and pen aquaculture: China  (Download pdf 549 kb)
   Jiaxin Chen, Changtao Guang, Hao Xu, Zhixin Chen, Pao Xu,
   Xiaomei Yan, Yutang Wang and Jiafu Liu
Background
History and origin of cage and pen culture in China
The current situation
Emerging issues in inland cage and pen culture
Constraints to marine cage culture
The way forward
Conclusions and recommendations
References
A review of cage aquaculture: Latin America and the Caribbean  (Download pdf 703 kb)
   Alejandro Rojas and Silje Wadsworth
Introduction
Projection for aquaculture development in the region
Salmonid production
Cage farming systems
Other marine species
The way forward
References
A review of cage aquaculture: North America  (Download pdf 599kb)
   Michael P. Masser and Christopher J. Bridger
Background and aim of study
History and current status of cage aquaculture in North America
Current situation of cage farming
Regional issues
The way forward
Conclusions and recommendations
References
A review of cage aquaculture: northern Europe  (Download pdf 556kb)
   Jon Arne Grttum and Malcolm Beveridge
Background
History of cage culture in the region
The current situation regarding cage culture in Europe
Major regional challenges
The way forward
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
A review of cage aquaculture: Mediterranean Sea  (Download pdf 493 kb)
   Francesco Cardia and Alessandro Lovatelli
Background and aim of the study
The Mediterranean Sea
Reared species
Mediterranean cage aquaculture
National cage production overview
Cage models
Main issues
The way forward
Acknowledgements
References and suggested reading
A review of cage aquaculture: sub-Saharan Africa  (Download pdf 458 kb)
   Patrick Blow and Shivaun Leonard
Introduction
The current situation
The way forward
Conclusions
Recommendations
References
A review of cage aquaculture: Oceania  (Download pdf 559 kb)
   Michael A. Rimmer and Benjamin Ponia
Background and aim of study
History and origin of cage culture in the region
The current situation
Major regional / country issues
The way forward
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Annexes  (Download pdf 136 kb)
1.   The 2nd International Symposium on Cage Aquaculture in Asia
2.   Agenda
3.   List of FAO-sponsored participants/presenters