FAO Fisheries Circular No. 1025

FAO Fisheries Circular No. 1025


FIIT/FIMF/C1025 (En)

REVIEW OF MEASURES TAKEN BY INTERGOVERNMENTAL
ORGANIZATIONS TO ADDRESS SEA TURTLE AND SEABIRD
INTERACTIONS IN MARINE CAPTURE FISHERIES

by

Eric Gilman
IUCN Global Marine Programme
Honolulu

Thomas Moth-Poulsen
Fishing Technology Service
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Rome

Gabriella Bianchi
Fisheries Management and Conservation Service
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Rome



FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2007

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Contents


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ISBN 978-92-5-105855-8
ISSN 0429-9329

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© FAO 2007

Gilman, E.; Moth-Poulsen, T.; Bianchi, G.
Review of measures taken by intergovernmental organizations to address sea turtle and seabird interactions in marine capture fisheries.
FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 1025. Rome, FAO. 2007. 42p.

Abstract

This document reviews actions taken by intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), including regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) and other relevant regional fishery bodies (RFBs), to address problematic sea turtle and seabird interactions in marine capture fisheries. Sea turtles and seabirds are subject to a number of natural and anthropogenic mortality sources, including fishing operations. As a result, all sea turtle species of known status are recognized as being endangered. All sea turtle species excluding the flatback are listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which regulates international trade. Of the 61 species of seabirds affected by longline fisheries, 26 are threatened with extinction, including 19 species of albatrosses. The Convention on Migratory Species, which has a broader remit than CITES in terms of its requirements for both domestic and multilateral conservation measures, lists all sea turtles, albatrosses, giant petrels and Procellaria petrels in its Appendices. Due to concern over the status of sea turtles and certain species of seabirds and the possible negative effects of fishing on these populations, several IGOs have taken measures to address these problems. Some of these organizations have begun examining seabird or sea turtle interactions, several have adopted voluntary measures to address problematic interactions, while five RFMOs have legally binding measures requiring the employment of seabird avoidance methods in pelagic and demersal longline and trawl fisheries. There currently are no legally-binding measures in place by an IGO to manage turtle-fishery interactions or seabird interactions in coastal gillnet fisheries. Several IGOs, which lack fisheries management authority, serve as advisory mechanisms and conduct cooperative research, or have a primary responsibility of regional sea turtle or seabird conservation.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.  INTRODUCTION

2.  INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS MEASURES TO ADDRESS
     SEA TURTLE INTERACTIONS IN MARINE CAPTURE FISHERIES

3.  INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS MEASURES TO ADDRESS
     SEABIRD BYCATCH IN LONGLINE AND TRAWL FISHERIES

4.  REFERENCES

APPENDIX I
List of (i) all regional fishery bodies, and (ii) other intergovernmental organizations
with mandates relevant to regional sea turtle or seabird conservation, and the subset of these
organizations that have an interest in addressing sea turtle and seabird bycatch in marine
capture fisheries.

APPENDIX II
Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
(i)    Longline weighting for seabird conservation (Conservation Measure 24-02)
(ii)   Minimisation of the Incidental Mortality of Seabirds in the Course of Longline Fishing
       or Longline Fishing Research in the Convention Area (Conservation Measure 25-02)
(iiii)  Minimisation of the Incidental Mortality of Seabirds and Marine Mammals in the
       Course of Trawl Fishing in the Convention Area (Conservation Measure 25-03)

APPENDIX III
Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna
(i)    Report of the Fourth Annual Meeting. First Part. (Section 10.2 Report from
       the Ecologically Related Species Working Group, and Attachment U, Paragraph 2 of
       Recommendations to the Commission Relating to Ecologically Related Species)
(ii)   Report of the Fifth Annual Meeting. First Part. (Attachment 30, Guidelines for
       Design and Deployment of Tori Lines).

APPENDIX IV
Indian Ocean Tuna Commission
Resolution 06/04 on Reducing Incidental Bycatch of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries

APPENDIX V
South East Atlantic Fisheries Organization
Conservation measure 05/06 on reducing incidental by-catch of seabirds in the SEAFO
Convention Area. Report of the third Annual Meeting of the Commission, 2006. The
Secretariat, South East Atlantic Fisheries Organisation, Walvis Bay, Namibia

APPENDIX VI
Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission
Conservation and Management Measure to Mitigate the Impact of Fishing for Highly
Migratory Fish Stocks on Seabirds (Conservation and Management Measure 2006-02)


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