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Since the release of the Code of Practice for Forest Harvesting in Asia-Pacific in 1999, most ASEAN Member Countries have developed and started to implement national codes of practice. Some challenges encountered in the process have been addressed. Others persist and require further action (Table 5).

Table 5. Challenges, Issues, Potential Solutions and Suggested Actions


Challenges and issues

Potential solutions

Suggested actions

Development of the national code of practice for forest harvesting


Lacking ownership (Indonesia) 

Enhanced stakeholder participation 

Revision of the national code (Indonesia and Myanmar) 


Weak adaptation to local conditions (Indonesia, Myanmar) 


Review and test national codes 

Standard setting and training on forest road construction and maintenance for all ASEAN Member Countries


Road construction and maintenance remain inadequate throughout ASEAN


Properly define and enforce road standards for all ASEAN members




Capacity building

Weak communication and transfer of knowledge and technology 


Step up training programmes

Establish national mobile training-of-trainers team 


Lack of qualified trainers


Raise awareness of trainers on specific aspects and the prevailing framework conditions in ASEAN Member Countries


Conduct national and sub- regional training-of-trainers courses for ASEAN Member Countries 

      - Develop appropriate curricula

Awareness raising


Lack of common understanding of development and implementation of national codes


Build common understanding 

Conduct multilateral events:

(1) Sub-regional/regional seminars/conferences on development and implementation of national codes, and
(2) Study tours, especially to demonstration areas


Lingering apprehension to change in the forest sector, notably to SFM


Involve more decision-makers and top management in development and implementation of national code and RIL promotion


Financial aspect

Limited information and sometimes contradictory information on financial aspects


Promote common criteria and indicators of Pan ASEAN

Intensify coordination and cooperation among ASEAN Member Countries on sharing data, information, and technologies


Continuing perception of relatively higher cost of national code implementation


Conduct research on financial aspects under diverse conditions


Lack of incentives


Monitoring and evaluation


Monitoring and evaluation mechanism of the implementation of national codes and RIL not in place

Promote common monitoring and evaluation systems

Establishment of ad hoc working group on monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of national codes and RIL in ASEAN Member Countries 





Create mechanisms to monitor and report the progress of the implementation of the codes of practice for forest harvesting and RIL

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