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Japan

 

Policy Issue/Question

Answer

Supporting Reference

Section A: Policy Targets/Indicators

1a.

1b.

Does policy contain specific development targets for capture fisheries?
If so, pls elaborate.

Not for capture fisheries only. For total production, see A4.

2a.


2b.

Does policy contain specific management targets for capture fisheries? e.g. area under MPAs, etc.
If so, pls elaborate.

Yes, TAC for 7 species (saury, Alaska pollack, sardine, jack mackerel, mackerel, common squid and snow crab), and Fishery Recovery Plan for overexploited species, in order to achieve sustainable fisheries and stable supply to national citizens.

Implementation of 51 FRPs with 76 species (including those under consideration).

Target size of seagrass beds and/or tidelands to be created from 2002-2007 is 5000 ha (half size of area lost between 1978 and 1991).

The Law regarding Preservation and Management of Living Marine Resources and the Basic Law on Fisheries Policy

3a.

3b.

Does policy contain specific development targets for aquaculture?
If so, pls elaborate.

Not for aquaculture only. See A4.

4a.

4b

Does policy contain specific management targets for aquaculture?
If so, pls elaborate.

Targets no, measures yes – prevention of self-induced environmental deterioration around fish farms, in order to achieve sustainable aquaculture and high-quality of cultured products.

The Law to Ensure Sustainable Aquaculture

5a.

5b.

Does policy contain any other specific targets or indicators e.g. value of exports?
If so, what are they. (List all)

  • Targets for 2012.
  • Self-sufficiency rate target 65 percent for fish and shellfish products for food.
  • Self-sufficiency rate target 70 percent for seaweed products.
  • Volume of fish and shellfish supply for domestic consumption 10.37 million tonnes, and 8.06 million tonnes for human consumption.
  • Domestic fish and shellfish production 6.82 million tonnes overal with 5.26 million for human consumption.
  • Seaweed for domestic consumption 0.96 million tonnes.
  • Seaweed for domestic production 0.67 million tonnes.

The Basic Plan for Fisheries Policy (which is based on the Basic Law on Fisheries Policy)

 

 

 

Endo

6.

Is there a sense in development targets that aquaculture is more, less, or as important as capture fisheries production?

As important as capture fisheries.

 

Section B: Natural Resource Management

1.

Does policy include the use of fishery co-management and/or community management?

Yes, in order to achieve the holistic utilization of sea areas.

Fisheries law for many decades has recognized co/community-management. “Meiji Fishery Law” was first established in 1901, and then revised in 1949 (Shouwa Law). The Japanese fishery management regime utilizes fishery cooperatives, called Fisheries Cooperative Associations (FCAs), which are juridical persons and are granted territorial user rights (called fishing rights) established by law for capture fisheries within coastal waters of its jurisdiction. In 1948 the Fisheries Cooperative Association Law (Law No. 242, 1948) established the legal foundation of FCAs. By law, fishing rights are granted mainly to FCAs, and the FCA members are entitled to fish within that territory.

The Marine Fisheries Resource Development Promotion Law of 1971 was amended in 1990, establishing the Resource Management Agreement System, and is also of relevance. This system encourages autonomous agreements among fishermen for the purpose of conducting resource management under more intensive and yet stricter rules than had previously been the case under prefectural fishery coordinating regulations, FCA regulations and Fishery Management Organization rules.

The Fisheries Law, Fisheries Cooperative Association Law

Macfadyen et al., 2005

 
2.

Does fisheries policy (as opposed to national non-sectoral policy) specifically provide for decentralization/devolution of management powers and responsibilities?

Decentralization is legislated to devolve decision-making power to local areas and authorities/ governments in the Constitution, and in the Local Autonomy Law 1947, which is the core legislation for dealing with local government organization and management supported by other laws. The Local Autonomy Law was amended by the Law Concerning the Provision of Related Laws for the Promotion of Decentralization of Power (Omnibus Decentralization Act).

Decentralization is also provided for under the Fisheries Law, with coordinating organizations from the national to the local level: Fishery Policy Council; Wide Area Fisheries Coordinating Committees; Local Fisheries Coordinating Committees; Local Fisheries Cooperative Associations; and more specialized FMOs. Coordination of fisheries’ issues, such as rights/ license distribution and local regulations, is achieved through these multilevel coordinating organizations.

The Fisheries Law, Fisheries Cooperative Association Law Macfadyen et al., 2005

3a.


3b.

Does policy include attempts to expand national offshore fisheries e.g. through the use of larger vessels?
If so, is such expansion at the expense of any foreign fishing interests currently operating in the country.

No.

Mitsutaku and Uchida Pers. Comm.

4.

Does policy encourage the movement of small-scale fisheries into offshore areas, due to resource constraints and technical improvements/efficiencies?

No.

Mitsutaku and Uchida Pers. Comm.

5a.

5b.

Does policy specifically recognize and address any issues of over capacity?
If so, what and how.

There is budget for fleet reduction. Restructuring of the fishing industry is carried out through vessel reductions and downsizing of fishing vessels in order to adjust fishing effort in proportion to the status of stocks and to secure proper financial conditions for fishers. In accordance with the “International Plan of Action for the Management of Fishing Capacity” adopted by the Fisheries Committee of the FAO in February 1999, Japan scrapped 132 tuna longline fishing vessels corresponding to about 20 percent of the vessels in this fleet segment (the financial transfer was expended in fiscal year 1998).

Additionally, it should be noted that, as to some fisheries permitted by the Minister (Designated Fisheries), for type of fishery, the upper limit of number of vessels shall be published according to Fisheries Law on the simultaneous renewal of permission and that the number of permission tends to be decreased.

OECD, 2002

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yamauti Pers. Comm., 2006

6a.

6b.

Does policy refer to and/or deal with IUU fishing?
If so, in what way.

Yes. To prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing and uncontrolled importation of their catch, the “Law of Special Measures for Strengthening Conservation and Management of Tuna Resources” was established in 1996 and has been controlling trade of tunas caught by IUU and reflagged fishing vessels. Furthermore, the Organization for the Promotion of Responsible Tuna Fisheries (OPRT) was established in 2000 as an initiative taken by the tuna industries to combat IUU fishing.

Also:
  • Only Japanese vessels may fly the flag of Japan.
  • There are also trade measures to address IUU issues e.g. any person, who intends to import bluefin tuna, southern bluefin tuna, big-eye tuna, sword fish, patagonian-toothfish or Antarctic toothfish, shall submit required statistical documents or catch documents in accordance with the rules set by the relevant international fisheries organizations.
  • Positive list scheme which was adopted by each RFMO and implemented by its members including Japan.
  • Transhipment regulations require permits and notification.

As a private sector initiative, the OPRT (Organi­zation for Promotion of Responsible Tuna Fisheries) has been established in Japan with a view to promote responsible tuna fishery. The members of the OPRT includes large-scale tuna long-line fishery organizations from China, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, and the Philippines, as well as Japanese importer, distributor, consumer organizations. Activity of the OPRT includes (i) to disseminate information related to the IUU problems in tuna fishery, (ii) to calculate the landing statistics of tuna by vessel by vessel using the data obtained from Japanese import documentation materials and to report back such figures to the vessels’ flag states for their cross-checking of reported catch data, and (iii) to implement scrapping of IUU vessels.

FAO Summary Brief, 2006

 

 

 

 

 

OECD, 2003

7a.

7b.

Is policy attempting to introduce user rights to fishers?
If so, how and in what way.

Already implemented. Yes, according to the Fisheries Law (1949) fisheries rights in the sea area under the jurisdiction of a Fisheries Cooperative Association (FCA) are the bona fide personal property of the individual members of that association, to whom they are distributed by the association. Each FCA, who is licensed by a local governor based on its fishing ground utilization plans, establishes regulations for the control and operation of various types of fishery in an equitable, efficient and sustained manner, as local conditions dictate. Sea tenure in Japanese coastal waters operates at various levels, ranging from the national government, through the prefecture and the local FCA, to the fishing squad and finally to the individual fisherman.

Bascially 3 main types of rights.

The first is the Collective Fisheries Right (Kyodo-Gyogyoken). This fishery is originally based on common ownership systems of local fishing grounds. The license is issued only to fishery cooperatives, in which at least two-thirds of members are engaged in coastal fisheries for at least 90 days in the areas. Members of the cooperative use the license on an individual basis. This type of fishery occurs in almost all areas throughout the Japanese coast.

The second type of fishery rights is the Demarcated Fishery Right (Kukaku-Gyogyoken). This is the right to engage in aquaculture. The main types of these fisheries are hanging culture, cage culture, seabed sowing cultivation in semi-inland sea areas.

The last of the three fishery rights is the Set-Net Fishery Right (Teichi-Gyogyoken).

Fisheries Law, Souyma et al.

 

 

 

 

OECD, 2004

8.

Does policy refer to need for integration/ coordination with other sectoral policies?

Not specifically. But the Basic Plan for Fisheries Policy refer to promotion of closer connection between people involved in fishery and processing and distribution business, and promotion of blue tourism, opportunities to experience fisheries and direct marketing of fishery products. These are supposed to be examples of integration/ coordination with other sectoral policies.

Yamauti, 2006 Pers. Comm.

9a.

9b.

Does policy mention ecosystems manage­ment?
If so, what measures are suggested.

Yes, multi-species Fishery Recovery Plan, and implementation of MPA (see B10).

The “Environmental Assessment Law” was enacted in 1999 in order to ensure proper consideration of the environment in the decision-making process for development. The Government has made efforts to secure “blue and rich sea” through dredging of sludge and development of seaweed lands and tidal lands in the coastal areas which are negatively affected by polluted water drained from household and industries.

The Basic Plan for Fisheries Policy (which is based on the Basic Law on Fisheries Policy) OECD, 2002

10.

Does policy include the use of MPAs?

Yes, to protect spawning stocks, juvenile fish and enhance resources.

The Law to Conserve Fisheries Resources

11a.

11b.

Does policy include specific measures related to conflict management?
If so, what are they.

Yes, various levels and scales of coordinating organizations have been instituted.

To resolve conflicts by autonomous bases.

Fisheries Law

Section C: Financial/economic and marketing issues

1a.

1b.

1c.

 

Does policy provide for the provision of subsidies?
What are the main forms of “good” subsidies provided?
What are the main forms of “bad” subsidy provided and what is their time frame?
(pls use your own judgment to decide whether subsidies (e.g. training, social support, boat building, fuel, etc.) are good or bad)

a: Subsidies exist, but not sure if the policy explicitly includes the provision of such.

There are no market price support or direct payments subsidies, but there are soft loans available and payments for fleet reduction.

And as noted in Schmidt, “support provided by the central government to the FCAs is of high significance. The support includes legal, technical and financial assistance and may be an additional reason for the longevity of the community-based fisheries management system in Japan. The support to the FCAs and the financial transfers to port infrastructure in Japan are the principal Government financial transfers to the fishing industry which in 2001 totaled JPY 313 billion”.

The unemployment insurance and pension systems for the fishing industry are basically the same as in other industries. However, fishers who lose their jobs due to restructuring receive a special allowance in addition to the standard unemploy­ment allowance in order to promote transfers to new jobs.

Mitsutaku and Uchida Pers. Comm.

 

 

OECD, 2002

Schmidt

 

 

 

OECD, 2002

2.

Is there an overall thrust/trend towards reducing or increasing the level of subsidy provided?

There seems to be a trend to reduce subsidies, especially because of the availability of finance.

Mitsutaku and Uchida Pers. Comm. Gov. annual report 2004

3.

Does policy include increasing attempts to introduce user payments e.g. charges imposed on the fishing industry?

No/little. Generally felt that costs for management services should be covered by the government because these services bring public benefit.

OECD, 2001
4.

Does fisheries policy include mention of the need to support the traceability and/or certification of products?

“Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS) Law” was revised in 1999 to require labeling of all food products. The labeling of fish and fishery products has to include descriptions of the place of origin for fresh fish and of materials used for processed fishery products.

FAO Summary Brief 2006

5a.
5b.

Does policy refer to increasing value-added?
If so, how is this to be achieved.

Yes, to provide high valued-added and demand-driven products.

White Paper on Fisheries Policy on 2006

6.

Does policy refer to tariff barriers and/or free trade areas in the region?

?  
7.

Does policy seek to increase exports?

Yes.

Mitsutaku and Uchida Pers. Comm.

8a.


8b.

Are there any specific policy initiatives to improve the efficiency of fisheries adminis­trations? e.g. public/private partnerships
If so, pls elaborate.

Yes. The Basic Plan for Fisheries Policy refers to efficient administration and prioritize financial support with a view to utilize finite budget as effectively as possible.

Yamauti, Mitsutaku and Uchida Pers. Comm.

Section D: Socio-economic and poverty issues

1a.
1b.

Does policy refer to issues of poverty?
If so, in what capacity e.g. references to PRSPs, non-fisheries sector poverty reduction strategies, etc.

No. However, “during recent years, fisheries managers have begun to focus more on the social aspects and functions of fisheries. This has largely developed in response to the fact that fishing profits have been falling. In fisheries where fisheries remuneration is largely based on so-called “share basis” the effects of fewer fish have immediate income consequences for skipper and crew alike, and hence also impact the coastal communities that are dependent on fish as a source of employment and livelihood”.

Mitsutaku and Uchida Pers. Comm. Schmidt

2.

Does policy include mention of, or provide for, micro-finance?

Yes, fisheries cooperatives associations run banking.

The Fisheries Cooperative Association Law

3.

Does policy include reducing the number of those engaged in fishing maintaining current numbers, or increasing/maximizing employment?

Yes, increase the number of younger fishermen, esp. at rural areas. The number of fishermen are continuously declining.

The Basic Plan of Fisheries Policy

4.

Does policy include assistance to fishers to leave the fisheries sector or to supplement livelihoods from non-fishing activities?

Yes, see B5.

Mitsutaku and Uchida Pers. Comm. Schmidt

5a.
5b.

Does policy refer to food security?
If so, to what extent (if at all) is policy specific about whether fisheries should provide direct food security (i.e. fish being consumed domestically) or indirect food security (fish exported with money then available for food imports).

Yes, see B4.

Mitsutaku and Uchida Pers. Comm. Schmidt

  Section E: Overall impression of policy trends
 

In summary, what are the main trends and changes in fisheries policy over the past 10 years. Please also consider in the response to this question that the seriousness with which a certain policy is pursued can often be measured by the share of the budget allocated to it, or by whether it finds expression in specific legislation or regulations.

The decline in the number of fishermen and the resource level of several species, as well as increasing import of fishery products and rising fuel prices, are the main issues in last ten years. Recently, however, the marine ecosystem management is also attracting attentions. The seriousness of a certain policy would be measured by the size of the budget in some cases, but the size of budget itself is very inflexible in many cases (number of officers, as well). So, large budgets are often allocated out of date policies. The aims of new laws, plans or amendments are more appropriate to judge the seriousness and the direction of national policy.

National government and local fishermen are motivators of most policy changes.

Malaysia

 

Policy Issue/Question

Answer

Supporting Reference

Section A: Policy Targets/Indicators

1a.

1b.

Does policy contain specific development targets for capture fisheries?
If so, pls elaborate.

  1. Yes. Coastal and inland capture fisheries are depleting due to over fishing.

  2. To maintain existing capture production of 900000 tonnes from the coastal waters and then to increase production from deep-sea to 500000 tonnes.
Statement from DoF Malaysia Website
www.dof.gov.my
www.myaquatic
.
com/Department/
objectives.htm
2a.


2b.

Does policy contain specific management targets for capture fisheries? e.g. area under MPAs, etc.
If so, pls elaborate.

?  
3a.

3b.

Does policy contain specific development targets for aquaculture?
If so, pls elaborate.

In the 3rd Malaysia National Agriculture Policies, by year 2010, Malaysia’s aquaculture development target is to produce 600 000 metric tonnes (Marine aquaculture production = 400000 mt, Freshwater aquaculture production = 200000 mt). Because of depleting capture fisheries.

Targets by commodity/species:

  • Freshwater aqua/fish = 200000 mt
  • Marine shrimp = 150000 mt
  • Marine fish = 120000 mt
  • Marine mollusk = 130 000 mt
  • Seaweed = 26 000 mt

In 3rd Malaysia National Agriculture Policies

4a.

4b.

Does policy contain specific management targets for aquaculture?
If so, pls elaborate.

Yes, to identify suitable sites and then establish and gazette the sites as Aquaculture Industrial Zones in all the states in Malaysia. E.g. in Sabah, a total of 63342 hectares have been identified to be gazetted as Aquaculture Industrial Zones.

In 3rd Malaysia National Agriculture Policies

5a.

5b.

Does policy contain any other specific targets or indicators e.g. value of exports?
If so, what are they. (List all)

To achieve a balance of trade of RM4 billion per year through the contribution of the 10 established major products.

To guarantee a minimum net income of RM3000 per month for fisheries entrepreneurs.

To ensure the income of fisherman exceeds the poverty level.

Malaysian Fisheries Department
Website/3rd
National Agriculture Policy
6.

Is there a sense in development targets that aquaculture is more, less, or as important as capture fisheries production?

Both as important:

Aquaculture production target = 600000 tonnes

Capture fisheries production target = 900000 tonnes.

NAP3 states that “the fisheries industry, particularly deep-sea fishing and aquaculture, will be further developed on a commercial and integrated basis”.

3rd National Agriculture Policy

Section B: Natural Resource Management

1.

Does policy include the use of fishery co-management and/or community management?

Yes. e.g. Sabah has already successfully imple­mented the Sabah Tagal System: A sustainable Community-based (Co-management) riverine fisheries management. Because of the depleting riverine fisheries resource in Sabah, the Sabah Fisheries Department and the local community (especially the indigenous community) are interested and committed in the system.

It is incorporated in the Sabah Inland Fisheries & Aquaculture Enactment 2003

2.

Does fisheries policy (as opposed to national non-sectoral policy) specifically provide for decentralization/devolution of management powers and responsibilities?

Decentralization is not much underway yet, although the 14 States do have control over some inshore licensing and implementation of policy.

In fact FAO TP 488 suggests that strong central control has been one of the reasons for manage­ment success.

FAO TP 488
3a.


3b.

Does policy include attempts to expand national offshore fisheries e.g. through the use of larger vessels?
If so, is such expansion at the expense of any foreign fishing interests currently operating in the country.

Yes.

Yes. The Department is in the process of training locals to be tekongs (skippers) of deep-sea boats so that they can replace foreign tekongs.

Pers. Comm. Wong

4.

Does policy encourage the movement of small-scale fisheries into offshore areas, due to resource constraints and technical improvements/efficiencies?

Yes. The government is encouraging the local companies to expand their coastal vessels and to go offshore/deep-sea where the resources are still under-exploited.

3rd Malaysia National Agriculture Policy

5a.

5b.

Does policy specifically recognize and address any issues of over capacity?
If so, what and how.

Yes, by having exit plan for coastal fishermen to go into aquaculture.

And Management of Fishing Capacity by setting a moratorium on issuance of new licenses for the coastal areas, setting fishing zones for conservation, and limiting vessels size and fishing gears.

3rd National Agriculture Policy FAO TP 488

6a.

6b.

Does policy refer to and/or deal with IUU fishing?
If so, in what way.

Yes. They implemented a stricter zoning system to protect small, less mobile coastal fishers; set up 40 MPAs to rejuvenate stocks (1994) and enhance tourism in the sector; strengthened vessel identifi­cation requirements; implemented an inter-agency law enforcement mechanism (MECC) of national defence, customs, marine police, fisheries, and now including the new coast guard to jointly protect the EEZ; and strengthened their fisheries laws.

For the prevention, deterrence and elimination of Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (IUU), Malaysia now requires all vessels fishing in Malaysian waters to be licensed, carry the Malaysian flag and implement a strong MCS system for compliance.

FAO TP 488
7a.

7b.

Is policy attempting to introduce user rights to fishers?
If so, how and in what way.

?  
8.

Does policy refer to need for integration/ coordination with other sectoral policies?

?  
9a.

9b.

Does policy mention ecosystems manage­ment?
If so, what measures are suggested.

Yes. Biodiversity also mentioned. Not sure.

 
10.

Does policy include the use of MPAs?

Yes. A series of marine parks have been established in the coastal waters. Fishing within two nautical miles of the marine parks is prohibited.

FAO TP 488
11a.

11b.

Does policy include specific measures related to conflict management?
If so, what are they.

Yes to the extent that management is based on a system of zones (0-5, 5-12, 12-30, >30) with different zones for different vessel sizes. For each zone the optimum number of fishing vessels has been determined based on estimation of maximum sustainable yield.

 

Section C: Financial/economic and marketing issues

1a.

1b.

1c.

Does policy provide for the provision of subsidies?
What are the main forms of “good” subsidies provided?
What are the main forms of “bad” subsidy provided and what is their time frame?
(pls use your own judgment to decide whether subsidies (e.g. training, social support, boat building, fuel, etc.) are good or bad)

Yes. Fuel, training, boat building, fishing net and engines. Social support.

Suitable finance policies, investment and tax incentives, and other investment incentives for certain fishery activities and products are available. Among these activities spawning, breeding and culturing of aquatic products, offshore fishing, harvesting and processing of aquatic products, and processing of aquaculture feeds are important.

ADB-RETA 5945 Project Website, WorldFish Center

2.

Is there an overall thrust/trend towards reducing or increasing the level of subsidy provided?

Yes.

3rd National Agriculture Policy

3.

Does policy include increasing attempts to introduce user payments e.g. charges imposed on the fishing industry?

Licence fees, but not sufficient to cover manage­ment costs.

FAO TP 488
4.

Does fisheries policy include mention of the need to support the traceability and/or certification of products?

Yes.

3rd National Agriculture Policy

5a.
5b.

Does policy refer to increasing value-added?
If so, how is this to be achieved.

Yes.

Encouraging more downstream processing on most of the fish production.

3rd National Agriculture Policy

6.

Does policy refer to tariff barriers and/or free trade areas in the region?

Not sure.  
7.

Does policy seek to increase exports?

Yes, the overriding objective of NAP3 is the maximization of income through the optimal utilization of resources in the sector.

This includes maximizing agriculture’s contribution to national income and export earnings as well as maximizing income of producers.

3rd National Agriculture Policy

8a.


8b.

Are there any specific policy initiatives to improve the efficiency of fisheries adminis­trations? e.g. public/private partnerships
If so, pls elaborate.

Yes. NAP3 states that “A review and rationali­zation of the existing institutional arrangements will be carried out to make them more effective in supporting agricultural development and facilitating commercialization and growth of the sector. Currently, the Government plays a leading role in the sector’s development through the provision of various support services and infrastructural facilities. Notwithstanding the Government’s commitment, the private sector also contributes significantly towards the sector’s development especially in the plantation sub-sector.” And there are specific measures designed to ensure public/private collaboration.

3rd National Agriculture Policy

Section D: Socio-economic and poverty issues

1a.
1b.

Does policy refer to issues of poverty?
If so, in what capacity e.g. references to PRSPs, non-fisheries sector poverty reduction strategies, etc.

  1. Yes, there are still many poor fishermen, mostly the indigenous community.
  2. Not sure.

3rd National Agriculture Policy

2.

Does policy include mention of, or provide for, micro-finance?

Yes, through the Agriculture Bank, other government agencies provide loans and credit to fishermen and fish farmers.

3rd National Agriculture Policy

3.

Does policy include reducing the number of those engaged in fishing maintaining current numbers, or increasing/maximizing employment?

Reducing.

3rd National Agriculture Policy

4.

Does policy include assistance to fishers to leave the fisheries sector or to supplement livelihoods from non-fishing activities?

Yes, to go into aquaculture, agriculture, etc. Surplus fishermen are diverted to the tourism sector, ferrying tourists to the parks, acting as tour or even dive guides.

3rd National Agriculture Policy

5a.
5b.

Does policy refer to food security?
If so, to what extent (if at all) is policy specific about whether fisheries should provide direct food security (i.e. fish being consumed domestically) or indirect food security (fish exported with money then available for food imports).

Yes, as a specific objective of NAP3.

3rd National Agriculture Policy

Section E: Overall impression of policy trends

In summary, what are the main trends and changes in fisheries policy over the past 10 years. Please also consider in the response to this question that the seriousness with which a certain policy is pursued can often be measured by the share of the budget allocated to it, or by whether it finds expression in specific legislation or regulations.

The policy trends in Malaysia now are:

  • to at least maintain production of coastal capture fisheries by introducing good fisheries resource management and conservation;
  • to increase aquaculture production to offset the depleting production from capture fisheries;
  • to increase production of inland capture fisheries by reviving the depleting resource through fisheries co-management; and
  • to increase deep-sea production by encouraging more local vessels to venture into deep-sea fishing.

In the 9 th Malaysia National Development Plan (2006-2010), big allocations are given to agriculture and fisheries development. In Sabah State, Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Enactment 2003 is towards increase fish production with proper management control. In the Federal government level, it is stated in the Malaysia Fisheries Act 1985.

Also note relevant to Section D above the Fisheries Development Authority of Malaysia (FDAM). FDAM is a statutory body established in 1971 with the objective of upgrading the social and economic status of the fishing communities, including fishermen, fish farmers and processors. FDAM has the authority to regulate fish marketing in the country. The establishment of landing complexes in major landing points, and the provision of auctioning service in such complexes are attempts to reduce the economic dependency of fishermen on the middlemen or wholesalers, hence increasing their income.

Importance of CIDA support in improved policy.

Myanmar

 

Policy Issue/Question

Answer

Supporting Reference

Section A: Policy Targets/Indicators

1a.

1b.

Does policy contain specific development targets for capture fisheries?
If so, pls elaborate.

30 years long-term plan (2001-2031) targets production of 4.15 million metric tonne from all fishery sector.

Policy poster
2a.


2b.

Does policy contain specific management targets for capture fisheries? e.g. area under MPAs, etc.
If so, pls elaborate.

?  
3a.

3b.

Does policy contain specific development targets for aquaculture?
If so, pls elaborate.

Aquaculture to develop 200000 acres with 5 tonnes per acre production rate by 2031.

The Government of Myanmar published in 1999, a special plan to increase and develop shrimp and fish culture on 48583 ha and 26291 ha, respectively by 2003.

Policy poster
4a.

4b.

Does policy contain specific development targets for aquaculture?
If so, pls elaborate.

?  
5a.

5b.

Does policy contain any other specific targets or indicators e.g. value of exports?
If so, what are they. (List all)

Export of 1.149 million tonne value of 2373 million US$.

Policy poster
6.

Is there a sense in development targets that aquaculture is more, less, or as important as capture fisheries production?

More. A Livestock and Fisheries Development Committee has been organized and a task force set up to work on a three-year plan for extended breeding and production of fish and shrimp.

FAO Country Review FAO TP 431

Section B: Natural Resource Management

1.

Does policy include the use of fishery co-management and/or community management?

?  
2.

Does fisheries policy (as opposed to national non-sectoral policy) specifically provide for decentralization/devolution of management powers and responsibilities?

?  
3a.

Does policy include attempts to expand national offshore fisheries e.g. through the use of larger vessels?

Yes. National fish production is expected to develop at a medium pace for the next few years. Total landing of marine catch is also expected to increase. The increase in marine fish production is

FAO Country Review BurmaNet New

3b.

If so, is such expansion at the expense of any foreign fishing interests currently operating in the country.

expected primarily to derive from deep-sea fishing. It is estimate that about 1 million tonnes of fish can be additionally exploited annually from this source.

In 2001 Myanmar introduced new and stringent requirements on any Thai vessel operating in Myanmar’s waters, effectively making it very difficult for Thai vessels to do so.

http://www.
burmalibrary.org/
reg.burma/
archives/200108/
msg00064.html

4.

Does policy encourage the movement of small-scale fisheries into offshore areas, due to resource constraints and technical improvements/efficiencies?

?  
5a.

5b.

Does policy specifically recognize and address any issues of over capacity?
If so, what and how.

Yes, to the extent that a moratorium has been placed on the issuance of new or additional fishing licences for vessels to harvest in coastal waters. This is to ensure that the current high fishing pressure on the limited coastal fisheries resources will not be increased, and over time should result in reduced capacity.

Myanmar responded favourably to the IPOA for the Management of Fishing Capacity, by putting in place: (i) a monitoring system, and (ii) a licensing regime.

Every fishing activity in Myanmar’s fishery industry is controlled by the licensing and registration system to control both the fishing vessels and their gear, under the current Fisheries Law and Union of Myanmar Foreign Investment Law 1995.

Any attempt by fishermen to change the tonnage or engine power of fishing vessels or to construct fishing vessels require permission from the Director General of DoF and nautical approval from the respective authority.

FAO Country Review

6a.

6b.

Does policy refer to and/or deal with IUU fishing?
If so, in what way.

The country responded favourably to the IPOA to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate IUU Fishing, through its current MCS system, and claims it bans vessels from its waters that practice re-flagging to avoid regional conservation and management measures.

FAO TP 488
7a.

7b.

Is policy attempting to introduce user rights to fishers?
If so, how and in what way.

?  
8.

Does policy refer to need for integration/ coordination with other sectoral policies?

?  
9.
9b.

Does policy mention ecosystems manage­ment?
If so, what measures are suggested.

?  
10.

Does policy include the use of MPAs?

There are nursery area closures and no take zones. The State, having been empowered by the Forest Law 1992, declared all mangrove forests as protected areas. Fishing within three hundred yards around mangrove areas is strictly prohibited. In order to ensure the sustainable development of aquaculture techniques and to promote mangrove-friendly aquaculture practices strict guidelines were laid down by the Department of Fisheries.

FAO Country Review
FAO TP 488
FAO TP 431

11a.

11b.

Does policy include specific measures related to conflict management?
If so, what are they.

Yes. Two fishing zones have been established through a licensing scheme whereby zones are designated for specific fishing gear, classes of fishing vessels and ownership. This is an attempt to provide equitable allocation of resources and reduce conflicts between traditional and commercial fishers. Basically, the two fishing zones are: Fishing Zone 1, for coastal fisheries, extending from the shoreline to 5 nm in the northern area and to 10 nm in southern coastal areas; and Fishing Zone 2, from the outer limit of the Fishing Zone 1 out to the EEZ limit.

Amending of the Fisheries Law of 1989 was to provide a more comprehensive legal framework to manage fisheries in national waters. This law was formulated to integrate and strengthen the legal framework relating to marine and inland fisheries and to, amongst other things, “strengthen systematically administrative activities to reduce conflict among the fishing communities”.

FAO Country Review

Section C: Financial/economic and marketing issues

1a.

1b.

1c.

Does policy provide for the provision of subsidies?
What are the main form of “good” subsidies provided?
If so, what are the main forms of “bad” subsidy provided and what is their time frame.
(pls use your own judgment to decide whether subsidies (e.g. training, social support, boat building, fuel, etc.) are good or bad)

An enterprise covered by the Foreign Investment Law is entitled to a tax holiday period of three consecutive years inclusive of the year of commencement of production or services and also to a further reasonable period, provided the Commission considers such extension is appropriate in the interest of the State.

In addition, the enterprise may obtain any or all of the following exemptions and reliefs:

  1. Exemption or relief from tax on profit held in reserve and ploughed back into the business within one year.
  2. Accelerated depreciation of capital assets.
  3. Relief from up to 50 percent of income tax on the profits arising from the export of goods produced by the enterprise concerned.
  4. Allowance for research and development expenditure which is necessarily incurred within the State.
  5. Right to carry forward and set-off losses up to three consecutive years from the year the loss is sustained.
  6. Right to deduct an amount of income tax paid to the State on behalf of a foreign employee from the assessable income of the enterprise.
  7. Exemption or relief from customs duties and/or other taxes on machinery equipment, components, spareparts, instruments and other materials imported during the period of construction.
  8. Similar exemption or relief on raw materials imported in the first three years’ commercial production following the completion of construction.

FAO TCP Report 1998

2.

Is there an overall thrust/trend towards reducing or increasing the level of subsidy provided?

?  
3.

Does policy include increasing attempts to introduce user payments e.g. charges imposed on the fishing industry?

Yes. Amending of the Fisheries Law of 1989 was to provide a more comprehensive legal framework to manage fisheries in national waters. This law was formulated to integrate and strengthen the legal framework relating to marine and inland fisheries and to, amongst other things, “get more revenue through fishery taxation”.

FAO Country Review

4.

Does fisheries policy include mention of the need to support the traceability and/or certification of products?

?  
5a.
5b.

Does policy refer to increasing value-added?
If so, how is this to be achieved.

?  
6.

Does policy refer to tariff barriers and/or free trade areas in the region?

?  
7.

Does policy seek to increase exports?

Sectoral and policies and objectives include to “increase meat and fish production for domestic consumption and share the surplus with other countries”. Particular emphasis on shrimp.

The national development goals and aspirations include food security, higher farm income, employment generation to absorb excess rural labour, and increase in export earnings.

FAO Country Review FAO TP 431

8a.


8b.

Are there any specific policy initiatives to improve the efficiency of fisheries adminis­trations? e.g. public/private partnerships
If so, pls elaborate.

Yes, DoF has also entered into several joint ventures with the private sector (both local and foreign companies) for fisheries operations.

FAO Country Review

Section D: Socio-economic and poverty issues

1a.
1b.

Does policy refer to issues of poverty?
If so, in what capacity e.g. references to PRSPs, non-fisheries sector poverty reduction strategies, etc.

Sectoral and policies and objectives include to “improve the socio-economic status of livestock and fisheries communities under the guidance of the Head of State”.

FAO Country Review

2.

Does policy include mention of, or provide for, micro-finance?

?  
3.

Does policy include reducing the number of those engaged in fishing maintaining current numbers, or increasing/maximizing employment?

Increasing. The national development goals and aspirations include food security, higher farm income, employment generation to absorb excess rural labour, and increase in export earnings.

FAO TP 431
4.

Does policy include assistance to fishers to leave the fisheries sector or to supplement livelihoods from non-fishing activities?

?  
5a.
5b.

Does policy refer to food security?
If so, to what extent (if at all) is policy specific about whether fisheries should provide direct food security (i.e. fish being consumed domestically) or indirect food security (fish exported with money then available for food imports).

Sectoral and policies and objectives include to “increase meat and fish production for domestic consumption and share the surplus with other countries”.

The national development goals and aspirations include food security, higher farm income, employment generation to absorb excess rural labour, and increase in export earnings.

FAO Country Review
FAO TP 431

 

Section E: Overall impression of policy trends

  In summary, what are the main trends and changes in fisheries policy over the past 10 years. Please also consider in the response to this question that the seriousness with which a certain policy is pursued can often be measured by the share of the budget allocated to it, or by whether it finds expression in specific legislation or regulations.

Pakistan

Policy Issue/Question Answer

Supporting Reference

Principal Driver (who?) Principal Motivation (why?)
Section A: Policy Targets/Indicators
1a.



1b.

Does policy contain specific development targets for capture fisheries?
If so, pls elaborate.
The targeted production growth rate for the overall sector (including capture and culture, from marine and inland areas) has been established at 10 percent per annum. This target corresponds to the extra production needed to increase fish consumption from 1.2 kg to 5 kg per capita per year. It is unlikely that capture fisheries can grow at such a pace, and most of the production increases will come from aquaculture. However, policy contains some specific targets with respect to numbers of vessels equipped to target under-exploited resources. National policy and strategy for fisheries and aquaculture development in Pakistan (2006) Part 1 and 2 Government, FAO, stakeholders through participatory policy development process over a one year period, and involving field level, district, provincial and national consultation through workshops and discussions.

 

 

 

The fisheries and aquaculture sectors have been gaining an increasing importance in the development poilices. Since 1998, overall fish production has decreased by nearly 2 percent per annum Ten Year Perspective Development Plan 2001-11 state that agricultural development will focus on producing high-value crops, fisheries, livestock and dairy products The recently approved poverty Poverty
2a.

 


2b.

Does policy contain specific management targets for capture fisheries? e.g. area under MPAs, etc.
If so, pls elaborate.
Yes. Second part of 2006 policy document provides targets for indicators for all proposed activities in support of policy strategies and goals. For capture fisheries these include targets relating to a) area of degraded mangrove to be rehabilitated, b) number of IUU offences, c) size of shrimp fleet, d) numbers of artificial reefs, e) rates of by-catch and discards, f) number of protected areas and fish sanctuaries. National policy and strategy for fisheries and aquaculture development in Pakistan (2006) Part 1 and 2
3a.

 

3b.

Does policy contain specific development targets for aquaculture?
If so, pls elaborate.
See 1 above. Plus Part 2 of the new policy document includes specific targets related to a) percent of potential areas in high priority zones brought under farming, b) area of land allocated to aquaculture, c) numbers of demonstration sites in high priority zones. See 1 above
4a.

 

4b.

Does policy contain specific management targets for aquaculture?
If so, pls elaborate.
Yes. Second part of 2006 policy document provides targets for indicators for all proposed activities in support of policy strategies and goals. For aquaculture these include targets relating to a) registration of fish farmers, b) specification of National Environmental Quality Standards, c) pollution issues. National policy and strategy for fisheries and aquaculture development in Pakistan (2006) Part 2
5a.

 

5b.

Does policy contain any other specific targets or indicators e.g. value of exports?
If so, what are they. (List all)

The new policy document has a strategy axis focussing on post harvet issues, with a wide range of activities and associated indicators proposed, relating to issues such as a) infrastructure development, b) output from pre-processing plants, c) number of boats with ice making facilities, d) quality control inspections e) utilization of bycatch f) 5 of fish transported in refigerated containers g) number of export points to overseas markets, and h) establishment of export processing zones.

National policy and strategy for fisheries and aquaculture development in Pakistan (2006) Part 2

6.

Is there a sense in development targets that aquaculture is more, less, or as important than capture fisheries production?

Yes, in the sense that aquaculture is more likely to contribute to 10 percent per annum growth, and therefore to economic growth, food security, poverty alleviation. But policy provides equal focus in terms of activities to capture and aquaculture fisheries, and between marine and inland.

National policy and strategy for fisheries and aquaculture development in Pakistan (2006) Part 1 and 2

  Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) of Pakistan, emphasizes the significant role of the fisheries sector.

Section B: Natural Resource Management

1.

Does policy include the use of fishery co-management and/or community manage­ment?

Yes. The new policy has specified activities which include: a) engage in, and support, fisheries interests in all coastal area management and planning processes through a mechanism for cross-sectoral integration and participatory decision-making, b) create “District Fisheries and Aquaculture Development Committees” constituted of representatives of Fisheries/Aquaculture, Agriculture, Irrigation, WAPDA and banks to enhance the coordination and development of fisheries and aquaculture-related activities at district level, and c) five specific activities relating to the need to recognize and promote the role of communities in fisheries management in coastal and inland areas.

National policy and strategy for fisheries and aquaculture development in Pakistan (2006) Part 1 and 2

See response for Section A

Increasing recognition by government about the need for greater levels of participation.

2.

Does fisheries policy (as opposed to national non-sectoral policy) specifically provide for decentralization/devo­lution of management powers and responsi­bilities?

Yes. Strategy axis B of the new policy (institutional improvements and develop­ments within the fisheries and aquaculture sectors) specifically mentions decentrali­zation, and also provides a strong focus on devolution of management powers and decision-making from national government to district and provincial levels.

National policy and strategy for fisheries and aquaculture development in Pakistan (2006) Part 1 and 2

 
3a.

 


3b.

Does policy include attempts to expand national offshore fish­eries e.g. through the use of larger vessels?
If so, is such expansion at the expense of any foreign fishing interests currently operating in the country.

Yes. In addition to the 2006 policy document, a previous policy document on deep-sea fishing policy (entirely consistent and incremental to the 2006 policy document, and therefore still part of national policy) focuses on zones (shore to 12 nm, 12-35 nm, and outside 35 nm). Policy is now to reserve 0-12 nm for the small-scale/artisanal sector, 12-35 nm for medium-sized vessels (100-250 GRT), and outside 35 nm for industrial vessels (300 + GRT). Foreign vessels not excluded in 35 + nm zone as there is a realization that previous attempts to restrict industrial fishing to local investment has not been successful.

Deep-Sea Fishing Policy of 1995, as amended in 2001

Previous reservation of up to 35 nm for local small-scale interests did not result in local

entrepreneurs establishing their own fleets, and resulted in under-exploitation of 23-35 nm zone.

4.

Does policy encourage the movement of small-scale fisheries into offshore areas, due to resource constraints and technical improvements/ efficiencies?

Yes, see above, but a realization that to date this has not been successful. Also an awareness that many inshore resource are overexploited.

Deep-Sea Fishing Policy of 1995, as amended in 2001, and 2006 policy document

 
5a.

 

5b.

Does policy specifically recognize and address any issues of over capacity?
If so, what and how.

Yes, under a strategy axis dealing with capture fisheries, specific activities focus on controlling fleet size and capacity, and relevant indicators are specified for this.

National policy (2006) Part 1 and 2

See response for Section A

 
6a.


6b.

Does policy refer to and/or deal with IUU fishing?
If so, in what way.

Yes. New policy requires Pakistan to sign up to international commitments/IPOAs on IUU. Other activities in the policy document specifically deal with IUU in inland and coastal waters, and for enhanced inter-ministry/department collaboration and staff dedicated to control IUU.

   
7a.


7b.

Is policy attempting to introduce user rights to fishers?
If so, how and in what way.

No. N/a N/a
8.

Does policy refer to need for integration/co­ordination with other sectoral policies?

Yes. Of the 7 strategic axes in the policy (each with multiple activities tied to them), the first is specifically on strengthening of cross-sectoral collaboration and contains more than 30 specific activities.

2006 Policy document Parts 1 and 2.

    Recognition of importance, especially in relation to water flows, land issues, power, and financial issues.
9a.


9b.

Does policy mention ecosystems manage­ment?
If so, what measures are suggested.

Yes, in relation to training requirements, and also management of inland and marine capture fisheries.

2006 Policy document Parts 1 and 2.

Awareness of this issues is important.

10.

Does policy include the use of MPAs?

Yes, it specified protected areas for coastal fisheries, and the provision of fish sanctuaries for inland capture fisheries.

2006 Policy document Parts 1 and 2.

Seen as important for sustainable management.

11a.

 

11b.

Does policy include specific measures re­lated to conflict man­agement?
If so, what are they.

Yes, under a cross-cutting strategy axis there are 5 specific activities on integrated coastal management, specifically aimed at reducing conflicts. Policy activities also include revision of legislation to remove/ avoid conflicts.

2006 Policy document Parts 1 and 2.

Conflict regarding deep-sea resource management.

Section C: Financial/economic and marketing issues

1a.


1b.


1c.

Does policy provide for the provision of sub­sidies?
What are the main forms of “good” sub­sidies provided?
What are the main forms of “bad” subsidy provided and what is their time frame?
(pls use your own judgment to decide whether subsidies (e.g. training, social support, boat building, fuel, etc.) are good or bad)

Yes, specifically as financial incentives to attract private sector investment needed to kick-start inland and coastal aquaculture. Factors mentioned in the policy as being appropriate for subsidies include fuel and electricity costs, hatchery establishment costs, farm machinery.

2006 Policy document Parts 1 and 2.

See response for Section A.

Perception that without such

subsidies, it will be difficult to interest private sector investment. Measure is seen as short-term only as a catalyst.

2.

Is there an overall thrust/trend towards reducing or increasing the level of subsidy provided?

No. N/a

See response for Section A.

N/a
3.

Does policy include increasing attempts to introduce user payments e.g. charges imposed on the fishing industry?

No. N/a N/a
4.

Does fisheries policy include mention of the need to support the traceability and/or certi­fication of products?

Not specifically mentioned, but under strategy axis on post-harvest issues, activities do include issues relating to quality assurance schemes and HACCP, and to general improvements in quality.

2006 Policy document Parts 1 and 2.

Relatively poor export performance to date.

5a.


5b.

Does policy refer to increasing value-added?
If so, how is this to be achieved.

Yes. Under strategy axis on post-harvest issues there are around 25 specific activities, almost all of which could be expected to increased value-added (e.g. through quality improvements, access to international markets, infrastructure developments). Five of these activities are specifically addressed at increasing value-added through a) bycatch utilization, b) demonstration processing facilities, c) private sector processing facilities, and d) focus on small-scale processing.

2006 Policy document Parts 1 and 2.

Very little processing and added-value taking place at present.

6.

Does policy refer to tariff barriers and/or free trade areas in the region?

Yes. In two contexts. Firstly duty free import of some items. And secondly there is policy activity to evaluate impacts of WTO.

2006 Policy document Parts 1 and 2

Awareness of potential impacts.

7.

Does policy seek to increase exports?

Yes. Strategy axis 3 includes 9 specific activities all aimed at increasing access to international markets.

2006 Policy document Parts 1 and 2

Relatively poor export performance to date.

8a.

 

 


8b.

Are there any specific policy initiatives to improve the efficiency of fisheries adminis­trations? e.g. public/ private partnerships
If so, pls elaborate.

Yes, government is focusing strongly on private/public sector collaboration. Under cross-cutting axes, many activities require improved consultation and joint activities. Against all policy activities, partnerships are specified, and throughout the policy activities there is strong public/private sector cooperation required. An emphasis on the freeing-up the private sector to drive economic growth in the fisheries sector reflects wider government approached to development at present which focus strongly on agro-business.

2006 Policy document Parts 1 and 2

Government mainly

Government sees the private sector as being important, and more effective than government, in driving growth, and its own role as more facilitatory.

Section D: Socio-economic and poverty issues

1a.

1b.

Does policy refer to issues of poverty?
If so, in what capacity e.g. references to PRSPs, non-fisheries sector poverty reduction strategies, etc.

Yes. One of the 3 principal goals of policy is to “increase the contribution of the fisheries and aquaculture sectors to poverty alleviation”. Policy text refers to the United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development 2002, the 2000 World Development Report published by the World Bank, the UN Millennium Declaration adopted in 200012, and the 1996 UN World Food Summit, and the fact that all considered poverty alleviation as a central priority. Issues of land and water access are given strong priority in policy activities.

PRSP does not features fisheries at all.

2006 policy document Part 1 and 2

Government

Supporting PRSP, and recognition that poverty levels, especially in many fishing communities are high

2.

Does policy include mention of, or provide for, micro-finance?

Yes, there is a specific activity to “support alternative and/or complementary livelihood activities in fishing communities through increasing access to credit and savings schemes and the provision of micro-finance initiatives”.

2006 policy document Part 1 and 2

See response for Section A

Important in accessing the very poor

3.

Does policy include reducing the number of those engaged in fishing, maintaining current numbers, or increasing/maximizing employment?

Policy contains 6 activities aimed at diversification of income generating activities and employment creation. These don’t specifically require employment numbers to be cut, maintained or increased, but could result a variety of those outcomes. Increasing employment is not one of the three overall policy goals (which focus on poverty alleviation, food security, and economic growth).

2006 policy document Part 1 and 2

See response for Section A.

All three outcomes might be necessary in different situations/ locations.
4.

Does policy include assistance to fishers to leave the fisheries sector or to supplement livelihoods from non-fishing activities?

Yes partly, in that one activity specifies “support alternative and/or complementary livelihood activities in fishing communities through increasing access to credit and savings schemes and the provision of micro-finance initiatives”.

2006 policy document Part 1 and 2

See response for Section A.

May be necessary for sustainability reasons.

5a.

5b.

Does policy refer to food security?
If so, to what extent (if at all) is policy specific about whether fisheries should provide direct food security (i.e. fish being con­sumed domestically) or indirect food security (fish exported with money then available for food imports).

Yes. One of the 3 principal goals of policy is to “increase the contribution of the fisheries and aquaculture sectors to poverty alleviation” Not specific in relation to direct or indirect, but activities specified imply both.

Policy

framework in 2006 policy document Part 1

N/a
Section E: Overall impression of policy trends

In summary, what are the main trends and changes in fisheries policy over the past 10 years. Please also consider in the response to this question that the seriousness with which a certain policy is pursued can often be measured by the share of the budget allocated to it, or by whether it finds expression in specific legislation or regulations.

The recent policy development process, supported by an FAO TCP project was very consultative and participatory. This in itself was reflective of recent trends by government towards a more inclusive attitude and decentralization. The extent to which all the policy activities, or some and not others, end up being implemented by Government (with appropriate budget provision) remains to be seen as the policy is implemented. A key shift in Government policy appears to be a strong reliance on the private sector agri-business to facilitate growth.

 

12 The Millennium Declaration contains the commitment to halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of the world’s population whose income is less than one dollar a day.

Philippines

 

Policy Issue/Question

Answer

Supporting Reference

Section A: Policy Targets/Indicators

1a.

1b.

Does policy contain specific development targets for capture fisheries?
If so, pls elaborate.

Yes.

Nothing in 1998 Code on targets.

But included in medium term fisheries development plan of BFAR.

2a.


2b.

Does policy contain specific management targets for capture fisheries? e.g. area under MPAs, etc.
If so, pls elaborate.

No.
3a.

3b.

Does policy contain specific development targets for aquaculture?
If so, pls elaborate.

Yes.
4a.

4b.

Does policy contain specific development targets for aquaculture?
If so, pls elaborate.

No.
5a.

5b.

Does policy contain any other specific targets or indicators e.g. value of exports?
If so, what are they. (List all)

No.
6.

Is there a sense in development targets that aquaculture is more, less, or as important as capture fisheries production?

No.

Section B: Natural Resource Management

1.

Does policy include the use of fishery co-management and/or community manage­ment?

Yes. The policy environment in the Philippines now provides for the participation of community groups and other non-state actors in what have traditionally been considered state affairs. In addition, the 1987 Philippine Constitution, contains important provisions that invoke general protection of the environment, although responsibility rests primarily with the State. Legislated policy in the form of the preamble of the Philippines Fisheries Code of 1998 (Section 2. Declaration of Policy) confirms and enhances the co-management policy of the Government. The Philippine Fisheries Code is a complete departure from the previous policy/ legislative direction of maximizing fishery utilization and pushing for fisheries as a preferred area for investment without the necessary social and environmental safety nets. The new law now provides for the preferential rights of small-scale fishers and, requires that their participation in aquatic councils be established in all coastal areas in the country.

Macfadyen et al., 2005

2.

Does fisheries policy (as opposed to national non-sectoral policy) specifically provide for decentralization/devolution of management powers and responsibilities?

Yes. In 1991, the Local Government Code became the country’s centrepiece legislation on devolution. Through its implementation, the transfer of political power and responsibility from national to local government units was pursued. In addition, the law requires local governments to have people’s and NGOs as active partners in the pursuit of local autonomy. The Fisheries Code of 1998 supports the Local Government Code and enables the establishment of co-management units in the form of registered fisherfolk organizations and cooperatives. The Code provides for the establishment of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Councils (FARMC) at national and municipal levels to carry out management advisory functions in collaboration with Local Government Units (LGUs). The Local Government Code of 1991 delegates to the local government units and people’s organizations the task of managing their own resources: “Municipalities have the exclusive authority to grant fishery privileges in the municipal waters (15 km from the coastline) and impose rentals, fees, or charges”.

Macfadyen et al., 2005

3a.


3b.

Does policy include attempts to expand national offshore fisheries e.g. through the use of larger vessels?
If so, is such expansion at the expense of any foreign fishing interests currently operating in the country.

Yes. Code requires “optimal utilization of off­shore and deep-sea resources” and provide incentives for commercial fishers to fish further offshore.

b. Yes, Code states that policy is “to limit access to the fishery and aquatic resources of the Philippines for the exclusive use and enjoyment of Filipino citizens”…and “The protection of municipal fisherfolk against foreign intrusion shall extend to offshore fishing grounds”.

1998 Code
4.

Does policy encourage the movement of small-scale fisheries into offshore areas, due to resource constraints and technical improvements/efficiencies?

Not specific re moving small-scale offshore, but strong emphasis given to small-scale fishers. Small-scale fishers supported through the 1998 Code which states that policy is “to protect the right of fisherfolk, especially of the local communities…” and “Preference shall be given to resource users in the local communities adjacent or nearest to the municipal waters”.

1998 Code
5a.

5b.

Does policy specifically recognize and address any issues of over capacity?
If so, what and how.

No, although the Govt. has endorsed the International Management of Fishing Capacity Agreement. But enactment into law has been slow.

FAO Country Review

6a.

6b.

Does policy refer to and/or deal with IUU fishing?
If so, in what way.

Yes. 1998 Code has sections on unauthorized fishing (Section 86) and poaching in Philippine waters (Section 87), with fines for the latter set at one hundred thousand US Dollars (US$100 000), in addition to the confiscation of its catch, fishing equipment and fishing vessel: Provided, that the Department is empowered to impose an administrative fine of not less than fifty thousand US Dollars (US$50000) but not more than two hundred thousand US Dollars (US$200000) or its equivalent in the Philippine currency.

And the Govt. endorsed the international agreement on IUU, but enactment of specifics in law has been slow.

1998 Code

 

 

 

 


FAO Country Review

7a.

7b.

Is policy attempting to introduce user rights to fishers?
If so, how and in what way.

Yes, licence and permits to fish, and the Code states that “The LGU concerned shall grant demarcated fishery rights to fishery organizations/ cooperatives for mariculture operation in specific areas identified by the Department.”

1998 Code
8.

Does policy refer to need for integration/ coordination with other sectoral policies?

Code calls for integration between municipalities.

1998 Code
9.

9b.

Does policy mention ecosystems manage­ment?
If so, what measures are suggested.

Yes.

Executive Order 533

10.

Does policy include the use of MPAs?

Yes. 1998 Code states that “The Department may establish fish refuge and sanctuaries to be administered in the manner to be prescribed by BFAR. At least twenty-five percent (25 percent) but not more than forty percent (40 percent) of bays, foreshore lands, continental shelf or any fishing ground shall be set aside for the cultivation of mangroves to strengthen the habitat and the spawning grounds of fish. Within these areas no commercial fishing shall be allowed. All marine fishery reserves, fish sanctuaries and mangrove swamp reservations already declared or proclaimed by the President or legislated by the Congress of the Philippines shall be continuously administered and supervised by the concerned agency”.

1998 Code
11a.

11b.

Does policy include specific measures related to conflict management?
If so, what are they.

No specific measures.

 

Section C: Financial/economic and marketing issues

1a.

1b.

1c.

Does policy provide for the provision of subsidies?
What are the main form of “good” subsidies provided?
If so, what are the main forms of “bad” subsidy provided and what is their time frame.
(pls use your own judgment to decide whether subsidies (e.g. training, social support, boat building, fuel, etc.) are good or bad)

There are provisions for subsidized credit for the fishers and farmers who engage in food and non-food production, processing and trading. The commercial fishers are eligible for subsidized long-term loans and tax and duty exemption to acquire or improve fishing vessels and related equipment. The duty and tax rebates are also applicable to fuel consumption for commercial fisheries.

The Code (Section 35) also enshrines various incentives for fishing further offshore including long term loans, tax and duty exemption, duty and tax rebates.

And the Code makes provision for a number of fisheries funds e.g. for aquaculture development, fishing vessel development, credit, soft loans etc. 1997 act also provides for extensive range of support.

ADB-RETA 5945 Project Website, WordFish Center

 

 

1998 Code

 

 

1997 Act

2.

Is there an overall thrust/trend towards reducing or increasing the level of subsidy provided?

?, but extensive range see above. And 1997 Act requires for “All existing credit guarantee schemes and funds applicable to the agriculture and fishery sectors shall be rationalized and consolidated into an Agriculture and Fisheries Credit Guarantee Fund”.

 
3.

Does policy include increasing attempts to introduce user payments e.g. charges imposed on the fishing industry?

Yes. 1998 Code states that “The rentals for fishpond areas covered by the Fishpond Lease Agreement (FLA) and license fees for Commercial Fishing Boat License (CFBL) shall be set at levels that reflect resource rent accruing from the utilization of resources and shall be determined by the Department”.

But increases in costs of management have not yet been converted to recoverable resource rents by government, and there is still strong reliance on donor funding.

1998 Code

 

 

 

FAO Country Review

4.

Does fisheries policy include mention of the need to support the traceability and/or certification of products?

Not specifically, but Code requires BFAR to “implement as inspection system for import and export of fishery/aquatic products and fish processing establishments consistent with international standards to ensure product quality and safety”.

1998 Code
5a.

5b.

Does policy refer to increasing value-added?
If so, how is this to be achieved.

Through “Upgrading of post-harvest technology”, and requirement for BFAR to develop value-added fishery-products for domestic consumption and export”.

One of the objectives of the 1997 Act is to increase value-added processing.

1998 Code 1997 Act

6.

Does policy refer to tariff barriers and/or free trade areas in the region?

No.
7. Does policy seek to increase exports? Requirement for BFAR to develop value-added fishery-products for domestic consumption and export”. 1998 Code
8a.


8b.

Are there any specific policy initiatives to improve the efficiency of fisheries adminis­trations? e.g. public/private partnerships
If so, pls elaborate.

To the extent that the 1998 Code has a specific chapter on the “Reconstitution of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources and Creation of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Councils”.

And rationalization and performance based evaluation system introduced for fisheries universities, and improvements to research institutions and extension provision specified in 1997 Act.

1998 Code

 

 

1997 Act

Section D: Socio-economic and poverty issues

1a.
1b.

Does policy refer to issues of poverty?
If so, in what capacity e.g. references to PRSPs, non-fisheries sector poverty reduction strategies, etc.

Yes. The Code states that an objective is “Poverty alleviation and the provision of supplementary livelihood among municipal fisherfolk”.

And 1997 Act states that “the State shall ensure the development of the agriculture and fisheries sectors in accordance with the following principles:

Poverty Alleviation and Social Equity - The State shall ensure that the poorer sectors of society have equitable access to resources, income opportunities, basic and support services and infrastructure especially in areas where productivity is low as a means of improving their quality of life compared with other sectors of society….”

1998 Code
2.

Does policy include mention of, or provide for, micro-finance?

No, but the Code talks of credit for small fishers, as does 1997 Act.

1998 Code 1997 Act

3.

Does policy include reducing the number of those engaged in fishing maintaining current numbers, or increasing/maximizing employment?

Maximizing. 1997 Modernization Act states that “the State shall promote industrialization and full employment”.

1997 Modernization Act
4.

Does policy include assistance to fishers to leave the fisheries sector or to supplement livelihoods from non-fishing activities?

Not specific.  
5a.
5b.

Does policy refer to food security?
If so, to what extent (if at all) is policy specific about whether fisheries should provide direct food security (i.e. fish being consumed domestically) or indirect food security (fish exported with money then available for food imports).

The Fisheries Code of 1998 states that food security is “the overriding consideration in the utilization, management, development and conservation and protection of fishery resources”.

And 1997 Modernization Act states that “The State shall promote food security” and that “the State shall ensure the development of the agriculture and fisheries sectors in accordance with the following principles: Food Security - The State assure the availability adequacy, accessibility and affordability of food supplies to all times.

Green, S. et al., 1998 Code 1997

Modernization Act

Section E: Overall impression of policy trends

In summary, what are the main trends and changes in fisheries policy over the past 10 years. Please also consider in the response to this question that the seriousness with which a certain policy is pursued can often be measured by the share of the budget allocated to it, or by whether it finds expression in specific legislation or regulations.

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