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Appendix 2
Extent to which the fisheries sector is integrated into Asian PRSPs and
national development plans







 PRSP/Nov 2005 Issues 3

Agriculture seen as priority sector for poverty reduction and a specific sub-section identifies; (i) contribution to GDP-exports-employment, (ii) poor supply of quality fish seed, (iii) government commitment to accelerate growth through intensification, enhanced value-added and diversification.

Participatory process highlighted key development needs (including leasing out of kha ponds, excavation/construction of new ponds/canals, prohibiting use of electrical nets, prevent indiscriminate fishing).

Links 3

Employment/livelihood opportunities in backward/forward linkages recognised, especially home-based pond aquaculture.

Explicit questioning of fishers regarding their (vulnerable) livelihood and reasons therefore - given that they may be bypassed by generic anti-poverty programmes.

Improved biodiversity will benefit the poor - “particularly with respect to fisheries”.

Strategic Goal 20 in Policy Matrix 4 aimed at raising incomes of poor fishers while PM8 links fisheries in to the goal of food security.

Promised national fisheries programme will ensure access of the poor to waterbodies.

Responses 2

Promise to introduce a Certificate of Land Ownership to facilitate access to floodplain fisheries as a development of the Jalmahal programme.

Strategic Goals 18–22 in Policy Matrix 4 identifies steps required to increase productivity in inland aquaculture, inland capture fisheries, raise the income of poor fishers, promote rice-fish culture and strengthen research and extension.

Need – albeit undefined – to improve technical infrastructure in sector (especially aquaculture), and introduce/promote local varieties of fish stock.

DoF to be strengthened, research to be increased, human resources developed and an overarching legal framework devised to control activities of all government departments whose remit might impact on fishing.

Process 3

Fishers representatives included in national and regional participatory-consultation meetings to discuss poverty, its causes and poverty-prone groupings - and help set sectoral targets and strategies to hit said targets. Fishers - along with snake-charmers and eight other key ‘poor’ groups - also consulted directly vis-à-vis the causes of their poverty.

DoF obliged to pursue community-based participation in decision-making, per Strategic Goal 4 (Policy Matrix 10).




PRSPPR/Oct 2004 PRSP/Dec 2002



Issues 3

Separate sections discussing aquaculture, fisheries management and livelihood improvement, community fisheries. Fisheries related issues raised throughout the document, including:

  • State loses US$100 m/yr. due to corruption and illegal fishing,
  • Women dominate fisheries sector post-catch to marketing (75%).
  • Natural resource depletion (fish) increases conflicts among user groups.
  • Inappropriate government market interventions hinder fisheries development – change of corporate culture needed to build competitive, market responsive sector.
  • Incorporating fishing villages into eco-tourism strategy would help to supplement local incomes.



Fisheries are a key area for securing rural livelihoods with implications for other aspects of poverty. 1993–2001 agric. accounted for 46.4% of GDP, 30% thereof fisheries. Sharp increases in trade, incl. fish, over past decade noted-importance of agri-exports for poverty reduction recognised.

Natural resource destruction aggravates the situation of the poor. Constrained access to natural (fishery-related) resources results in increased food insecurity for growing number of families.

Fish accounts for 30% of national animal protein intake, 40–60% in rural areas, 70–75% in areas close to the Tonle Sap Great Lake/ rivers etc. Larger share of fish in consumption expenditure among the poor.

Responses 3

Two out of 9 components of Equitable Agricultural Development are fisheries related (rice-fish farming and aquaculture; community-based fisheries management.) – components and implementation strategies detailed – government measures identified and costed, and monitoring indicators defined in implementation matrix. Includes fishing-lot reform programme to promote resource access of poor families/communities.

Industrial policy to promote processing industries for existing natural resources, including fish.

Some progress in reforming natural resource management (incl. fisheries) – one of 8 priority areas of Governance Action Plan (GAP) Advances made in tackling corruption in fisheries.

Trade related sector studies (incl. freshwater fisheries) published. Implementation matrix includes gender specific extension programmes to take account of dominant role of women in traditional farming, fishing and marketing.

PRSPPR, however, notes need to still develop a master plan for fisheries development (including sustainable community fisheries).

Process 2

Specific data on fishing communities derived from Household Socio-Economic Survey in Fishing Communities 1995–96.

Poor reps. of fisheries sector participated in PRSP workshops.

Intended change to co-management of fishery resources includes empowerment of local people and establishment of community fisheries.


*11th FYP 2006–10



10th FYP 2002–07

Issues 1

Decade of growth in fishery sector (6% p.a.)/aquaculture (10–12%).

Agriculture/fisheries production increases needed to meet nutritional needs of population.

Quality and safety aspects of agriculture/fisheries products are important.

Analysis of port facilities, incl. fishing ports. Port development projects to address environmental issues, including impact on fisheries and fishermen.

Links 1

Agric. and allied sectors (fisheries) important for improving economic situation, health, nutrition of rural masses. High employment potential of fisheries good for improving living-standards, but growth slowed in 1990s.

Scheduled Castes (SCs)/Other Backward Classes (OBCs) – the worst off in socio-economic terms – are agricultural labourers, fishers etc.

Responses 2

Refs. to fisheries scattered throughout the doc., incl.:

  • Diversification of land-based activities, e.g. into aquaculture, to be encouraged in ‘backward regions’. Poss. finan. supp. to proj. using waterlogged lands for aquaculture. Fishing rights for ponds pref. given to self-help groups of landless, to promote alternative sources of livelihood.
  • Possibility to develop welfare funds for fish processing workers.
  • Measures to promote export avenues for agric., fisheries promised.
  • Third priority of agriculture development is research/ dissemination of agriculture technology, focus on development of marine fish resources/deep-sea fishing (harvest/post-harvest technology, fish products), bio-technology (incl. gen. engineered fishes, selective breeding), immuno-pathological research, sustainability. Research institutional, incl. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources (NBFGR), to be streng­ thened.
  • Schemes for fish processing development are being imple­ mented.


*MTDS 2004–09      


9th MP 2006–10

Issues 2

Main ‘thrust’ of plan is strengthening agriculture and agro-industry, including fisheries (Chapter 3) - with the emphasis on greater commercialisation, large-scale production and the creation of high-income farmers (fishers?). Chapter notes growth of sector during last plan, ornamental fish as a new source of growth, private involvement in constructing the Batu Maung tuna port, skills training and increased fisher participation in wholesale marketing and credit support.

New (private) fisheries consortium to be established to help deep-sea fishers.

Links 1

70 000 families (including fishers) expected to benefit from SPKR programme to diversify/enhance income sources (includes free housing, income supplements of M$500 p.m. and capacity-building activities).

Responses 1

Deep sea Fishing Complex to be set up in Tanjung Mamis, joint development of an ornamental fish project in Pandang Terag, and the modernisation of coastal fisheries through formation of large-scale community fish farms, new technology and the upgrading of fishing vessels, equipment and engines.

Pledge to expand aquaculture (19% + p.a.) and deep-sea fishing activities.

Process 1

Focus on increasing fisher’s involvement in agro-based processing activities and marketing programmes.




PRSPPR/Sep 2005 PRSP/Oct 2003


No mention of fisheries sector whatsoever.


PRSP/Jan 2004    

No mention of fisheries sector whatsoever.



MTPDP 2004–10 Issues 3

Agribusiness chapter outlines export growth potential of fisheries (exploiting idle offshore and inland waters), and advocates large-scale community and environmental friendly programmes of production intensification and diversification.

Proposes making Mindanao the national agro-fishery hub (aquaculture, processing/canning, crab prodn. and seaweed farming).

Improved info. systems and resolution of property rights issues.

Environment and Natural resources chapter recognises threat to coastal/marine areas from destructive fishing methods, siltation and pollution and quantifies biodiversity loss.


3 Link between coastal and marine ecosystems and livelihoods stressed and guidelines released by DoA granting small artisanal fisherfolk exclusive access over waters up to 15 km from shore – further legislation promised.

Recognition that poverty is concentrated in rural areas is tied to a commitment to increase jobs (743540 in fisheries sector alone) and reduce domestic fish prices through prodn. expansion (17210 ha).

Estab. of emergency and livelihood assistance programmes (not fisheries specific) and enrolment of fishers in the health care system.

Responses 2

Establishment of an aquaculture enterprise programme (eight species) and seaweed farming in non-traditional areas.

Construction/repair of post-harvest facilities and equipment and development of regional/municipal fish port complexes.

Public-private mechanisms set up (by Dec 2005) to mobilize funds for fisheries sector in line with the Fisheries Code, plus additional allocation of 17 billion pesos to agriculture/fisheries p.a. Strengthening management capacity of local government units on municipal fisheries management.

A six-point market-driven export strategy for marine products (new investments in cold storage, bilateral fisheries agreements, quality harmonisation, product development and branding etc.) is outlined.

Process 2

Commitment to mobilize, organize and build capacities of farmers and fishers through social infrastructure provision and enterprise development support.

Institutionalisation – including fisher’s representatives – in the governance and decision-making process.

Sri Lanka

PRSP/Dec 2002 Issues 2

War had adverse effects on fisheries (excl. from prod. fishing zones, transport, access to markets, expensive inputs, displacement) but output in north has begun to recover.

Severe erosion of coast affects thousands of fishing families.


2 Coastal fishing communities amongst the poorest in the rural sector, suffering from social exclusion (poor integration, access to social services).

Vulnerability of majority of rural population (incl. fishermen): moving in and out of poverty according to season/climate/other external factors (market prices).

Potential role of agricultural growth (incl. fisheries) for poverty reduction stressed.

Responses 2

Fisheries policy based on National Fisheries Development Program and Coastal Zone Management Program (CZMP). Key strategies pursued include provision of inputs/technologies, infrastructure development, state sector reform and private sector partnerships, aquaculture development and community hatcheries, commercialisation and export promotion (yet lack of fully articulated expenditure framework).

Coastal Preservation: Series of measures to tackle coastal erosion incl. ban on use of coral reef lime, coastal repairs and protected structures, prom. of community based resource management, reform/amendments to regulatory/institutional environment (Coastal Conservation Action, Fisheries Aquatic Resource Act, CZMP).

Spec. targeted interventions to bring poor/soc. excl. groups (incl. fishermen) into economic mainstream (housing programmes, infrastructural development, Promotion of self-employment among poor fisher-women). Reconstruction effort includes issuing of inputs (incl. fishing nets, boats) to fishermen, rehabilitation of fish harbours/cooling plants.


3 Section details measures to enable and foster wide-ranging and effective community participation in management of maritime resources and coastal preservation. Also included in action matrix.


9th NESDP 2002–06

Issues 1

Unsustainable exploitation of environmental resources, including fisheries and coastal resources, has negatively affected ecosystem balance and biodiversity.

Responses 1

Environmental protection measures include amendment of laws (incl. Fishery Act B.A. 2490 (1947)) to decentralise admin. and allow for community participation, clear demarcation of preservation areas for endangered flora and aquatic fauna, clear zoning and protection of local fishing areas.

Process 2

Chapter on Natural Resource and Environmental Management outlines variety of measures (incl. fisheries specific) to promote community participation.

Viet Nam

PRSPPR/Feb 2006 PRSP/Jan 2004

Issues 2

Promise to exploit countries comparative advantage in aquaculture and offshore seafood production, with projected value-added growth in fisheries of 4–4.5% p.a. till 2010 (up 9.4% in 2004).

Anti-dumping actions vis-à-vis catfish/shrimp exports initiated by other states.

Links 2

Notes poor (incl. Fishers) have limited access to assets incl. credit and commits government to expand subsidized fisheries activities (incl. extension) in a way that is responsive to demand of poor people.

Responses 2

Intent to both diversify, technify and ‘rapidly expand’ (to 1.2 million ha.) aquaculture production.

Plans to invest in infrastructure and provide extension services (including establish six breeding centres) to ensure growth targets are met in a sustainable manner.

Cost of intended fisheries progs. (aquaculture, infrastructure, offshore fleet construction) will amount to VND 21–7 thousand billion.


PRSP (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper) - Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam.
PRSPPR (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report) - Cambodia, Nepal and Viet Nam.
NESDP (National Economic and Social Development Plan) - Thailand.
FYP (Five Year Plan) - China, India.
MTPDP (Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan) - Philippines.
MTDS (Medium-Term Development Strategy) - Indonesia.
MP (Malaysia Plan) - Malaysia.
•    Myanmar has no comprehensive/definitive national policy document available.
‘*’ In the ‘document’ column signifies lack of success in obtaining same to date.

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