Manual on the diagnosis of Nipah
virus infection in animals

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

Animal Production and Health Commission
for Asia and the Pacific (APHCA)

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      Table of contents



      Foreword

      Summary

      CHAPTER 1
      The emergence of Nipah virus

        Introduction
        The emergence of Nipah virus in Malaysia
        The economic and social impacts of the outbreak
        The putative natural host

      CHAPTER 2
      Working safely with Nipah virus

        Risk assessment in field investigations –general principles
        Safety procedures on Nipah-infected or suspected farms
        Safety procedures in the laboratory with Nipah-infected or suspected samples

      CHAPTER 3
      Reaching a presumptive diagnosis on-farm

        The clinical disease in pigs
        Other susceptible domestic species
        Necropsy findings in pigs
        The epidemiological pattern of the disease

      CHAPTER 4
      Confirmatory laboratory diagnosis

        Serological tests
        Histopathology
        Immunohistochemistry
        Virus isolation
        Electron microscopy
        PCR

      CHAPTER 5
      Control and eradication

        Advance planning
        The organization of the control operation
        Movement controls on pigs
        Mass culling of active disease farms
        Financial assistance
        A national testing and surveillance programme
        A national abattoir monitoring and testing programme

      CHAPTER 6
      Managing pig industries for freedom from Nipah virus infection

        Actions from the pig industry
        Actions from governments
        Managing the risk from the wildlife reservoir

      References

      Appendices

      1. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) for working on suspected Nipah virus infected premises
      2. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) for performing necropsies and collecting serum samples on Nipah virus infected premises
      3. Checklist of equipment and supplies for Nipah virus field investigations
      4. A guide to sampling tissues for Nipah virus diagnosis: samples from natural and experimental cases in which Nipah virus has been identified
      5. Laboratories with PC4 facilities and Nipah virus research programmes
      6. Packing infectious substances - International Air Transport Association (IATA) packaging instruction 602
      7. Packing diagnostic specimens with a low probability of being infectious - International Air Transport Association (IATA) packaging instruction 650


The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) nor of the Animal Production and Health Commission for Asia and the Pacific (APHCA) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 974-680-208-9

All right reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electric, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Application for the reproduction, should be addressed to Senior Animal Production and Health Officer/Secretary of APHCA, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAP), 39 Maliwan Mansion, Phra-Atit Road, Bangkok 10200, Thailand.

© FAO 2002