RAP Publication 2007/19

An Overview of the Impact of the Tsunami on Selected Coastal Fisheries Resources in Sri Lanka and Indonesia

RAP Publication 2007/19

AN OVERVIEW OF THE IMPACT OF THE TSUNAMI
ON SELECTED COASTAL FISHERIES RESOURCES
IN SRI LANKA AND INDONESIA

 




Download full pdf version(335 Kb)


FOOD and AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
Bangkok, 2007

© FAO 2007

The designation and presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers and boundaries.

NOTICE OF COPYRIGHT

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for sale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Senior Fishery Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Maliwan Mansion, 39 Phra Athit Road, Bangkok 10200, Thailand.



For copies write to:The Senior Fishery Officer
FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
Maliwan Mansion, 39 Phra Athit Road
Bangkok 10200
THAILAND
Tel: (+66) 2 697 4000
Fax: (+66) 2 697 4445
E-mail: FAO-RAP@fao.org

FOREWORD

The earthquake and tsunami of 26 December 2004 killed more than 300 000 people and devastated the livelihoods of many more. Fisheries and aquaculture were the sectors most severely hit by the disaster; many boats, fishing gear, ponds and support installations were destroyed or damaged.

Immediately after the tsunami, national and regional initiatives clearly identified an urgent need for comprehensive impact and needs assessment, prior to the planning and implementation of programmes aimed at rehabilitation of fisheries and aquaculture. Of particular importance to planning in the fisheries sector and the concept of "building back better" was how natural resources were impacted by the tsunami. Of particular concern was the possibility that during the relief stages fishing overcapacity might be created (through the provision of too many boats) with potential to negatively impact future fishery resources and the livelihoods of vulnerable communities.

The project "A rapid assessment of the status of the fisheries in tsunami affected areas of Indonesia and
Sri Lanka (OSRO/RAS/504/LAO)"1 aimed to provide technical advice to enhance knowledge of the impact of the tsunami on a limited number of affected inshore fisheries habitats and marine resources, and make this more accessible to policy decision-makers and for medium- to long-term sectoral planning in Indonesia and Sri Lanka.

This publication is the final report of that project and provides an interesting account of the status and trends in the fisheries resources of Sri Lanka and Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province (Indonesia) prior to and immediately after the tsunami. The main findings of the report indicate that overall, the impact of the tsunami on fisheries was more related to ongoing and new tsunami-related "human" factors, than the direct physical or biological effects of the disaster on resources and ecosystems. This report highlights the need for continued support to medium- to long-term initiatives for post-tsunami fisheries sector management to ensure sustainable use of resources through the involvement of affected communities.


He Changchui
Assistant Director-General and Regional Representative
FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

__________
1 Implemented with funding support through donations from the Laotian people, diplomatic corps, international organizations, entrepreneurs, traders, residential expatriates, local provincial authorities and donors from different sectors in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR).


CONTENTS

Abbreviations and acronyms

Executive summary

Introduction

Approach

Status of fisheries resources and ecosystems

Aceh, Indonesia

Fished resources in Aceh

Fisheries ecosystems in Aceh

Fisheries trends leading up to the tsunami

Aceh fisheries before and after the tsunami

Sri Lanka

Fished resources in Sri Lanka

Fisheries ecosystems in Sri Lanka

Trends in district fisheries pre- and post-tsunami

Mode of action of the tsunami on natural resources

Reported effects of the tsunami on fisheries resources

Effects on fisheries resources reported in other studies

Pelagic species

Trawled species — evidence from research cruises

Reef fish

Fisherfolk’s perceptions: PRAs in Aceh and Sri Lanka

Results of the PRAs for Aceh

Results of PRAs for Sri Lanka

Outcomes of PRAs and National Workshops

Effects on fisheries-related habitats

Coral reefs

Mangroves and sea-grasses

Coastal water quality

Other coastal habitats

Changes in fishing effort

Losses of fisherfolk, fishing gear, boats and infrastructure

Repair, replacement and expansion of the fishing fleet

Emergency fishing or fishing avoidance?

Overall effect on the fishing effort

Conclusions

Recommendations

References