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This standard provides guidelines for assessing the quarantine risks posed by scale insects of potential economic importance and the risk management measures that may be applied.

The scope of this standard is restricted to scale insects affecting fresh fruit and vegetables for human consumption moving in international trade, and excludes plants and plant products intended for propagation or processing.


Agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures, 1994. World Trade Organization, Geneva.

Export certification system, 1997. ISPM No. 7, FAO, Rome.

Glossary of phytosanitary terms, 2006. ISPM No. 5, FAO, Rome.

Guidelines for inspection, 2005. ISPM No. 23, FAO, Rome.

Guidelines for the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary measure, 2003. ISPM No. 18, FAO, Rome.

Pest Risk Analysis for Quarantine Pests Including Analysis of Environmental Risks and Living Modified Organisms, 2004. ISPM No. 11 Rev. 1, FAO, Rome.

Requirements for the establishment of areas of low pest prevalence, 2005. ISPM No. 22, Rome.

Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas, 1995. ISPM No. 4, FAO, Rome.

Requirements for the establishment of pest free places of production and pest free production sites, 1999. ISPM No. 10, FAO, Rome.

The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management, 2002. ISPM No. 14, FAO, Rome.

Ben-Dov Y, Miller DR, Gibson GAP (2005) ScaleNet. Available online at: tm (verified November 2006).

Gullan PJ (2001) Why the taxon Homoptera does not exist. Entomologica 33, 101_104.

Definitions and abbreviations


Appropriate level of protection. The level of protection deemed appropriate by the member establishing a sanitary or phytosanitary measure to protect human, animal or plant life or health within its territory [WTO, 1994]


Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission


An officially defined country, part of a country or all or parts of several countries [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; CEPM, 1999; based on the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures]


A quantity of plants, plant products and/or other articles being moved from one country to another and covered, when required, by a single phytosanitary certificate (a consignment may be composed of one or more commodities or lots) [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

control (of a pest)

Suppression, containment or eradication of a pest population [FAO, 1995]

endangered area

An area where ecological factors favour the establishment of a pest whose presence in the area will result in economically important loss [FAO, 1995]

entry (of a pest)

Movement of a pest into an area where it is not yet present, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled [FAO, 1995]


Perpetuation, for the foreseeable future, of a pest within an area after entry [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; IPPC, 1997; formerly established]


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


Living; not dried, deep-frozen or otherwise conserved [FAO, 1990]

fruits and vegetables

A commodity class for fresh parts of plants intended for consumption or processing and not for planting [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

(of a commodity)

Presence in a commodity of a living pest of the plant or plant product concerned. Infestation includes infection [CEPM, 1997; revised CEPM, 1999]


Official visual examination of plants, plant products or other regulated articles to determine if pests are present and/or to determine compliance with phytosanitary regulations [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; formerly inspect]

intended use

Declared purpose for which plants, plant products, or other regulated articles are imported, produced, or used [ISPM No. 16, 2002]

interception (of a pest)

The detection of a pest during inspection or testing of an imported consignment [FAO, 1990; revised CEPM, 1996]


The entry of a pest resulting in its establishment [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; IPPC, 1997]


International Plant Protection Convention, as deposited in 1951 with FAO in Rome and as subsequently amended [FAO, 1990; revised 1997]


International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures [CEPM, 1996; revised ICPM, 2001] Official service established by a government to discharge the functions specified by the IPPC [FAO, 1990; formerly Plant Protection Organization (National)]

official control

The active enforcement of mandatory phytosanitary regulations and the application of mandatory phytosanitary procedures with the objective of eradication or containment of quarantine pests or for the management of regulated non-quarantine pests [ICPM, 2001]


Any means that allows the entry or spread of a pest [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995]


Any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; IPPC, 1997]

pest categorisation

The process for determining whether a pest has or has not the characteristics of a quarantine pest or those of a regulated non-quarantine pest [ISPM No. 11, 2001]

pest free area (PFA)

An area in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained [FAO, 1995]

pest risk analysis (PRA)

The process of evaluating biological or other scientific and economic evidence to determine whether a pest should be regulated and the strength of any phytosanitary measures to be taken against it [FAO, 1995; revised IPPC, 1997]

pest risk assessment
(for quarantine pests)

Evaluation of the probability of the introduction and spread of a pest and of the associated potential economic consequences [FAO, 1995; revised ISPM No. 11, 2001]

pest risk management
(for quarantine pests)

Evaluation and selection of options to reduce the risk of introduction and spread of a pest [FAO, 1995; revised ISPM No. 11, 2001]

phytosanitary measure

Any legislation, regulation or official procedure having the purpose to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests, or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests [FAO, 1995; revised IPPC, 1997; ISPM, 2002]

protected area

A regulated area that an NPPO has determined to be the minimum area necessary for the effective protection of an endangered area [FAO, 1990; omitted from FAO, 1995; new concept from CEPM, 1996]

quarantine pest

A pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; IPPC 1997]

regional standards (RSPM)

Standards established by a Regional Plant Protection Organization for the guidance of the members of that organization [IPPC, 1997]


Expansion of the geographical distribution of a pest within an area [FAO, 1995]

* Indicates terms which are not included in ISPM No. 5 Glossary of phytosanitary terms. All other terms are present in ISPM No. 5.

Outline of requirements

Guidelines for a PRA on scale insects associated with fresh fruits and vegetable in international trade for human consumption include the consideration of aspects of initiation, assessment of probability of introduction and spread and the assessment of potential economic consequences. Options for risk management include sourcing the commodities from pest free areas, in-field management of the insects, areas of low pest prevalence, pre-export or on arrival phytosanitary inspection and possible remedial action, and disinfestation.

This standard is complementary to ISPM No. 11, Pest Risk Analysis for Quarantine Pests Including Analysis of Environmental Risks and Living Modified Organisms, and other relevant standards.

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