A Qualitative Assessment of Standards and Certification Schemes Applicable to Aquaculture in the Asia–Pacific Region

RAP Publication 2007/25

A QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SCHEMES APPLICABLE TO AQUACULTURE IN THE ASIA–PACIFIC REGION

Flavio Corsin, Simon Funge-Smith
and Jesper Clausen

ASIA–PACIFIC FISHERY COMMISSION FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
Bangkok, 2007


The designation and presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers and boundaries.

© FAO 2010

NOTICE OF COPYRIGHT

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for sale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Senior Fishery Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Maliwan Mansion, 39 Phra Athit Road, Bangkok 10200, Thailand.

For copies write to: The Senior Fishery Officer
FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
Maliwan Mansion, 39 Phra Athit Road
Bangkok 10200
THAILAND
Tel: (+66) 2 697 4000
Fax: (+66) 2 697 4445
E-mail: FAO-RAP@fao.org

Table of Contents

FOREWORD

Certification in aquaculture — a growing trend

Definitions for aquaculture certification

What is meant by certification?

Key elements of a typical certification scheme

Other ways to classify certification schemes

Certification/standards targeting food chain operators versus consumers

Process versus product certification

What is meant by the term "quality"?

What is meant by the term "sustainability"?

Diverse mechanisms to address or achieve sustainability

Intergovernmental organizations

Non-Governmental Organizations

Governments

Consumers

Retailers and traders

Producers

A qualitative assessment of opportunities and costs

Overview of current aquaculture standards and certification schemes

Introduction

The broad range of certification schemes

Schemes promoted by retailers

Schemes promoted by the aquaculture industry

Schemes promoted by governments

Schemes promoted by NGOs

Organic schemes

Fair-trade schemes

Animal welfare and "free-range" schemes

International standards and intergovernmental agreements of relevance to aquaculture certification

FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (FAO CCRF)

Codex Alimentarius

Office International des Épizooties (OIE)

International Principles for Responsible Shrimp Farming

ASEAN Shrimp Alliance

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

UN Global Compact

Other sustainability schemes relevant to aquaculture certification

A qualitative assessment of selected certification schemes

Schemes assessed

Assessment methodology

Descriptive analysi

Evaluation of costs and benefits based on descriptors

Review of additional costs and benefits

Results of the analysis of the certification schemes

Descriptive analysis

Evaluation of costs and benefits based on descriptors

Additional evaluation of costs and benefits

GLOBALGAP www.globalgap.org

Safe Quality Food Institute (www.sqfi.com and www.fmi.org)

GAA/ACC (www.gaalliance.org and www.aquaculturecertification.org)

Thai Quality Shrimp (www.thaiqualityshrimp.com)

ISO 9001 (www.iso.org)

ISO 14001 (www.iso.org)

ISO 22000 (www.iso.org)

IFOAM (www.ifoam.org)

Naturland (www.naturland.de)

Fairtrade Labelling Organizations (www.fairtrade.org.uk)

Other analyses of certification schemes

Discussion

Trends in aquaculture certification

Should farmers seek certification?

What is the best approach?

Sharing costs and benefits

Recommendations

Annex 1. Definitions of relevance to aquaculture certification

Annex 2. Schemes promoted by retailers

GLOBALGAP

Safe Quality Food

Carrefour

Annex 3. Schemes promoted by industry

Global Aquaculture Alliance AND Aquaculture Certification Council

Shrimp Seal of Quality (SSOQ)

SIGES – SalmonChile

Scottish Salmon Producers’ Organization Code of Good Practice

Annex 4. Schemes promoted by governments

Thai Quality Shrimp

Certification schemes in China

Vietnam GAP and CoC Programme

Hong Kong Accredited Fish Farm Scheme

Annex 5. Schemes promoted by NGOs

Marine Aquarium Council

International Standards Organization

Annex 6. Organic schemes

International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements

Naturland

Soil Association

BioGro New Zealand

Bio Suisse

KRAV

Annex 7. Fair-trade schemes

Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International

Alter-Trade Japan

International Fair Trade Association

Ethical Trading Initiative

Annex 8. Animal welfare and "free-range" schemes

Freedom food

Label Rouge

Annex 9. Other schemes which may have relevance to aquaculture certification

WWF Aquaculture Dialogues and Standards

Marine Stewardship Council

Seafood Watch of the Monterey Bay Aquarium

Environmental Justice Foundation

Federation of European Aquaculture Producers

Swiss Import Promotion Programme

Annex 10. Qualitative descriptions of the 10 aquaculture schemes assessed