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Index

A

Acidity 92, 93, 117, 120, 123, 125
Additives 59, 180
Aflatoxins 359
Air humidity 122, 322, 323
Air temperature 122, 123, 175, 320, 321
Air-drying 117, 124
Aluminum (aluminium), food grade 367
Aminoacids 3
Analysis, chemical 326
Analysis, microbiological 331
Antibiotics 75, 76
Antioxidants 36, 77
Ascorbic acid / ascorbate 37, 68, 134
Autoclave 280, 281
Aw-meter 323
aw, see Water activity

B

Bacillus 95, 96, 277
Bacon 35, 42, 185
Bacteria
    - contamination 150, 157, 181
    - cultures 116
Basil 83
Beef 7, 8, 48, 49, 185, 272
Beef jerky 240
Benzopyrene 40
Biltong 210, 213, 237
Binder 62, 64, 201
Blood 1, 150, 162, 163
    - plasma 71
    - protein 3, 71
Blood / pork skin mix 165
Blood products 161
Blood sausage 152, 162
Blood sausage, Central European 164
Blood sausage, traditional 163
Bologna 127, 208
Bread crumbs 78, 201, 208
Breakfast sausage 198
Burger 97, 98, 103, 104, 201

C

Can formats 283
Can seaming 286
Canned products 154, 160, 169, 288
Canning 146, 149, 154, 160, 166, 169, 277
Cans 283
Carbohydrate 2, 4, 64
Cardamon 83, 85
Charque 236
Carrageenan 71, 180,184, 202, 211
Casings 1, 122, 139, 155, 249
    - artificial 154, 260
    - cellulose 261
    - collagen 263
    - edible 249
    - natural 154, 249
    - processing 252
    - storage 259
    - synthetic 264
Cassava 81, 113, 202
Cellulose fibers 195, 201, 202, 204, 205
Cereal sausage 167
Charque 236
Chicken
    - burger 103, 191, 202
    - frankfurter 187
    - meat 51, 187
    - meat balls 187
    - nuggets 192
Chilli 83, 85, 86
Chinese sausage 214, 221
Chlorine 75, 76, 376
Cholesterol 15
Chopping process 136, 157, 165
Chorizo, criollo 219
Chorizo, Spanish 117
Cinnamon 85, 86, 135
Cleaning 244, 370
Cleaning agents (alkaline, acid, neutral) 372
Clostridium 95, 277, 293, 295, 358, 360
Cloves 83, 85, 86, 135
Collagen 3, 147, 166
    - casings 263
Commercial sterility 294
Comminuting 17, 20, 31, 151, 209, 303
Connective tissue 3, 49, 50, 108, 128, 147
Contact method, microbiological 331, 374
Contamination, microbial 88, 150, 340, 352
Cooked ham 178, 210
Cooker-chopper 151
Cooking 90, 91, 103, 144, 150, 156, 159, 185
Cooking loss 91, 151
Cooking, delta-t 199
Cooling 130, 145, 156
Coriander 83, 85, 86, 135
Corned beef 100, 168
    - classical 169, 212
    - with jelly 168, 212
Critical control point 345
Cumin 83, 85
Cure accelerators 37, 68, 184
Cured meat cuts 98, 171
    - cured-cooked 99, 171, 177, 210
    - cured-raw 99, 172
Curing 34, 35, 119, 173
    - period 177
    - resting period 182, 185
    - dry curing 37, 173
    - wet curing 38, 174
    - injection curing 39, 182
    - colour 34, 123, 185
    - brine 38, 179, 180, 182, 185
Curing salt 35, 68, 108, 119, 134, 156, 164, 173, 180
Cutting board 367

D

Dehydration 221
Delta-t-cooking 199
Destructive method, microbiological 333
Detergents 372
DFD 5
Disinfection 369, 370
Disinfection chemicals 370, 372, 373
Doener 105
Dried meat products 101, 234
Dry sausage 115
    - Semi-dry sausage 125
Drying 122, 221
D-value 296

E

E. coli 104, 357, 360
Emulsion, emulsion-like 156, 158
Enterobacteriaceae 337, 353
Erythorbate 68
Ethnic meat products 213
Extenders 61, 64, 195, 200

F

F-value 279, 289, 295
FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius
    - Code of Hygienic Practice for Meat 341, 361
    - Code of Hygienic Practice for Low Acid Canned Foods 294
Fat 2, 8, 10, 14, 132
    - beef fat 12
    - chicken fat 13, 57
    - intermuscular 10
    - intramuscular 10
    - marbling 10
    - mutton fat 13
    - pork fat 11, 46, 47
    - subcutaneous 10
Fat analysis 327
Fat content 15, 160
Fermentation 100, 115, 122, 123
Fillers 62, 195, 200
Flossy pork 217
Foam cleaning 373
Food borne infection 357, 369
Food borne intoxication 358, 369
Food colourings 73, 206
Food poisoning 104, 357
Formalin 75, 76, 376
Frankfurters 127
Fresh processed meat products 90, 98

G

Galvanized steel 367
Garlic 83, 85, 135
Gelatine 70, 167, 184, 210
Gelatineous meat mixes 166
Ginger 83, 85, 135
Glass jars 154
Glucono-delta-Lactone (GdL) 119, 120, 125
Good Hygienic Practice (GHP) 341, 360
Grading of manufacturing meat 43, 135
    - pork 44
    - beef 47
    - poultry 51
Gyros 105

H

HACCP 279, 339, 341, 342, 344, 350
Halal 54, 55, 72
Ham products 171, 210
Hamburger 103, 201
Heat coagulation 4, 88, 99, 129, 184, 185
Heat treatment 87, 129, 141, 144, 149, 160, 167, 185, 278
High (hydrostatic) pressure treatment 339
High pressure cleaning 371
Hooks 300
Hotdogs 204, 205
Hurdle technology 92
Hygrometer 322

I

Impression plate method 331, 374
Ingredients, non-meat 59
Ingredients, animal origin 62
Ingredients, functional 60
Internal organs 1, 149
Internal (core) temperature 130, 144, 155, 166,185, 278, 279, 292,
Intestines 1, 252
Irradiation 339

J

Jerky 239

K

Kebab 105
Kilishi 213, 241
Knife sharpening 298
Knives 297

L

Lactic acid 5, 9
Lactic acid bacteria 272, 338, 356
Light, barrier 267
Liver pate 157
Liver sausage 97, 153
    - coarse-mixed 154
    - fine emulsion-like 156, 158
Luncheon meat 210
Lux-meter 325
Lyoner 127, 208

M

Mace 83, 85, 86, 135
Maize 78
Marjoram 83, 85
Meat
    - additives 59, 63
    - animal species 1, 9, 43, 222
    - balls 147, 203
    - binders 64, 201
    - canning 277
    - chemical composition 2
    - cutting 32, 44, 48, 51, 52, 223
    - dishes 90
    - drying 101, 122, 221, 233
    - extenders 61, 195, 200
    - extract 170
    - fillers 62, 195, 200
    - grading for processing 43
    - mechanically deboned (MDM) 55, 56, 196, 206
    - loaves 146
    - pigment 7, 35, 68, 172
    - preservation 34
    - taste, flavour 5
    - tenderness 8
Meat processing 17, 97
Meat processing equipment
    - autoclave 246, 280
    - band saw 309
    - bowl cutter (chopper) 20, 121, 246, 303
    - brine injector 26
    - can closing machine 246, 286
    - clipping machine 23
    - cooking vat 308
    - dishes 90
    - dryer 226
    - emulsifying machine 30
    - extender, see Extender
    - filling machine (stuffer) 22, 306
    - frozen meat cutter 31
    - hooks 300
    - ice flaker 30
    - meat grinder (mincer) 18, 121, 301
    - mixer (blender) 29
    - smoking equipment 23, 24, 25, 26, 246, 310
    - tumbler (massager) 28, 184
    - vacuum packaging machine 29, 269
Meat processing hygiene 245, 339, 360
Meat processing, basic 243
Meat ripening 272
Microbiological analysis 331
Microbiological criteria 260, 353
Microorganisms 337
    - vegetative 95
    - spores 95
Milk proteins 63, 69, 70, 160, 204
Minerals 2, 16, 196, 328
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) 275
Moisture analysis 326, 328
Monosodium glutamate 9, 73, 135
Mortadella 198
Moulds 124, 337, 357, 359, 360
Multi-layer films 270
Muscle fibers/cells 3
Mutton 9, 131
Mutton burger 103
Myofibrils 3
Myoglobin 3, 7, 35

N

Naem 217
Nitrosamine 36

Nitrite 34, 35, 68
Nitrite curing salt, see also Curing salt 35, 68, 134
Non-meat ingredients 59
    - application 64
Nutmeg 83, 85, 86, 135

O

Onion 83, 85
Oregano 83

Oximyoglobin 270
Oxygen 275, 276
Oxygen barrier 270, 271

P

Packaging 265
    - materials 266
    - modified atmosphere 275
    - skin 274
    - vacuum 271, 273, 274
Paprika 83, 85
Pasteurization 94, 149, 169
Pastirma 218, 238
Patties 103
Pepper 83, 85, 86, 135
pH 4, 116, 178, 321, 322, 339
pH-meter 321
Phosphate 69, 135, 148, 204
Pimento 83, 85
Plastics, food grade 367
Pork 5, 9, 45
Pork fat 11, 45, 117, 118, 132
Pork skin 210
Prebiotic 196
Precooked-cooked meat products 89, 100, 149
Precooking 150, 168
Preservatives 74, 92, 93
    - illegal substances 76
    - legal substances 77
Probiotic 196
Processed meat products, categories 97
Protective gears 310
Protein 2, 3, 14
    - analysis 326, 331
    - blood protein 2
    - coagulation 129
    - collagen, see Collagen
    - connective tissue proteins (collagen, elastin) 3, 14
    - keratin 3
    - matrix 147, 148
    - myofibrillar / skeleton muscle 14
    - network 129, 147, 158
    - sarcoplasmatic 3, 147
    - solution 128
PSE 5

R

Raw-cooked meat products 88, 99, 127
    - formation of meat mixes 136, 147
    - classical products 127
    - extended products 204
    - typical composition 135
Raw-fermented meat 172, 218
Raw-fermented sausages 90, 100, 115, 219
Reconstituted products 179, 183
Reddening 141, 145
Reformed products 178
Rehydration 66, 68, 80, 234
Residues 25, 35, 40, 76
Resting periods 39, 178, 182
Retort 280
Retortable pouches 285
Rice 78
Ripening 122, 124, 125, 175
    - chamber 116
    - meat 8, 272

S

Salmonella 96, 357, 360
Salt 3, 67, 119, 147
Salting 33
Sanitation 369
Sanitation schemes 378
Sarcoplasma 3, 147
Sausage 1, 98
    - casing 1, 245
    - clipping, linking 23, 140
    - ripening 115, 116
    - stuffing 22
Seasonings / spices 67, 83, 108
Selective plate count 336, 338
Semi-dry sausages 125
Sensory evaluation 259, 315
Single-layer films 269
Shashlik 107
Shelf life 75, 111, 113, 176
Shelf-stable 92, 94, 115
Skim milk 70, 204
Skin 1, 133
Slaughter by-products 1, 149
Smoking 40, 117
    - cold smoking 41, 124, 156, 176,
    - hot smoking 41, 143
    - liquid smoke 42, 144
Solar dryer 226
Solar drying 224, 226
Soy protein 14, 79, 104
Spices 83, 85, 86, 124, 135
Spices extracts 84
Spoilage 222, 354, 369
Spores 95, 278
Stainless steel 366
Staphylococcus aureus 337, 358, 359, 360
Starter cultures 117, 118, 124, 125
Steel, galvanized 367
Sterilization 94, 292, 293
Sugars 73, 120
Sun drying 224
Swab method, microbiological 333

T

Temperature control 320
Texture 326
Thermometer, electronic 318
Thyme 83, 85
Total plate count 335
Traditional meat products 197, 213
Transglutaminase 72, 184, 211
Tumbling 28, 184, 211 Turkey meat 51
TVP 80, 200, 202

V

Vacuum packaging 271, 273, 274
Vegetable oil 72, 206
Vegetables 82, 104 Vienna sausage 127, 204
Viruses 360
Vitamins 15

W

Water 67, 133, 326
Water activity 92, 93, 221, 231, 324
Water holding capacity (WHC) 7, 71, 132, 148, 325
Water, pressurized 371
Water vapour, barrier 267, 270
Wheat 78
White meat products 143

Y

Yeasts 124

Z

z-value 295

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