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Following initial discussions on the ambit and objectives of the analysis, an extensive literature search was undertaken towards clarifying the scope of the term ‘trade-related instruments’ within the context and objectives of the Norway Partnership Programme ‘Forests for Sustainable Livelihoods’. A list of ‘potential policy areas to explore’ (Annex A) was used in determining which measures would fall within the scope of the analysis. Following this, literature on trade-related instruments was sourced and analsysed and where required, clarification sought from relevant experts and the authors of cited literature.

Two country case studies – in Cameroon and Bolivia - were carried out and the results analysed and incorporated into the analysis. Case studies were carried out at a national level to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the impacts of trade-related measures for specific NWFP. For each country case study, two NWFP were chosen for analysis, based on their potential to contribute to the global analysis. The full case studies are appended to this report as Annexes B and C.

Non-Wood Forest Products – a Definition

For the purposes of this paper the following definition of NWFP has been used5:

Non-wood forest products consist of goods of biological origin other than wood, derived from forests, other wooded land and trees outside forests’.

According to this definition, the three components of the term "non-wood forest products" are interpreted as follows:

• Non-wood: The term NWFP excludes all woody raw materials. Consequently, timber, chips, charcoal and fuelwood, as well as small woods such as tools, household equipment and carvings, are excluded. Non-timber forest products (NTFP), in contrast, generally include fuelwood and small woods. This is the main difference between the terms NWFP and NTFPs.

• Forest: NWFP should be derived from forests and similar land uses. Since plantations are included in the FAO definition of forest, NWFP that are obtained from plantations, such as gum arabic Acacia senegal or rubber Hevea brasiliensis, are thus included in the definition of NWFP. Many NWFP are derived from both natural forests and plantations.

• Products: The term "product" corresponds to goods that are tangible and physical objects of biological origin such as plants, animals and their products. Forest services (e.g. ecotourism, grazing, bioprospecting) and forest benefits (e.g. soil conservation, soil fertility, watershed protection) are excluded. Services and benefits are even more difficult to assess and quantify than NWFP and have therefore already been excluded from most publications dealing with NWFP.

Above adapted from Anon., 1999a.

5 This definition is based on the recommendations of an internal interdepartmental FAO meeting on definitions of NWFP held in June 1999.

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